Abstract

Recently, monoclinic Ga2O3 (β-Ga2O3) photodetectors (PDs) have been extensively studied for various commercial and military applications due to the merits of intrinsic solar rejection, high gain, and great compactness. In this work, c-plane sapphire substrates were annealed under different temperatures in a vacuum furnace prior to the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) of β-Ga2O3 thin film, which yielded a smoother surface and even a terrace-and-step-like morphology on the substrate, resulting in improved crystallinity of the epitaxial film. Accordingly, both the dark and photo currents of β-Ga2O3 metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) PDs were increased by the enhanced carrier mobility (μ) of the more crystalline film. However, the substrate-annealing temperature must be sufficiently high to offset the rise of the dark current and thus achieve a remarkable improvement in the photodetection properties. As a result, the PD fabricated on the 1050 °C-annealed substrate exhibited extremely high sensitivity, for example, high responsivity (R) of 54.9 A/W and large specific detectivity (D*) of 3.71 × 1014 Jones. Both parameters were increased by one order of magnitude because of the combined effects of the dramatic increase in μ and the effective reduction in defect-related recombination centers. Nevertheless, the latter also prolonged the recovery time of the PD. These findings suggest another way to develop β-Ga2O3 PD with extremely high sensitivity.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  26. Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
    [Crossref]
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2017 (1)

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (5)

S. Oh, J. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Quasi-two-dimensional β-gallium oxide solar-blind photodetectors with ultrahigh responsivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(39), 9245–9250 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Heinemann, J. Berry, G. Teeter, T. Unold, and D. Ginley, “Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 022107 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (6)

Z. Alaie, S. Mohammad Nejad, and M. H. Yousefi, “Recent advances in ultraviolet photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 29, 16–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-P. Yu, S.-L. Ou, and D.-S. Wuu, “Pulsed laser deposition of gallium oxide films for high performance solar-blind photodetectors,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(5), 1240–1249 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. C. Hu, C. X. Shan, N. Zhang, M. M. Jiang, S. P. Wang, and D. Z. Shen, “High gain Ga2O3 solar-blind photodetectors realized via a carrier multiplication process,” Opt. Express 23(10), 13554–13561 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3,” Opt. Express 23(2), 28300–28305 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (5)

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Hou, Z. Mei, and X. Du, “Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO and MgxZn1−xO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(28), 283001 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. N. Sigaev, N. V. Golubev, E. S. Ignat’eva, A. Paleari, and R. Lorenzi, “Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1763–1774 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

L. Sang, M. Liao, and M. Sumiya, “A comprehensive review of semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors: from thin film to one-dimensional nanostructures,” Sensors (Basel) 13(8), 10482–10518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

S. Nakagomi and Y. Kokubun, “Crystal orientation of β-Ga2O3 thin films formed on c-plane and a-plane sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 349(1), 12–18 (2012).
[Crossref]

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

H. Huang, W. Yang, Y. Xie, X. Chen, and Z. Wu, “Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on TiO2 Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 588–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Cuccureddu, S. Murphy, I. V. Shvets, M. Porcu, H. W. Zandbergen, N. S. Sidorov, and S. I. Bozhko, “Surface morphology of c-plane sapphire (α-alumina) produced by high temperature anneal,” Surf. Sci. 604(15), 1294–1299 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. S. Vemuri, K. K. Bharathi, S. K. Gullapalli, and C. V. Ramana, “Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(9), 2623–2628 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, H.-H. Chen, H.-W. Wu, and M.-C. Shih, “Effect of AIN film thickness on photo/dark currents of MSM UV photodetector,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(11), 2863–2866 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y. Koide, M. Liao, and J. Alvarez, “Thermally stable solar-blind diamond UV photodetector,” Diamond Related Materials 15(11-12), 1962–1966 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. G. Jiang, M. Ruhle, and E. J. Lavernia, “On the applicability of the x-ray diffraction line profile analysis in extracting grain size and microstrain in nanocrystalline materials,” J. Mater. Res. 14(02), 549–559 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Comprehensive characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on single-crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6148–6160 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Abdulateef, S. A.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Abdullah, Q. N.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alaie, Z.

Z. Alaie, S. Mohammad Nejad, and M. H. Yousefi, “Recent advances in ultraviolet photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 29, 16–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Almessiere, M. A.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Al-Otaibi, A. L.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Alvarez, J.

Y. Koide, M. Liao, and J. Alvarez, “Thermally stable solar-blind diamond UV photodetector,” Diamond Related Materials 15(11-12), 1962–1966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Amiri, G.

M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
[Crossref]

An, Y.

