Abstract

Two pyrazoline (PYR) materials with phenyl and thiophene terminal group substituents (PPYR and TPYR, respectively) were synthesized, and their optical properties were examined. Variation of the terminal group allowed manipulation of the physicochemical properties of PYR based on differences in the intracharge transfer of the molecules. The peak maxima of the absorption/emission spectra PPYR and TPYR differed, occurring at 348/439 and 366/446 nm, respectively. The difference in the optical properties was due to greater electron transfer of the thiophene group compared with the phenyl group, which led to an increase in the intracharge transfer of the thiophene-containing molecule. These results demonstrate that the physicochemical properties of PYR materials can be tuned by modification with suitable substituents.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Li, M. Zhang, X. Chen, and Q. Li, “Fluorinated 9,9′-spirobifluorene derivative as host material for highly efficient blue fluorescent OLED,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2545–2553 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  2. I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  3. N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. K. Lanke and N. Sekar, “Pyrazole based solid state emissive NLO phores with TICT characteristics: Synthesis, DFT and TDDFT studies,” Dyes. Pigm. 126, 62–75 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  6. B. Walker, C. Kim, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 470–482 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  8. X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Highly fluorescent semiconducting pyrazoline materials for optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 605–613 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Novel heterocyclic based blue and green emissive materials for opto-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 314–323 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Vandana, V. Ramkumar, and P. Kannan, “Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)’s for organic-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 58, 514–523 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  12. V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  13. P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  16. N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  18. I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  19. D. W. Bahnemann, C. Kormann, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Preparation and characterization of quantum size zinc oxide: a detailed spectroscopic study,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(14), 3789–3798 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  20. A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. C. J. Fahrni, L. Yang, and D. G. VanDerveer, “Tuning the photoinduced electron-transfer thermodynamics in 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazoline fluorophores: X-ray structures, photophysical characterization, computational analysis, and in vivo evaluation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(13), 3799–3812 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  24. X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  25. G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  26. A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7 μm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4382–4388 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. M. Troccoli, A. Lyakh, J. Fan, X. Wang, R. Maulini, A. G. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Long-wave IR quantum cascade lasers for emission in the λ = 8-12μm spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1546–1560 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  29. M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  31. Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. Zhang and C. B. Musgrave, “Comparison of DFT methods for molecular orbital eigenvalue calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(8), 1554–1561 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (4)

C. Li, M. Zhang, X. Chen, and Q. Li, “Fluorinated 9,9′-spirobifluorene derivative as host material for highly efficient blue fluorescent OLED,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(8), 2545–2553 (2016).
[Crossref]

I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. K. Lanke and N. Sekar, “Pyrazole based solid state emissive NLO phores with TICT characteristics: Synthesis, DFT and TDDFT studies,” Dyes. Pigm. 126, 62–75 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Vandana, V. Ramkumar, and P. Kannan, “Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)’s for organic-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 58, 514–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Highly fluorescent semiconducting pyrazoline materials for optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 605–613 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Novel heterocyclic based blue and green emissive materials for opto-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 314–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Troccoli, A. Lyakh, J. Fan, X. Wang, R. Maulini, A. G. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Long-wave IR quantum cascade lasers for emission in the λ = 8-12μm spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(9), 1546–1560 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

A. Lyakh, R. Maulini, A. Tsekoun, R. Go, and C. K. N. Patel, “Tapered 4.7 μm quantum cascade lasers with highly strained active region composition delivering over 4.5 watts of continuous wave optical power,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4382–4388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Walker, C. Kim, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 470–482 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang and C. B. Musgrave, “Comparison of DFT methods for molecular orbital eigenvalue calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(8), 1554–1561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. J. Fahrni, L. Yang, and D. G. VanDerveer, “Tuning the photoinduced electron-transfer thermodynamics in 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazoline fluorophores: X-ray structures, photophysical characterization, computational analysis, and in vivo evaluation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(13), 3799–3812 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (4)

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
[Crossref]

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

D. W. Bahnemann, C. Kormann, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Preparation and characterization of quantum size zinc oxide: a detailed spectroscopic study,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(14), 3789–3798 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
[Crossref]

Agarwala, N.

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ali, F.

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Anni, M.

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Anthony Raj, C.

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bahnemann, D. W.

D. W. Bahnemann, C. Kormann, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Preparation and characterization of quantum size zinc oxide: a detailed spectroscopic study,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(14), 3789–3798 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bai, G.

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Barberá, J.

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

Blyth, R. I. R.

