Abstract

Graphene flakes have a layered structure with optical properties dependent on the layer number. We measured and calculated reflectivity of single-layer to multi-layer graphene flakes on SiO2/Si substrate up to nearly one hundred layers in the broad wavelength range of 450-750 nm. It was noticed that there is an optimized optical matching between single-layer to five-layer graphene flakes and the SiO2 layer due to the interference effect. It is feasible for the single-layer to five-layer graphene flakes to exploit the enhancement of anti-reflection coating with the help of the SiO2 layer. The optimal anti-reflection wavelength is selectable by adjusting the thickness of the SiO2 layer. It is helpful in the development of highly functionalized optical film with the nanoscale thickness.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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Corrections

13 November 2017: A typographical correction was made to the title.


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References

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  1. A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
    [PubMed]
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  3. K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
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    [PubMed]
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    [PubMed]
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2016 (1)

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (2)

Y. Lu, X. L. Li, X. Zhang, J. B. Wu, and P. H. Tan, “Optical contrast determination of the thickness of sio2 film on si substrate partially covered by two-dimensional crystal flakes,” Sci. Bull. 60(8), 806–811 (2015).

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (1)

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (1)

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

2012 (3)

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. K. Koh, M. H. Bae, D. G. Cahill, and E. Pop, “Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n ≤ 4),” ACS Nano 5(1), 269–274 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (1)

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

2009 (2)

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

2008 (1)

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

2007 (3)

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[PubMed]

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

2006 (1)

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, “From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the k point,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075404 (2006).

2000 (1)

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Ahn, J. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Anissimova, S.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

Bae, M. H.

Y. K. Koh, M. H. Bae, D. G. Cahill, and E. Pop, “Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n ≤ 4),” ACS Nano 5(1), 269–274 (2011).
[PubMed]

Banerjee, S. K.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Biswas, S.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Blake, P.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

Bleiler, R.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Bonaccorso, F.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

Bonini, N.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cahill, D. G.

Y. K. Koh, M. H. Bae, D. G. Cahill, and E. Pop, “Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n ≤ 4),” ACS Nano 5(1), 269–274 (2011).
[PubMed]

Casiraghi, C.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Cha, Y. H.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Chang, K.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, T.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cheong, H.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Choi, J. S.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Choi, J. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Cole, D.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Colombo, L.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

Edgell, M.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Fan, H. M.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Feng, Y. P.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Ferrari, A. C.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Fiori, G.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[PubMed]

Gokus, T.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

Han, W. P.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hartschuh, A.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Harutyunyan, H.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

Hitzman, C.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Hong, B. H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Huang, F.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Iannaccone, G.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jang, H.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Jones, K.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Kasim, J.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Kim, J. M.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kim, P.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. D.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Kirchhoff, J.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Koh, Y. K.

Y. K. Koh, M. H. Bae, D. G. Cahill, and E. Pop, “Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n ≤ 4),” ACS Nano 5(1), 269–274 (2011).
[PubMed]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

Kuramochi, H.

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lee, S. Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

Li, S. L.

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Li, X. L.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, X. L. Li, X. Zhang, J. B. Wu, and P. H. Tan, “Optical contrast determination of the thickness of sio2 film on si substrate partially covered by two-dimensional crystal flakes,” Sci. Bull. 60(8), 806–811 (2015).

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

Lidorikis, E.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Liu, X. L.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

Lombardo, A.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

Lu, Y.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, X. L. Li, X. Zhang, J. B. Wu, and P. H. Tan, “Optical contrast determination of the thickness of sio2 film on si substrate partially covered by two-dimensional crystal flakes,” Sci. Bull. 60(8), 806–811 (2015).

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

Luo, S. Q.

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

Marzari, N.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Miyazaki, H.

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Moon, H.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Moore, R.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Nair, R. R.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

Nakaharai, S.

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Neumaier, D.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Ni, Z. H.

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nieveen, W.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Novak, S.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Novoselov, K. S.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81(15), 155413 (2010).

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

A. K. Geim and K. S. Novoselov, “The rise of graphene,” Nat. Mater. 6(3), 183–191 (2007).
[PubMed]

Palacios, T.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Park, B. H.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Partoens, B.

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, “From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the k point,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075404 (2006).

Peeters, F. M.

B. Partoens and F. M. Peeters, “From graphene to graphite: Electronic structure around the k point,” Phys. Rev. B 74(7), 075404 (2006).

Pop, E.

Y. K. Koh, M. H. Bae, D. G. Cahill, and E. Pop, “Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n ≤ 4),” ACS Nano 5(1), 269–274 (2011).
[PubMed]

Principe, E.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Pugno, N.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Qian, H.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Qiao, X. F.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

Savini, G.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Seabaugh, A.

G. Fiori, F. Bonaccorso, G. Iannaccone, T. Palacios, D. Neumaier, A. Seabaugh, S. K. Banerjee, and L. Colombo, “Electronics based on two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(10), 768–779 (2014).
[PubMed]

Shallenberger, J.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Shen, Z. X.

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Shi, Y. M.

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

Smith, S.

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Son, Y. W.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Song, H.

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Sun, Z. P.

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

Tan, P. H.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, X. L. Li, X. Zhang, J. B. Wu, and P. H. Tan, “Optical contrast determination of the thickness of sio2 film on si substrate partially covered by two-dimensional crystal flakes,” Sci. Bull. 60(8), 806–811 (2015).