An, Y. H.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Barraza, C. D.

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
[Crossref]

Berry, J.

M. D. Heinemann, J. Berry, G. Teeter, T. Unold, and D. Ginley, “Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 022107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bharathi, K. K.

R. S. Vemuri, K. K. Bharathi, S. K. Gullapalli, and C. V. Ramana, “Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(9), 2623–2628 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boukadhaba, M. A.

M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bououdina, M.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bozhko, S. I.

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X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
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J. C. Carrano, T. Li, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Comprehensive characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on single-crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6148–6160 (1998).
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W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
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H. Huang, W. Yang, Y. Xie, X. Chen, and Z. Wu, “Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on TiO2 Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 588–590 (2010).
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F. Cuccureddu, S. Murphy, I. V. Shvets, M. Porcu, H. W. Zandbergen, N. S. Sidorov, and S. I. Bozhko, “Surface morphology of c-plane sapphire (α-alumina) produced by high temperature anneal,” Surf. Sci. 604(15), 1294–1299 (2010).
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D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
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W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
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R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
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Y. Hou, Z. Mei, and X. Du, “Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO and MgxZn1−xO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(28), 283001 (2014).
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X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
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J. C. Carrano, T. Li, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Comprehensive characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on single-crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6148–6160 (1998).
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Eiting, C. J.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Comprehensive characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on single-crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6148–6160 (1998).
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R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
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W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
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M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
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R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
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Ginley, D.

M. D. Heinemann, J. Berry, G. Teeter, T. Unold, and D. Ginley, “Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 022107 (2016).
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Golubev, N. V.

V. N. Sigaev, N. V. Golubev, E. S. Ignat’eva, A. Paleari, and R. Lorenzi, “Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1763–1774 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, X.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
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Grant, J. T.

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
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J. C. Carrano, T. Li, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Comprehensive characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on single-crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6148–6160 (1998).
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R. S. Vemuri, K. K. Bharathi, S. K. Gullapalli, and C. V. Ramana, “Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(9), 2623–2628 (2010).
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D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
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D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
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Guo, D. Y.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
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Guo, X.

Guo, Y.

X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
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Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
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M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
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He, J.-H.

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
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Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heinemann, M. D.

M. D. Heinemann, J. Berry, G. Teeter, T. Unold, and D. Ginley, “Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 022107 (2016).
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Hite, J. K.

Hobara, R.

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
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Hou, Y.

Y. Hou, Z. Mei, and X. Du, “Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO and MgxZn1−xO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(28), 283001 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
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R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, H.-H. Chen, H.-W. Wu, and M.-C. Shih, “Effect of AIN film thickness on photo/dark currents of MSM UV photodetector,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(11), 2863–2866 (2008).
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Huang, H.

H. Huang, W. Yang, Y. Xie, X. Chen, and Z. Wu, “Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on TiO2 Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 588–590 (2010).
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Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
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Ignat’eva, E. S.

V. N. Sigaev, N. V. Golubev, E. S. Ignat’eva, A. Paleari, and R. Lorenzi, “Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1763–1774 (2014).
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M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
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W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
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H. G. Jiang, M. Ruhle, and E. J. Lavernia, “On the applicability of the x-ray diffraction line profile analysis in extracting grain size and microstrain in nanocrystalline materials,” J. Mater. Res. 14(02), 549–559 (1999).
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Jung, Y.

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S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3,” Opt. Express 23(2), 28300–28305 (2015).
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R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
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Koide, Y.

Y. Koide, M. Liao, and J. Alvarez, “Thermally stable solar-blind diamond UV photodetector,” Diamond Related Materials 15(11-12), 1962–1966 (2006).
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M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
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S. Nakagomi and Y. Kokubun, “Crystal orientation of β-Ga2O3 thin films formed on c-plane and a-plane sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 349(1), 12–18 (2012).
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R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
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Kong, W. Y.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
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Kotru, S.

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
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Kubo, M.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
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Kuznetsov, A. Y.

X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
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Lavernia, E. J.

H. G. Jiang, M. Ruhle, and E. J. Lavernia, “On the applicability of the x-ray diffraction line profile analysis in extracting grain size and microstrain in nanocrystalline materials,” J. Mater. Res. 14(02), 549–559 (1999).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, L. H.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, P.

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, P. G.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, S. Y.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

J. C. Carrano, T. Li, P. A. Grudowski, C. J. Eiting, R. D. Dupuis, and J. C. Campbell, “Comprehensive characterization of metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors fabricated on single-crystal GaN,” J. Appl. Phys. 83(11), 6148–6160 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
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Liao, M.

