Abstract

A distinct long persistent luminescence (LPL) was obtained from home-made Mn2+-activated sodium gallium germanate glass samples which were excited by an infrared femtosecond laser. The LPL, with a central wavelength longer than 600 nm, can be seen by the naked eye for more than one hour in the dark at room temperature. It has been proven that the LPL originated from the 4T1→6A1 transition of Mn2+ ions rather than from femtosecond laser induced extrinsic defects with photoluminescence (PL) bands peaking at 1.85 and 2.2 eV. The LPL properties of Mn2+ in the same host glass-ceramics were also investigated. An obvious green emission band appeared in PL spectra while absent in LPL spectra, which indicated a process distinguished from traditional heat-assisted tunneling effect. A new mechanism based on the process of strong-field excitation, collision excitation, electron trapping and direct capture of de-trapped electrons by excited states of Mn2+ ions is proposed to elucidate the generation of LPL.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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  4. Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  6. P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  26. Y. Takahashi, M. Ando, R. Ihara, and T. Fujiwara, “Green-emissive Mn-activated nanocrystallized glass with willemite-type Zn2GeO4,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 372–378 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

T. Wang, J. Gou, X. Xu, D. Zhou, J. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Self-activated long persistent luminescence from different trapping centers of calcium germanate,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12595–12604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Botterman and P. F. Smet, “Persistent phosphor SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy in outdoor conditions: saved by the trap distribution,” Opt. Express 23(15), A868–A881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Wan, P. Wong, R. Hussin, H. Lintang, and S. Endud, “Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 595, 39–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

P. Balling and J. Schou, “Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(3), 036502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Persistent Luminescence in Non-Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 6(7), 2789–2818 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Z. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr(3+)-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 58–63 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Yan, Y. Liu, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+ Centers in Chalcohalide Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(3), 660–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Takahashi, M. Ando, R. Ihara, and T. Fujiwara, “Green-emissive Mn-activated nanocrystallized glass with willemite-type Zn2GeO4,” Opt. Mater. Express 1(3), 372–378 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2549–2557 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Q.-Z. Zhao, J. R. Qiu, X. W. Jiang, C. J. Zhao, and C. S. Zhu, “Fabrication of internal diffraction gratings in calcium fluoride crystals by a focused femtosecond laser,” Opt. Express 12(5), 742–746 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, “Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3230–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, Y. Fan, H. Hu, and C. Zhu, “Long-lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated long-lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped alumino-phosphofluoride glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Res. 18(03), 616–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. Qiu, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient Ge-doped silica glasses at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(3-4), 236–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, Y. Kondo, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Infrared femtosecond laser induced visible long- lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped sodium borate glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L649–L651 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (2)

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Three-dimensional optical memory using glasses as a recording medium through a multi-photon absorption process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(4), 2263–2266 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Aitasalo, T.

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Allix, M.

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Álvarez, E.

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ando, M.

Balling, P.

P. Balling and J. Schou, “Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(3), 036502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bessodes, M.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bos, A. J. J.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Botterman, J.

Caldiño, U.

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carr, C. W.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chanéac, C.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Q. Yan, Y. Liu, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+ Centers in Chalcohalide Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(3), 660–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chenu, S.

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Da, N.

Demos, S. G.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, “Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3230–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dong, G.-P.

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dorenbos, P.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Duarte-Zamorano, R. P.

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Endud, S.

M. Wan, P. Wong, R. Hussin, H. Lintang, and S. Endud, “Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 595, 39–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Etienne, A.

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Falcony, C.

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fan, Y.

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, Y. Fan, H. Hu, and C. Zhu, “Long-lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated long-lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped alumino-phosphofluoride glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Res. 18(03), 616–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Félix-Domínguez, F.

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, S.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, T.

Gaeta, A. L.

J. Qiu, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient Ge-doped silica glasses at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(3-4), 236–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

Garcia, A.

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Genevois, C.

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gou, J.

Gourier, D.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirao, K.

J. Qiu, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient Ge-doped silica glasses at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(3-4), 236–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, Y. Kondo, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Infrared femtosecond laser induced visible long- lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped sodium borate glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L649–L651 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Three-dimensional optical memory using glasses as a recording medium through a multi-photon absorption process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(4), 2263–2266 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hölsä, J.

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, Y. Fan, H. Hu, and C. Zhu, “Long-lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated long-lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped alumino-phosphofluoride glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Res. 18(03), 616–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hussin, R.

M. Wan, P. Wong, R. Hussin, H. Lintang, and S. Endud, “Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 595, 39–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ihara, R.

Inouye, H.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ito, D.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Iwasaki, K.

Jiang, X.

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, Y. Fan, H. Hu, and C. Zhu, “Long-lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated long-lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped alumino-phosphofluoride glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Res. 18(03), 616–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X. W.

Jolivet, J.-P.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jungner, H.

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Juodkazis, S.

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kawano, M.

M. Kawano, H. Takebe, and M. Kuwabara, “Compositional dependence of the luminescence properties of Mn2+-doped metaphosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(2), 277–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kondo, Y.

