Abstract

Birefringent magnesium oxide thin films are formed by glancing-angle deposition to perform as quarter-wave plates at a wavelength of 351 nm. These films are being developed to fabricate a large-aperture distributed-polarization rotator for use in vacuum, with an ultimate laser-damage–threshold goal of up to 12 J/cm2 for a 5-ns flat-in-time pulse. The laser-damage threshold, ease of deposition, and optical film properties are evaluated. While the measured large-area laser-damage threshold is limited to ~4 J/cm2 in vacuum, initial results based on small-spot testing in air (>20 J/cm2) suggest MgO may be suitable with further process development.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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2014 (2)

2013 (1)

M. Suzuki, “Practical applications of thin films nanostructured by shadowing growth,” J. Nanophotonics 7(1), 073598 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

2006 (4)

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous media,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Porosity engineering in glancing angle deposition thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 80(4), 763–768 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

I. J. Hodgkinson, “Linear and circular form birefringence of coatings fabricated by serial bideposition,” Proc. SPIE 3790, 119–132 (1999).
[Crossref]

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Serial bideposition of anisotropic thin films with enhanced linear birefringence,” Appl. Opt. 38(16), 3621–3625 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(11), 5422–5432 (1997).
[Crossref]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

1986 (1)

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21(1), 1–25 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

1979 (1)

1973 (1)

M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Crystal structure of evaporated MgO films on amorphous and polycrystalline substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10(5), 621–625 (1973).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

1952 (1)

R. E. Stephens and I. H. Malitson, “Index of refraction of magnesium oxide,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 49(4), 249–252 (1952).
[Crossref]

1904 (1)

J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 203(359-371), 385–420 (1904).
[Crossref]

Aboelfotoh, M. O.

M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Crystal structure of evaporated MgO films on amorphous and polycrystalline substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10(5), 621–625 (1973).
[Crossref]

Adams, J. J.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Anderson, K. S.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anzellotti, J. F.

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balachandran, U.

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baxamusa, S.

Betti, R.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bettis, J. T.

Bradford, A. P.

Braun, M. M.

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous media,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brett, M. J.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Porosity engineering in glancing angle deposition thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 80(4), 763–768 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. R. Kennedy and M. J. Brett, “Porous broadband antireflection coating by glancing angle deposition,” Appl. Opt. 42(22), 4573–4579 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[Crossref]

Bude, J.

Carbone, F. A.

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

Carniglia, C. K.

Carr, C. W.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carr, W.

Charles, B.

Chen, M.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Collier, D. R.

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

Collins, T. J. B.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Craxton, R. S.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cross, D.

Delettrez, J. A.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dixit, S. N.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dohnálek, Z.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

Dohnálková, A.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fisher, B. L.

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Froula, D.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Garnett, J. C. M.

J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 203(359-371), 385–420 (1904).
[Crossref]

Goncharov, V. N.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gruschow, V.

Guenther, A. H.

Hand, R. D.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harding, D. R.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hart, T. T.

Hass, G.

Hawkeye, M. M.

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[Crossref]

Haynam, C. A.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hettich, H. L.

Hettrick, J.

Hodgkinson, I.

Hodgkinson, I. J.

I. J. Hodgkinson, “Linear and circular form birefringence of coatings fabricated by serial bideposition,” Proc. SPIE 3790, 119–132 (1999).
[Crossref]

House Ii, R. A.

Jee, Y. A.

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jensen, M. O.

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Porosity engineering in glancing angle deposition thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 80(4), 763–768 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kaminska, K.

Kay, B. D.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, S. R.

Kessler, T. J.

Kim, J. K.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Kimmel, G. A.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

Koritala, R. E.

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kozlov, A.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kupinski, P.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lambropoulos, J. C.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laurence, T.

Li, M.

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Lichtenstein, T. L.

Lin, S.-Y.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Liu, W.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Lowdermilk, W. H.