L. Sang, M. Liao, and M. Sumiya, “A comprehensive review of semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors: from thin film to one-dimensional nanostructures,” Sensors (Basel) 13(8), 10482–10518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Koide, M. Liao, and J. Alvarez, “Thermally stable solar-blind diamond UV photodetector,” Diamond Related Materials 15(11-12), 1962–1966 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lien, D.-H.

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lien, W.-C.

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lorenzi, R.

V. N. Sigaev, N. V. Golubev, E. S. Ignat’eva, A. Paleari, and R. Lorenzi, “Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1763–1774 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, L. B.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lusson, A.

M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
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Maeda, T.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
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Matsuda, I.

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
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C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
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Y. Hou, Z. Mei, and X. Du, “Semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors based on ZnO and MgxZn1−xO,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 47(28), 283001 (2014).
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X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
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Miranda Gallardo, A.

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
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M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Miyamoto, A.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
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Z. Alaie, S. Mohammad Nejad, and M. H. Yousefi, “Recent advances in ultraviolet photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 29, 16–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mohmood, K. H.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
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E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
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F. Cuccureddu, S. Murphy, I. V. Shvets, M. Porcu, H. W. Zandbergen, N. S. Sidorov, and S. I. Bozhko, “Surface morphology of c-plane sapphire (α-alumina) produced by high temperature anneal,” Surf. Sci. 604(15), 1294–1299 (2010).
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S. Nakagomi and Y. Kokubun, “Crystal orientation of β-Ga2O3 thin films formed on c-plane and a-plane sapphire substrate,” J. Cryst. Growth 349(1), 12–18 (2012).
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R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ogawa, M.

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Oh, S.

S. Oh, J. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Quasi-two-dimensional β-gallium oxide solar-blind photodetectors with ultrahigh responsivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(39), 9245–9250 (2016).
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S. Oh, Y. Jung, M. A. Mastro, J. K. Hite, C. R. Eddy, and J. Kim, “Development of solar-blind photodetectors based on Si-implanted β-Ga2O3,” Opt. Express 23(2), 28300–28305 (2015).
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M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Omnes, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnes, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ou, S.-L.

Oumezzine, M.

M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ozawa, K.

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paleari, A.

V. N. Sigaev, N. V. Golubev, E. S. Ignat’eva, A. Paleari, and R. Lorenzi, “Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1763–1774 (2014).
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Pearton, S. J.

S. Oh, J. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Quasi-two-dimensional β-gallium oxide solar-blind photodetectors with ultrahigh responsivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(39), 9245–9250 (2016).
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Pisano, A. P.

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

Porcu, M.

F. Cuccureddu, S. Murphy, I. V. Shvets, M. Porcu, H. W. Zandbergen, N. S. Sidorov, and S. I. Bozhko, “Surface morphology of c-plane sapphire (α-alumina) produced by high temperature anneal,” Surf. Sci. 604(15), 1294–1299 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qaeed, M. A.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qi, Z.

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ramana, C. V.

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. S. Vemuri, K. K. Bharathi, S. K. Gullapalli, and C. V. Ramana, “Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(9), 2623–2628 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ren, F.

S. Oh, J. Kim, F. Ren, S. J. Pearton, and J. Kim, “Quasi-two-dimensional β-gallium oxide solar-blind photodetectors with ultrahigh responsivity,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(39), 9245–9250 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rubio, E. J.

C. V. Ramana, E. J. Rubio, C. D. Barraza, A. Miranda Gallardo, S. McPeak, S. Kotru, and J. T. Grant, “Chemical bonding, optical constants, and electrical resistivity of sputter-deposited gallium oxide thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 115(4), 043508 (2014).
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H. G. Jiang, M. Ruhle, and E. J. Lavernia, “On the applicability of the x-ray diffraction line profile analysis in extracting grain size and microstrain in nanocrystalline materials,” J. Mater. Res. 14(02), 549–559 (1999).
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Sakama, H.

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sallet, V.

M. A. Boukadhaba, A. Fouzri, V. Sallet, S. S. Hassani, G. Amiri, A. Lusson, and M. Oumezzine, “High-temperature annealing effect of α-Al2O3 (0001) substrates with nominal 0.25° miscut toward the a-plane (−1120) on ZnO films grown by MOCVD,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 120(3), 991–1000 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sang, L.

L. Sang, M. Liao, and M. Sumiya, “A comprehensive review of semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors: from thin film to one-dimensional nanostructures,” Sensors (Basel) 13(8), 10482–10518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Senesky, D. G.

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shan, C. X.