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, X. L.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cherpak, V.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Clays, K.

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

Clinigolani, R.

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cui, Y. P.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Demir, H. V.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dijken, A. V.

A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dong, C.

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fahrni, C. J.

C. J. Fahrni, L. Yang, and D. G. VanDerveer, “Tuning the photoinduced electron-transfer thermodynamics in 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazoline fluorophores: X-ray structures, photophysical characterization, computational analysis, and in vivo evaluation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(13), 3799–3812 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fan, J.

Friend, R. H.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gao, U. Z. Q.

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

Gigli, G.

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gimenez, R.

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

Giridharan, N. V.

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

Go, R.

Grazulevicius, J. V.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Greenham, N. C.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hamada, Y.

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

Han, X.

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hoffmann, M. R.

D. W. Bahnemann, C. Kormann, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Preparation and characterization of quantum size zinc oxide: a detailed spectroscopic study,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(14), 3789–3798 (1987).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. B.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hotra, Z.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Houbrechts, S.

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hubig, S. M.

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jegatheesan, P.

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jiang, J.

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jungsuttiwong, S.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kannan, P.

T. Vandana, V. Ramkumar, and P. Kannan, “Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)’s for organic-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 58, 514–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Highly fluorescent semiconducting pyrazoline materials for optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 605–613 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Novel heterocyclic based blue and green emissive materials for opto-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 314–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kaplunov, M. G.

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Keawin, T.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Khomyak, S.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Khunchalee, J.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, C.

B. Walker, C. Kim, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 470–482 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kochi, J. K.

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kormann, C.

D. W. Bahnemann, C. Kormann, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Preparation and characterization of quantum size zinc oxide: a detailed spectroscopic study,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(14), 3789–3798 (1987).
[Crossref]

Krasnikova, S. S.

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kukhta, A. V.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kukhta, N. A.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kuroki, K.

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kwong, H. L.

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lanke, S. K.

S. K. Lanke and N. Sekar, “Pyrazole based solid state emissive NLO phores with TICT characteristics: Synthesis, DFT and TDDFT studies,” Dyes. Pigm. 126, 62–75 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. S.

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. T.

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. Y.

I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Li, D.

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, J. K.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Lin, P.

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lindeman, S. V.

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.-Z.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyakh, A.

Magueres, P. L.

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Martínez-Alonso, A.

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maulini, R.

Mazzeo, M.

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meijerink, A.

A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
[Crossref]

Meng, H.

I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meulenkamp, E. A.

A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
[Crossref]

Moratti, S. C.

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

Muneeswaran, M.

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

Musgrave, C. B.

G. Zhang and C. B. Musgrave, “Comparison of DFT methods for molecular orbital eigenvalue calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(8), 1554–1561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Narasimhan, K. L.

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nayaka, P. K.

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, T. Q.

B. Walker, C. Kim, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 470–482 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nikitenko, S. L.

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nishio, Y.

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

Oliynyk, O.

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paredes, J. I.

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, I. S.

I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
[Crossref]

Patankar, M. P.

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Patel, C. K. N.

Perepichka, D. F.

I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
[Crossref]

Perepichka, I. F.

I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
[Crossref]

Periasamy, N.

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Persoons, A.

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prachumrak, N.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Promarak, V.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ramkumar, V.

T. Vandana, V. Ramkumar, and P. Kannan, “Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)’s for organic-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 58, 514–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Novel heterocyclic based blue and green emissive materials for opto-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 314–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Highly fluorescent semiconducting pyrazoline materials for optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 605–613 (2015).
[Crossref]

Rybalochka, A.

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sano, T.

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sekar, N.

S. K. Lanke and N. Sekar, “Pyrazole based solid state emissive NLO phores with TICT characteristics: Synthesis, DFT and TDDFT studies,” Dyes. Pigm. 126, 62–75 (2016).
[Crossref]

Senguttuvan, G.

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sermakasheva, N. L.

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Serrano, J. L.

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

Shibata, K.

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

Simokaitiene, J.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sivakumar, V.

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sorokin, V.

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stakhira, P.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sudyoadsuk, T.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, P.

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y. F.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, H.

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tarsang, R.

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tascón, J. M. D.

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thompson, J.

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tomkeviciene, A.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

Tsekoun, A.

Tsekoun, A. G.

Usuki, T.

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

Vandana, T.

T. Vandana, V. Ramkumar, and P. Kannan, “Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)’s for organic-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 58, 514–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

VanDerveer, D. G.