Ma, B.

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

MacGowan, B. J.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Malitson, I. H.

R. E. Stephens and I. H. Malitson, “Index of refraction of magnesium oxide,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 49(4), 249–252 (1952).
[Crossref]

Marozas, J. A.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Marshall, F. J.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Martin, P. J.

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21(1), 1–25 (1986).
[Crossref]

McCready, D. E.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

McCrory, R. L.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

McFarland, M.

McKenty, P. W.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Milam, D.

Miller, P.

Monticelli, M.

Motohiro, T.

Munro, D.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Murray, J. R.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nostrand, M. C.

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oliver, J. B.

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, C. Smith, B. Taylor, V. Gruschow, J. Hettrick, and B. Charles, “Electron-beam-deposited distributed polarization rotator for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23883–23896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Papernov, S.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(11), 5422–5432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pellicori, S. F.

Pilon, L.

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous media,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Radha, P. B.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rainer, F.

Rigatti, A. L.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Robbie, K.

K. Kaminska and K. Robbie, “Birefringent omnidirectional reflector,” Appl. Opt. 43(7), 1570–1576 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schmid, A. W.

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(11), 5422–5432 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schubert, E. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Schubert, M. F.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Shen, N.

Shvydky, A.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Skupsky, S.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smart, J. A.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Smith, C.

J. B. Oliver, T. J. Kessler, C. Smith, B. Taylor, V. Gruschow, J. Hettrick, and B. Charles, “Electron-beam-deposited distributed polarization rotator for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Express 22(20), 23883–23896 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Oliver, P. Kupinski, A. L. Rigatti, A. W. Schmid, J. C. Lambropoulos, S. Papernov, A. Kozlov, C. Smith, and R. D. Hand, “Stress compensation in hafnia/silica optical coatings by inclusion of alumina layers,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16,596–16,610 (2012).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. J.

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

Smith, R. S.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

Steele, W.

Stephens, R. E.

R. E. Stephens and I. H. Malitson, “Index of refraction of magnesium oxide,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 49(4), 249–252 (1952).
[Crossref]

Suratwala, T.

Suzuki, M.

M. Suzuki, “Practical applications of thin films nanostructured by shadowing growth,” J. Nanophotonics 7(1), 073598 (2013).
[Crossref]

Taga, Y.

Taylor, B.

Wegner, P. J.

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wong, L.

Wu, Q. H.

Xi, J. Q.

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Young, J. S.

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zaksas, D.

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zuegel, J. D.

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

M. O. Jensen and M. J. Brett, “Porosity engineering in glancing angle deposition thin films,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 80(4), 763–768 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. M. Hawkeye and M. J. Brett, “Narrow bandpass optical filters fabricated with one-dimensionally periodic inhomogeneous thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 100(4), 044322 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Papernov and A. W. Schmid, “Localized absorption effects during 351 nm, pulsed laser irradiation of dielectric multilayer thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(11), 5422–5432 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

P. J. Martin, “Ion-based methods for optical thin film deposition,” J. Mater. Sci. 21(1), 1–25 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Nanophotonics (1)

M. Suzuki, “Practical applications of thin films nanostructured by shadowing growth,” J. Nanophotonics 7(1), 073598 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Z. Dohnálek, G. A. Kimmel, D. E. McCready, J. S. Young, A. Dohnálková, R. S. Smith, and B. D. Kay, “Structural and chemical characterization of aligned crystalline nanoporous MgO films grown via reactive ballistic deposition,” J. Phys. Chem. B 106(14), 3526–3529 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. IV France (1)

S. N. Dixit, D. Munro, J. R. Murray, M. Nostrand, P. J. Wegner, D. Froula, C. A. Haynam, and B. J. MacGowan, “Polarization smoothing on the National Ignition Facility,” J. Phys. IV France 133, 717–720 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. (1)