Shen, D. Z.

Shieh, C. L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shih, M.-C.

R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, H.-H. Chen, H.-W. Wu, and M.-C. Shih, “Effect of AIN film thickness on photo/dark currents of MSM UV photodetector,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(11), 2863–2866 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shinohara, M.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
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G. Shukla and A. Khare, “Effect of substrate annealing on the quality of pulsed laser deposited Zn1−xMgxO thin films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 255(15), 7017–7020 (2009).
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F. Cuccureddu, S. Murphy, I. V. Shvets, M. Porcu, H. W. Zandbergen, N. S. Sidorov, and S. I. Bozhko, “Surface morphology of c-plane sapphire (α-alumina) produced by high temperature anneal,” Surf. Sci. 604(15), 1294–1299 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sidorov, N. S.

F. Cuccureddu, S. Murphy, I. V. Shvets, M. Porcu, H. W. Zandbergen, N. S. Sidorov, and S. I. Bozhko, “Surface morphology of c-plane sapphire (α-alumina) produced by high temperature anneal,” Surf. Sci. 604(15), 1294–1299 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sigaev, V. N.

V. N. Sigaev, N. V. Golubev, E. S. Ignat’eva, A. Paleari, and R. Lorenzi, “Light-emitting Ga-oxide nanocrystals in glass: a new paradigm for low-cost and robust UV-to-visible solar-blind converters and UV emitters,” Nanoscale 6(3), 1763–1774 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sumiya, M.

L. Sang, M. Liao, and M. Sumiya, “A comprehensive review of semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors: from thin film to one-dimensional nanostructures,” Sensors (Basel) 13(8), 10482–10518 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, C.

Suzuki, R.

R. Suzuki, S. Nakagomi, and Y. Kokubun, “Solar-blind photodiodes composed of a Au Schottky contact and a β-Ga2O3 single crystal with a high resistivity cap layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tang, W.

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tang, W. H.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
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Teeter, G.

M. D. Heinemann, J. Berry, G. Teeter, T. Unold, and D. Ginley, “Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 022107 (2016).
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Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D.-S.

W.-C. Lien, D.-S. Tsai, D.-H. Lien, D. G. Senesky, J.-H. He, and A. P. Pisano, “4H-SiC Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors in Operation of 450·C,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 33(11), 1586–1588 (2012).
[Crossref]

Unold, T.

M. D. Heinemann, J. Berry, G. Teeter, T. Unold, and D. Ginley, “Oxygen deficiency and Sn doping of amorphous Ga2O3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108(2), 022107 (2016).
[Crossref]

Vemuri, R. S.

R. S. Vemuri, K. K. Bharathi, S. K. Gullapalli, and C. V. Ramana, “Effect of structure and size on the electrical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2(9), 2623–2628 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, D. D.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, G.

Wang, K. Y.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S. P.

Wu, G. A.

W. Y. Kong, G. A. Wu, K. Y. Wang, T. F. Zhang, Y. F. Zou, D. D. Wang, and L. B. Luo, “Graphene-β-Ga2 O3 Heterojunction for Highly Sensitive Deep UV Photodetector Application,” Adv. Mater. 28(48), 10725–10731 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, H.-W.

R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, H.-H. Chen, H.-W. Wu, and M.-C. Shih, “Effect of AIN film thickness on photo/dark currents of MSM UV photodetector,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(11), 2863–2866 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z.

D. Guo, H. Liu, P. Li, Z. Wu, S. Wang, C. Cui, C. Li, and W. Tang, “Zero-Power-Consumption Solar-Blind Photodetector Based on β-Ga2O3/NSTO Heterojunction,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(2), 1619–1628 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Guo, Z. Wu, P. Li, Y. An, H. Liu, X. Guo, H. Yan, G. Wang, C. Sun, L. Li, and W. Tang, “Fabrication of β-Ga2O3 thin films and solar-blind photodetectors by laser MBE technology,” Opt. Mater. Express 4(5), 1067 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Huang, W. Yang, Y. Xie, X. Chen, and Z. Wu, “Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on TiO2 Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 588–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wu, Z. P.

Y. H. An, D. Y. Guo, S. Y. Li, Z. P. Wu, Y. Q. Huang, P. G. Li, L. H. Li, and W. H. Tang, “Influence of oxygen vacancies on the photoresponse of β-Ga2O3/SiC n–n type heterojunctions,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 49(28), 285111 (2016).
[Crossref]

Wuu, D.-S.

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Y.

H. Huang, W. Yang, Y. Xie, X. Chen, and Z. Wu, “Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on TiO2 Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 588–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xue, Q.