W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Tan, Q. H.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, Y. Lu, Q. H. Tan, X. L. Liu, and P. H. Tan, “Layer number identification of intrinsic and defective multilayered graphenes up to 100 layers by the raman mode intensity from substrates,” Nanoscale 7(17), 8135–8141 (2015).
[PubMed]

Tsukagoshi, K.

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, H.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, H. M.

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y. F.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

Wu, J. B.

Y. Lu, X. L. Li, X. Zhang, J. B. Wu, and P. H. Tan, “Optical contrast determination of the thickness of sio2 film on si substrate partially covered by two-dimensional crystal flakes,” Sci. Bull. 60(8), 806–811 (2015).

Wu, Y. H.

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Wu, Z. H.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yoon, D.

D. Yoon, H. Moon, Y. W. Son, J. S. Choi, B. H. Park, Y. H. Cha, Y. D. Kim, and H. Cheong, “Interference effect on raman spectrum of graphene on sio2/si,” Phys. Rev. B 80(12), 125422 (2009).

Yu, T.

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. L. Li, X. F. Qiao, W. P. Han, X. Zhang, Q. H. Tan, T. Chen, and P. H. Tan, “Determining layer number of two-dimensional flakes of transition-metal dichalcogenides by the Raman intensity from substrates,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145704 (2016).
[PubMed]

Y. Lu, X. L. Li, X. Zhang, J. B. Wu, and P. H. Tan, “Optical contrast determination of the thickness of sio2 film on si substrate partially covered by two-dimensional crystal flakes,” Sci. Bull. 60(8), 806–811 (2015).

Zhao, W. J.

P. H. Tan, W. P. Han, W. J. Zhao, Z. H. Wu, K. Chang, H. Wang, Y. F. Wang, N. Bonini, N. Marzari, N. Pugno, G. Savini, A. Lombardo, and A. C. Ferrari, “The shear mode of multilayer graphene,” Nat. Mater. 11(4), 294–300 (2012).
[PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

K. S. Kim, Y. Zhao, H. Jang, S. Y. Lee, J. M. Kim, K. S. Kim, J. H. Ahn, P. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and B. H. Hong, “Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes,” Nature 457(7230), 706–710 (2009).
[PubMed]

ACS Nano (2)

Y. K. Koh, M. H. Bae, D. G. Cahill, and E. Pop, “Reliably counting atomic planes of few-layer graphene (n ≤ 4),” ACS Nano 5(1), 269–274 (2011).
[PubMed]

S. L. Li, H. Miyazaki, H. Song, H. Kuramochi, S. Nakaharai, and K. Tsukagoshi, “Quantitative raman spectrum and reliable thickness identification for atomic layers on insulating substrates,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7381–7388 (2012).
[PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Y. Wang, Z. H. Ni, Z. X. Shen, H. M. Wang, and Y. H. Wu, “Interference enhancement of raman signal of graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(4), 043121 (2008).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

D. Cole, J. Shallenberger, S. Novak, R. Moore, M. Edgell, S. Smith, C. Hitzman, J. Kirchhoff, E. Principe, W. Nieveen, F. Huang, S. Biswas, R. Bleiler, and K. Jones, “Sio2 thickness determination by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, auger electron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, rutherford backscattering, transmission electron microscopy, and ellipsometry,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 18(1), 440–444 (2000).

Mater. Today (1)

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. P. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15(12), 564–589 (2012).

Nano Lett. (2)

Z. H. Ni, H. M. Wang, J. Kasim, H. M. Fan, T. Yu, Y. H. Wu, Y. P. Feng, and Z. X. Shen, “Graphene thickness determination using reflection and contrast spectroscopy,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2758–2763 (2007).
[PubMed]

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7(9), 2711–2717 (2007).
[PubMed]

Nanoscale (1)

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Nanotechnology (1)

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Nature (1)

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W. P. Han, Y. M. Shi, X. L. Li, S. Q. Luo, Y. Lu, and P. H. Tan, “The numerical-aperture-dependent optical contrast and thickness determination of ultrathin flakes of two-dimensional atomic crystals: A case of graphene multilayers,” Wuli Xuebao 62(11), 110702 (2013).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Optical image of a flake contained 1LG, 2LG, 4LG, 5LG, 6LG, and 8LG on a 90-nm SiO2/Si substrate. (b) Optical image of a flake contained 16LG, 22LG, 29LG, 34LG, 48LG, 60LG, and 75LG on a 90-nm SiO2/Si substrate. (c) The standard values [9, 10] and experimental data of I(SiG)/I(Si0) for 532-nm excitation and NA = 0.45, by which the thickness of NLG flakes are identified.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The experimental and theoretical reflectivity curves of (a) bare SiO2/Si substrate and 1LG-5LG on the SiO2/Si substrate, (b) 8LG, 12LG, 16LG, 22LG, and 29LG on the SiO2/Si substrate, (c) 34LG, 48LG, 60LG, 75LG, and 94LG on the SiO2/Si substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The reflectivity of bare SiO2/Si substrate in the broad wavelength range of 450-750 nm with (a) 0nm < d S i O 2 < 500nm and (b) 75nm < d S i O 2 < 105nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The lowest reflectivity of 1LG-5LG on SiO2/Si substrate with 75nm < d S i O 2 < 105nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic diagrams of (a) multiple reflection and optical interference and (b) the electric field component transfer process in the Air/NLG/SiO2/Si structure.

Equations (2)

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A i j = 1 t i j ( 1 r i j r i j 1 ) , B ( z j ) = ( e i δ j 0 0 e i δ j ) .
( E A i r + E A i r ) = A 01 B ( d 1 ) A 12 B ( d 2 ) A 23 ( E S i + 0 ) .

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