J. Qiu, Y. Kondo, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Infrared femtosecond laser induced visible long- lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped sodium borate glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L649–L651 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

Krolikowski, S.

Kucheyev, S. O.

S. O. Kucheyev and S. G. Demos, “Optical defects produced in fused silica during laser-induced breakdown,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(19), 3230–3232 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kuwabara, M.

M. Kawano, H. Takebe, and M. Kuwabara, “Compositional dependence of the luminescence properties of Mn2+-doped metaphosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(2), 277–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lastusaari, M.

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

le Masne de Chermont, Q.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, P.

P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lin, G.

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lintang, H.

M. Wan, P. Wong, R. Hussin, H. Lintang, and S. Endud, “Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 595, 39–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, F.

Z. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr(3+)-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 58–63 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.-F.

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Q. Yan, Y. Liu, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+ Centers in Chalcohalide Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(3), 660–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lu, Y. Y.

Z. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr(3+)-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 58–63 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maîtrejean, S.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Masai, H.

Massiot, D.

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Matsuo, S.

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matzen, G.

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Misawa, H.

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mistuyu, T.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mitsuyu, T.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, Y. Kondo, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Infrared femtosecond laser induced visible long- lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped sodium borate glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L649–L651 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miura, K.

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, Y. Kondo, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Infrared femtosecond laser induced visible long- lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped sodium borate glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L649–L651 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Three-dimensional optical memory using glasses as a recording medium through a multi-photon absorption process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(4), 2263–2266 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nagasawa, K.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Niittykoski, J.

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nishikawa, H.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Ohki, Y.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pan, Z.

Z. Pan, Y. Y. Lu, and F. Liu, “Sunlight-activated long-persistent luminescence in the near-infrared from Cr(3+)-doped zinc gallogermanates,” Nat. Mater. 11(1), 58–63 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pellé, F.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peng, M.

P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Da, M. Peng, S. Krolikowski, and L. Wondraczek, “Intense red photoluminescence from Mn2+-doped (Na+; Zn2+) sulfophosphate glasses and glass ceramics as LED converters,” Opt. Express 18(3), 2549–2557 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poelman, D.

K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Persistent Luminescence in Non-Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 6(7), 2789–2818 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J.

T. Wang, J. Gou, X. Xu, D. Zhou, J. Qiu, and X. Yu, “Self-activated long persistent luminescence from different trapping centers of calcium germanate,” Opt. Express 23(10), 12595–12604 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, J. Qiu, Y. Fan, H. Hu, and C. Zhu, “Long-lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated long-lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped alumino-phosphofluoride glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Res. 18(03), 616–619 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient Ge-doped silica glasses at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(3-4), 236–241 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, S. Fujiwara, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Blue emission induced in Eu2+-doped glasses by an infrared femtosecond laser,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 244(2–3), 185–188 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, Y. Kondo, K. Miura, T. Mitsuyu, and K. Hirao, “Infrared femtosecond laser induced visible long- lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped sodium borate glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 38(2), L649–L651 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Three-dimensional optical memory using glasses as a recording medium through a multi-photon absorption process,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 37(4), 2263–2266 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Qiu, K. Miura, H. Inouye, Y. Kondo, T. Mistuyu, and K. Hirao, “Femtosecond laser-induced three dimensional bright and long-lasting phosphorescence inside calcium aluminosilicate glasses doped with rare-earth ions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(13), 1763–1765 (1998).
[Crossref]

Qiu, J. R.

Radousky, H. B.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodríguez-Carvajal, D.

E. Álvarez, M. E. Zayas, D. Rodríguez-Carvajal, F. Félix-Domínguez, R. P. Duarte-Zamorano, C. Falcony, and U. Caldiño, “Cold white light generation through the simultaneous emission from Ce3+ and Tb3+ in sodium germanate glass,” Opt. Mater. 37, 451–456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rubenchik, A. M.

C. W. Carr, H. B. Radousky, A. M. Rubenchik, M. D. Feit, and S. G. Demos, “Localized dynamics during laser-induced damage in optical materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(8), 087401 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sakurai, Y.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Scherman, D.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schou, J.

P. Balling and J. Schou, “Femtosecond-laser ablation dynamics of dielectrics: basics and applications for thin films,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 76(3), 036502 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seguin, J.

Q. le Masne de Chermont, C. Chanéac, J. Seguin, F. Pellé, S. Maîtrejean, J.-P. Jolivet, D. Gourier, M. Bessodes, and D. Scherman, “Nanoprobes with near-infrared persistent luminescence for in vivo imaging,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(22), 9266–9271 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smet, P. F.

J. Botterman and P. F. Smet, “Persistent phosphor SrAl2O4:Eu,Dy in outdoor conditions: saved by the trap distribution,” Opt. Express 23(15), A868–A881 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Persistent Luminescence in Non-Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 6(7), 2789–2818 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Spano, G.

J. Hölsä, T. Aitasalo, H. Jungner, M. Lastusaari, J. Niittykoski, and G. Spano, “Role of defect states in persistent luminescence materials,” J. Alloys Compd. 374(1–2), 56–59 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.-B.

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, Y.

Takebe, H.