X. Du, Z. Mei, Z. Liu, Y. Guo, T. Zhang, Y. Hou, Z. Zhang, Q. Xue, and A. Y. Kuznetsov, “Controlled Growth of High-Quality ZnO-Based Films and Fabrication of Visible-Blind and Solar-Blind Ultra-Violet Detectors,” Adv. Mater. 21(45), 4625–4630 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yam, F. K.

Q. N. Abdullah, F. K. Yam, K. H. Mohmood, Z. Hassan, M. A. Qaeed, M. Bououdina, M. A. Almessiere, A. L. Al-Otaibi, and S. A. Abdulateef, “Free growth of one-dimensional β-Ga2O3 nanostructures including nanowires, nanobelts and nanosheets using a thermal evaporation method,” Ceram. Int. 42(12), 13343–13349 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, S.

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Yukawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Ozawa, M. Emori, M. Ogawa, S. Yamamoto, K. Fujikawa, R. Hobara, S. Kitagawa, H. Daimon, H. Sakama, and I. Matsuda, “Electron-hole recombination on ZnO(0001) single-crystal surface studied by time-resolved soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(15), 151602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, H.

Yang, R.-Y.

R.-Y. Yang, C.-M. Hsiung, H.-H. Chen, H.-W. Wu, and M.-C. Shih, “Effect of AIN film thickness on photo/dark currents of MSM UV photodetector,” Microw. Opt. Technol. Lett. 50(11), 2863–2866 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, W.

H. Huang, W. Yang, Y. Xie, X. Chen, and Z. Wu, “Metal-Semiconductor-Metal Ultraviolet Photodetectors Based on TiO2 Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(6), 588–590 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ye, W.

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, J.

W. Zhang, J. Xu, W. Ye, Y. Li, Z. Qi, J. Dai, Z. Wu, C. Chen, J. Yin, J. Li, H. Jiang, and Y. Fang, “High-performance AlGaN metal–semiconductor–metal solar-blind ultraviolet photodetectors by localized surface plasmon enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(2), 021112 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoshimoto, M.

M. Yoshimoto, T. Maeda, T. Ohnishi, H. Koinuma, O. Ishiyama, M. Shinohara, M. Kubo, R. Miura, and A. Miyamoto, “Atomic-scale formation of ultrasmooth surfaces on sapphire substrates for high-quality thin-film fabrication,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(18), 2615–2617 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yousefi, M. H.

Z. Alaie, S. Mohammad Nejad, and M. H. Yousefi, “Recent advances in ultraviolet photodetectors,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 29, 16–55 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, F.-P.

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-Detectivity Polymer Photodetectors with Spectral Response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 3D AFM images of c-plane sapphire substrates annealed at (a) NA, (b) 600 °C, (c) 750 °C, (d) 900 °C and (e) 1050 °C. (f) Plot of RMS versus annealing temperature.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XRD spectra of β-Ga2O3 epitaxial films grown on c-plane sapphire substrates with different thermal-annealing pretreatments: (a) θ-2θ and (b) Omega scans.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 AFM 3D images of β-Ga2O3 epitaxial films grown on (a) as-supplied, (b) 600 °C-annealed, (c) 750 °C-annealed, (d) 900 °C-annealed and (e) 1050 °C-annealed c-plane sapphire substrates. (f) Plot of RMS versus annealing temperature.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 I-V characteristics of β-Ga2O3 MSM PDs based on the as-supplied and annealed c-plane sapphire substrates (a) in dark, and (b) under DUV radiation; (c) current ratio and (d) detectivity. Inset of (c) is the schematic diagram of β-Ga2O3 MSM PD.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic energy band diagrams of the β-Ga2O3 MSM PD under DUV illumination based on (a) as-supplied substrate and (b) annealed substrate. EC, EF and EV represent conduction-band energy, Fermi level and valence-band energy, respectively. The electron and hole current densities are referred to as Jn and Jp.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transient response of β-Ga2O3 PDs: (a) normalized responses of all the PDs and (b) multi-cycle response of PD-1050. During the measurement, 254-nm and 69.5-µW/cm2 DUV light source was repeatedly switched on and off at 40-s time intervals, and bias was maintained at 10 V.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Spectral responses of β-Ga2O3 MSM PDs based on sapphire substrates with different thermal-annealing pretreatments.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Comparison on device performance of present device and other previously reported β-Ga2O3 MSM PDs. Bias voltage was 10 V, unless otherwise indicated.

Equations (3)

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D= 0.9 λ ' βcosθ
G= Rhc ηqλ
D*=R S 2q I dark

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