R. E. Stephens and I. H. Malitson, “Index of refraction of magnesium oxide,” J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand. 49(4), 249–252 (1952).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (1)

M. O. Aboelfotoh, “Crystal structure of evaporated MgO films on amorphous and polycrystalline substrates,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 10(5), 621–625 (1973).
[Crossref]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

K. Robbie and M. J. Brett, “Sculptured thin films and glancing angle deposition: Growth mechanics and applications,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15(3), 1460–1465 (1997).
[Crossref]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (1)

C. W. Carr, M. D. Feit, M. C. Nostrand, and J. J. Adams, “Techniques for qualitative and quantitative measurement of aspects of laser-induced damage important for laser beam propagation,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 17(7), 1958–1962 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Q. Xi, M. F. Schubert, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. Chen, S.-Y. Lin, W. Liu, and J. A. Smart, “Optical thin-film materials with low refractive index for broadband elimination of Fresnel reflection,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 176–179 (2007).

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

J. C. M. Garnett, “Colours in metal glasses and in metallic films,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 203(359-371), 385–420 (1904).
[Crossref]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

T. J. B. Collins, J. A. Marozas, K. S. Anderson, R. Betti, R. S. Craxton, J. A. Delettrez, V. N. Goncharov, D. R. Harding, F. J. Marshall, R. L. McCrory, D. D. Meyerhofer, P. W. McKenty, P. B. Radha, A. Shvydky, S. Skupsky, and J. D. Zuegel, “A polar-drive–ignition design for the National Ignition Facility,” Phys. Plasmas 19(5), 056308 (2012).
[Crossref]

Physica C (1)

B. Ma, M. Li, Y. A. Jee, R. E. Koritala, B. L. Fisher, and U. Balachandran, “Inclined-substrate deposition of biaxially textured magnesium oxide thin films for YBCO coated conductors,” Physica C 366(4), 270–276 (2002).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Papernov, D. Zaksas, J. F. Anzellotti, D. J. Smith, A. W. Schmid, D. R. Collier, and F. A. Carbone, “One step closer to the intrinsic laser-damage threshold of HfO2 and SiO2 monolayer thin films,” Proc. SPIE 3244, 434–445 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. J. Hodgkinson, “Linear and circular form birefringence of coatings fabricated by serial bideposition,” Proc. SPIE 3790, 119–132 (1999).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

M. M. Braun and L. Pilon, “Effective optical properties of non-absorbing nanoporous media,” Thin Solid Films 496(2), 505–514 (2006).
[Crossref]

Other (11)

I. Hodgkinson and Q. H. Wu, “Ion-beam control of thin-film microstructural columnar angle,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 15(28, 29), 1328−1331 (2001).
[Crossref]

M. M. Hawkeye, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films: Engineering the Nanoscale, Wiley Series in Materials for Electronic & Optoelectronic Applications (Wiley, 2014), pp. 240−244.

M. M. Hawkeye, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films: Engineering the Nanoscale, Wiley Series in Materials for Electronic & Optoelectronic Applications (Wiley, 2014), pp. 155–158.

J. T. Watson and D. Savage, “The effect of phase distortion on interferometric measurements of thin film coated optical surfaces,” in Frontiers in Optics 2010/Laser Science XXVI, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, Rochester, NY, 2010), Paper FThX8.

M. M. Hawkeye, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films: Engineering the Nanoscale, Wiley Series in Materials for Electronic & Optoelectronic Applications (Wiley, Chichester, 2014), pp. 247–251.

C. J. Stolz and F. Y. Génin, “Laser resistant coatings,” in Optical Interference Coatings, N. Kaiser and H. K. Pulker eds., Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, 2003), pp. 309−334.

Corning Semiconductor Optics, HPFS® Fused Silica Standard Grade, available online at http://www.corning.com/docs/specialtymaterials/pisheets/H0607_hpfs_Standard_ProductSheet.pdf .