C. J. Fahrni, L. Yang, and D. G. VanDerveer, “Tuning the photoinduced electron-transfer thermodynamics in 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazoline fluorophores: X-ray structures, photophysical characterization, computational analysis, and in vivo evaluation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(13), 3799–3812 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
[Crossref]

Veya, P.

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

Villar-Rodil, S.

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Volunuyk, D.

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Volyniuk, D.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

Voznyak, L.

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walker, B.

B. Walker, C. Kim, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 470–482 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Wang, Z. Y.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, R. T.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. K.

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

Wu, X. Y.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wudl, F.

I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
[Crossref]

Xu, S. H.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yakushchenko, I. K.

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, L.

C. J. Fahrni, L. Yang, and D. G. VanDerveer, “Tuning the photoinduced electron-transfer thermodynamics in 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazoline fluorophores: X-ray structures, photophysical characterization, computational analysis, and in vivo evaluation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(13), 3799–3812 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yasuda, T.

I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, R.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang and C. B. Musgrave, “Comparison of DFT methods for molecular orbital eigenvalue calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(8), 1554–1561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

Zhang, Q.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. K.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. H.

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Z. B.

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L. J.

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

I. S. Park, S. Y. Lee, C. Adachi, and T. Yasuda, “Full-color delayed fluorescence materials based on wedge-shaped phthalonitriles and dicyanopyrazines: systematic design, tunable photophysical properties, and OLED performance,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26(11), 1813–1821 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

I. F. Perepichka, D. F. Perepichka, H. Meng, and F. Wudl, “Light-emitting polythiophenes,” Adv. Mater. 17(19), 2281–2305 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Thompson, R. I. R. Blyth, M. Mazzeo, M. Anni, G. Gigli, and R. Clinigolani, “White light emission from blends of blue-emitting organic molecules: a general route to the white organic light-emitting diode?” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(5), 560–562 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

B. Walker, C. Kim, and T. Q. Nguyen, “Small molecule solution-processed bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 470–482 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. L. Chen, R. Yu, Q. K. Zhang, L. J. Zhou, X. Y. Wu, Q. Zhang, and C.-Z. Lu, “Rational design of strongly blue-emitting cuprous complexes with thermally activated delayed fluorescence and application in solution-processed OLEDs,” Chem. Mater. 25(19), 3910–3920 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dyes. Pigm. (3)

S. K. Lanke and N. Sekar, “Pyrazole based solid state emissive NLO phores with TICT characteristics: Synthesis, DFT and TDDFT studies,” Dyes. Pigm. 126, 62–75 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Bai, J. Li, D. Li, C. Dong, X. Han, and P. Lin, “Synthesis and spectrum characteristic of four new organic fluorescent dyes of pyrazoline compounds,” Dyes. Pigm. 75(1), 93–98 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Sun, S. H. Xu, R. T. Wu, Z. Y. Wang, Z. B. Zheng, J. K. Li, and Y. P. Cui, “The synthesis, structure and photoluminescence of coumarin-based chromophores,” Dyes. Pigm. 87(2), 109–118 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

C. J. Fahrni, L. Yang, and D. G. VanDerveer, “Tuning the photoinduced electron-transfer thermodynamics in 1,3,5-triaryl-2-pyrazoline fluorophores: X-ray structures, photophysical characterization, computational analysis, and in vivo evaluation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(13), 3799–3812 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Magueres, S. M. Hubig, S. V. Lindeman, P. Veya, and J. K. Kochi, “Novel charge-transfer materials via cocrystallization of planar aromatic donors and spherical polyoxometalate acceptors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(41), 10073–10082 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

A. V. Dijken, E. A. Meulenkamp, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and A. Meijerink, “Identification of the transition responsible for the visible emission in ZnO using quantum size effects,” J. Lumin. 90(3-4), 123–128 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (2)

J. Barberá, K. Clays, R. Gimenez, S. Houbrechts, A. Persoons, and J. L. Serrano, “Versatile optical materials: fluorescence, non-linear optical and mesogenic properties of selected 2-pyrazoline derivatives,” J. Mater. Chem. 8(8), 1725–1730 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Sano, Y. Nishio, Y. Hamada, H. Takahashi, T. Usuki, and K. Shibata, “Design of conjugated molecular materials for optoelectronics,” J. Mater. Chem. 10(1), 157–161 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

C. Anthony Raj, M. Muneeswaran, P. Jegatheesan, N. V. Giridharan, V. Sivakumar, and G. Senguttuvan, “Effect of annealing time in the low-temperature growth of BFO thin films spin coated on glass substrates,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24(10), 4148–4154 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