M. Kawano, H. Takebe, and M. Kuwabara, “Compositional dependence of the luminescence properties of Mn2+-doped metaphosphate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(2), 277–280 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tan, D.-Z.

G. Lin, G.-P. Dong, D.-Z. Tan, X.-F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Chen, J. Qiu, Q. Zhao, and Z. Xu, “Long lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient zinc-boron-germanosilicate glass-ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 504(1), 177–180 (2010).
[Crossref]

V’eron, E.

S. Chenu, E. V’eron, C. Genevois, A. Garcia, G. Matzen, and M. Allix, “Long-lasting luminescent ZnGa2O4:Cr3+ transparent glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 2(46), 10002–10010 (2014).
[Crossref]

Van den Eeckhout, K.

K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Persistent Luminescence in Non-Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 6(7), 2789–2818 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

van der Kolk, E.

P. F. Smet, K. Van den Eeckhout, A. J. J. Bos, E. van der Kolk, and P. Dorenbos, “Temperature and wavelength dependent trap filling in M2Si5N8:Eu (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) persistent phosphors,” J. Lumin. 132(3), 682–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Véron, E.

S. Chenu, E. Véron, C. Genevois, G. Matzen, T. Cardinal, A. Etienne, D. Massiot, and M. Allix, “Tuneable Nanostructuring of Highly Transparent Zinc Gallogermanate Glasses and Glass-Ceramics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(4), 364–372 (2014).
[Crossref]

Viana, B.

P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wan, M.

M. Wan, P. Wong, R. Hussin, H. Lintang, and S. Endud, “Structural and luminescence properties of Mn2+ ions doped calcium zinc borophosphate glasses,” J. Alloys Compd. 595, 39–45 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

Watanabe, E.

H. Nishikawa, E. Watanabe, D. Ito, Y. Sakurai, K. Nagasawa, and Y. Ohki, “Visible photoluminescence from Si clusters in γ-irradiated amorphous SiO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 80(6), 3513–3517 (1996).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

H.-B. Sun, S. Juodkazis, M. Watanabe, S. Matsuo, H. Misawa, and J. Nishii, “Generation and recombination of defects in vitreous silica induced by irradiation with a near-infrared femtosecond Laser,” J. Phys. Chem. B 104(15), 3450–3455 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wondraczek, L.

P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Yan, Y. Liu, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+ Centers in Chalcohalide Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(3), 660–662 (2011).
[Crossref]

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P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
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J. Qiu, A. L. Gaeta, and K. Hirao, “Long-lasting phosphorescence in oxygen-deficient Ge-doped silica glasses at room temperature,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 333(3-4), 236–241 (2001).
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Q. Yan, Y. Liu, G. Chen, N. Da, and L. Wondraczek, “Photoluminescence of Mn2+ Centers in Chalcohalide Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 94(3), 660–662 (2011).
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P. Li, M. Peng, L. Wondraczek, Y. Zhao, and B. Viana, “Red to near infrared ultralong lasting luminescence from Mn2+-doped sodium gallium aluminum germanate glasses and (Al, Ga)-albite glass-ceramics,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 3(14), 3406–3415 (2015).
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X. Jiang, J. Qiu, Y. Fan, H. Hu, and C. Zhu, “Long-lasting phosphorescence and photostimulated long-lasting phosphorescence in Mn2+-doped alumino-phosphofluoride glasses irradiated by a femtosecond laser,” J. Mater. Res. 18(03), 616–619 (2003).
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K. Van den Eeckhout, D. Poelman, and P. F. Smet, “Persistent Luminescence in Non-Eu2+-Doped Compounds: A Review,” Materials (Basel) 6(7), 2789–2818 (2013).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 PL features of Mn2+-activated (G-x, x = 0.05-1.5) and non-activated (G-0) samples under UV-light (254 nm) excitation (a) and femtosecond laser irradiation (b).The Gaussian profiles of the PL spectrum of G-0 and G-0.2 under femtosecond laser irradiation are also shown in the insets of Fig. 1(b).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a): Absorption spectra of G-0.2: a: before laser irradiation; b: after laser irradiation; c: annealing at 400°C for 1 hour after laser irradiation. Inset: difference absorption spectrum of G-0.2 after femtosecond laser irradiation and after annealing at temperature from 100 °C to 400 °C. Figure 2(b): photograph of G-0.2 after irradiation.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) LPL feature of Mn2+-activated glass (2 min later after the removal of exciting laser). (b) LPL spectra of G-0.2 at different delay time from 120 to 525 seconds.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) XRD pattern of the samples G −0.5 and GC-0.5. The simulated pattern of NaAlGe3O8 (ICSD#61170) is shown at the bottom for reference. (b) PL spectra under femtosecond laser irradiation and UV excitation as well as the LPL feature (30 seconds after removal of exciting laser) of GC-0.5. (c) Samples G-0.2 and GC-0.5 and their emission states of LPL (30 seconds after the removal of exciting laser).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Decay curves and (b) power dependence of the integrated LPL intensity of G −0.5 and GC-0.5. (30 seconds after the removal of exciting laser).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Schematic of the mechanism of persistent luminescence processes in the Mn2+ doped glasses and glass-ceramics.

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