J. B. Oliver, T. Kessler, C. Smith, B. Taylor, V. Gruschow, J. Hettrick, B. Charles, J. Spaulding, T. Noll, A. Rigatti, S. Papernov, K. Sharma, G. Mitchell, and J. Foster, “Development of a glancing-angle-deposited distributed polarization rotator,” in Advanced Photonics 2015, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, Boston, MA, 2015), Paper NS4B.1.

A. Lakhtakia and R. Messier, Sculptured Thin Films: Nanoengineered Morphology and Optics, Vol. PM143 (SPIE, 2005).

R. R. Willey, Practical Design and Production of Optical Thin Films, 2nd ed. (Marcel Dekker, 2002), p. 274.

M. M. Hawkeye, M. T. Taschuk, and M. J. Brett, Glancing Angle Deposition of Thin Films: Engineering the Nanoscale, Wiley Series in Materials for Electronic & Optoelectronic Applications (Wiley, 2014), pp. 263–265.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cracking in an aluminum oxide GLAD film is apparent because of tensile stress failure. The image has been colorized to enhance the visibility of the film texture Materials and deposition processes must be selected to mitigate changes to the GLAD film structure in a dry environment.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Maxwell–Garnett effective medium approximation for MgO with pores filled with either void or water. To achieve a refractive index of 1.48 to match that of fused silica, a pore fraction of 35% (void) or 60% (water) is required. EMA: Effective medium approximation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Electron-beam deposition system to fabricate structured MgO films. The substrate mount oscillates throughout the deposition between ± θ, dwelling at each position for 60 s.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Ellipsometric analysis in a nitrogen-purged environment of an MgO film deposited at 58° indicates the presence of a gradient in the refractive index profile of the layer structure next to the substrate. Measurement in a wet versus dry environment shows a lower nominal refractive index in the nitrogen environment with a slightly greater birefringence.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Cross-sectional view of an MgO film on silicon, showing column growth with broadening as the film is deposited, with a more-dense region near the substrate. Deposition at a 70° incidence angle, substrate temperature of 150°C, with a rate of 0.06 nm/s and an O2 backfill of 1 × 10−4 Torr. (b) View of the MgO columnar structure normal to the substrate surface clearly indicates the porosity of the film.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) MgO film on silicon exhibiting isolated columnar structure, reducing the potential for film fracture in vacuum (tensile stress failure). Deposition at 62° angle of incidence, heat at 150°C, with a rate of 0.06 nm/s with O2 backfill at 1 × 10−4 Torr. (b) After vacuum exposure, any texturing or separation of the GLAD columnar structure correlates to an increase in scatter loss, which is different for different porosity MgO films.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 MgO film on silicon, exhibiting a consistent structure without the incorporation of deposition defects since the electron-beam emission current is maintained at a very low level. The image has been colorized to enhance the visibility of the film texture. Deposition at 62°, heat at 150°C, with a rate of 0.06 nm/s with O2 backfill at 1 × 10−4 Torr.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Laser-damage thresholds of MgO GLAD films tested at 351 nm with a 4.8-ns flat-in-time pulse in 1:1 and N:1 configurations. The points A–C correspond to the deposition conditions noted in Table 1. Deposition rates are compensated by the cosine of the incident evaporant flux.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 The damage site density as a function of fluence for a MgO GLAD film tested at 351 nm with a 5-ns flat-in-time pulse in both air and 2.5-Torr environments.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Deposition parameters surveyed for MgO GLAD films. Deposition rate, backfill pressure, and angle were optimized to yield high-laser-damage thresholds with minimal scatter, while matching the refractive index of fused silica at 351 nm. Measurements of each condition were limited based on the substrate choice, with selected angles deposited on silicon only for refractive index characterization.

Equations (1)

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n eff 2 = n c 2 [ 1 3ϕ( n c 2 n d 2 ) 2 n c 2 + n d 2 +ϕ( n c 2 n d 2 ) ],

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