D. W. Bahnemann, C. Kormann, and M. R. Hoffmann, “Preparation and characterization of quantum size zinc oxide: a detailed spectroscopic study,” J. Phys. Chem. 91(14), 3789–3798 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. A (1)

G. Zhang and C. B. Musgrave, “Comparison of DFT methods for molecular orbital eigenvalue calculations,” J. Phys. Chem. A 111(8), 1554–1561 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

J. Jiang, X. Zhang, P. Sun, and L. Zhang, “ZnO/BiOI Heterostructures: photoinduced charge-transfer property and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic activity,” J. Phys. Chem. C 115(42), 20555–20564 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Sano, T. Fujii, Y. Nishio, K. Shibata, and K. Kuroki, “Pyrazoline dimers for hole transport materials in organic electroluminescent devices,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 34(Part 1, No. 6A), 3124–3127 (1995).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

J. I. Paredes, S. Villar-Rodil, A. Martínez-Alonso, and J. M. D. Tascón, “Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents,” Langmuir 24(19), 10560–10564 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

M. G. Kaplunov, S. S. Krasnikova, S. L. Nikitenko, N. L. Sermakasheva, and I. K. Yakushchenko, “Exciplex electroluminescence and photoluminescence spectra of the new organic materials based on zinc complexes of sulphanylamino-substituted ligands,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 7(1), 206 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

N. C. Greenham, S. C. Moratti, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, and A. B. Holmes, “Efficient light-emitting diodes based on polymers with high electron affinities,” Nature 365(6447), 628–630 (1993).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. (4)

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Highly fluorescent semiconducting pyrazoline materials for optoelectronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 605–613 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Ramkumar and P. Kannan, “Novel heterocyclic based blue and green emissive materials for opto-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 46, 314–323 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Vandana, V. Ramkumar, and P. Kannan, “Synthesis and fluorescent properties of poly(arylpyrazoline)’s for organic-electronics,” Opt. Mater. 58, 514–523 (2016).
[Crossref]

V. Cherpak, P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, D. Volunuyk, L. Voznyak, Z. Hotra, V. Sorokin, A. Rybalochka, and O. Oliynyk, “Properties of 2,6-di-tert.-butyl-4-(2,5-diphenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-pyrazol-3-yl)-phenol as hole-transport material for life extension of organic light emitting diodes,” Opt. Mater. 33(11), 1727–1731 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Synth. Met. (2)

P. Stakhira, S. Khomyak, V. Cherpak, D. Volyniuk, J. Simokaitiene, A. Tomkeviciene, N. A. Kukhta, J. V. Grazulevicius, A. V. Kukhta, X. W. Sun, H. V. Demir, Z. Hotra, and L. Voznyak, “Blue organic light-emitting diodes based on pyrazoline phenyl derivative,” Synth. Met. 162(3-4), 352–355 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Agarwala, P. K. Nayaka, F. Ali, M. P. Patankar, K. L. Narasimhan, and N. Periasamy, “Tuning of HOMO levels of carbazole derivatives: new molecules for blue OLED,” Synth. Met. 161(5-6), 466–473 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tetrahedron (1)

J. Khunchalee, R. Tarsang, N. Prachumrak, S. Jungsuttiwong, T. Keawin, T. Sudyoadsuk, and V. Promarak, “Synthesis and properties of oligofluorene-thiophenes as emissive materials for organic electroluminescent devices: color-tuning from deep blue to orange,” Tetrahedron 68(40), 8416–8423 (2012).
[Crossref]

Thin Solid Films (1)

X. H. Zhang, S. K. Wu, U. Z. Q. Gao, C. S. Lee, S. T. Lee, and H. L. Kwong, “Pyrazoline derivatives for blue color emitter in organic electroluminescent devices,” Thin Solid Films 371(1-2), 40–46 (2000).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Synthesis scheme, (b) FE-SEM images, and (c) fluorescence emission (blue) under exposure of PPYR and TPYR to UV light.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) 1H-NMR and (b) FT-IR spectra of PPYR and TPYR.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) UV-Vis absorption spectra, (b) fluorescence emission spectra, and EL spectra of PPYR and TPYR.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Eg plots of PPYR and TPYR.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 HOMO−LUMO energy diagram of PPYR and TPYR.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Optical properties and Eg values of PPYR and TPYR

Equations (1)

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α= A  (hυ E g ) n/2 hυ

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