Abstract

Phosphor-in-glass (PIG) has recently been receiving attention for use in light emitting diode encapsulants because of the remarkable chemical and mechanical properties of the resulting encapsulants. The PIG plate, however, contains pores that interact with the light and lead to changes in transmittance and chromaticity of the plate. In this study, therefore, PIG was sintered via spark plasma sintering (SPS) to reduce the number of pores via the densification process, and the factors for improving the luminous efficacy of PIG were confirmed by analyzing the pore size and scattering coefficient. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index were dramatically improved in all of the PIG samples subjected to SPS. The purpose of this study is to reduce the pores and improve the optical properties of PIG via the densification process. Further, it also aims to understand the effect of the pores on the increase in the efficacy of the PIGs based on the scattering events.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2016 (3)

2015 (6)

2014 (4)

C. Lin and R. Liu, “Thermal effects in (oxy)nitride phosphors,” J. Sol. State. Light. 1, 1–13 (2014).

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

Y. K. Lee, Y. H. Kim, J. Heo, W. B. Im, and W. J. Chung, “Control of chromaticity by phosphor in glasses with low temperature sintered silicate glasses for LED applications,” Opt. Lett. 39(14), 4084–4087 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Pabst, J. Hostaša, and L. Esposito, “Porosity and pore size dependence of the real in-line transmission of YAG and alumina ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 34(11), 2745–2756 (2014).

2013 (2)

W. Pabst and J. Hostasa, “A closed-form expression approximating the MIE solution for the real-in-line transmission of ceramics with spherical inclusions or pores,” Ceram. Silik. 57(2), 151–161 (2013).

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

2012 (3)

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

2011 (1)

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

2010 (2)

R. Boulesteix, A. Maître, J.-F. Baumard, Y. Rabinovitch, and F. Reynaud, “Light scattering by pores in transparent Nd:YAG ceramics for lasers: correlations between microstructure and optical properties,” Opt. Express 18(14), 14992–15002 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Fujita, Y. Umayahara, and S. Tanabe, “Influence of light scattering on luminous efficacy in Ce:YAG glass-ceramic phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 118(2), 128–131 (2010).

2008 (2)

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

M. Bürmen, F. Pernuš, and B. Likar, “LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(12), 122002 (2008).

2006 (2)

N. T. Tran, C. G. Campbell, and F. G. Shi, “Study of particle size effects on an optical fiber sensor response examined with Monte Carlo simulation,” Appl. Opt. 45(29), 7557–7566 (2006).
[PubMed]

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

2005 (1)

M. Pascual, A. Duran, and M. Prado, “A new method for determining fixed viscosity points of glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 46(5), 512–520 (2005).

2002 (2)

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

1999 (1)

H. Iba, T. Naganuma, K. Matsumura, and Y. Kagawa, “Fabrication of transparent continuous oxynitride glass fiber-reinforced glass matrix composite,” J. Mater. Sci. 34(23), 5701–5705 (1999).

1998 (1)

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).

1996 (1)

S. Yoo, J. Groza, T. Sudarshan, and K. Yamazaki, “Diffusion bonding of boron nitride on metal substrates by plasma activated sintering (PAS) process,” Scr. Mater. 34(9), 1383–1386 (1996).

Anselmi-Tamburini, U.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Assouline, S.

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).

Baumard, J.-F.

Bergenek, K.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Boulesteix, R.

Bucella, S.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Bürmen, M.

M. Bürmen, F. Pernuš, and B. Likar, “LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(12), 122002 (2008).

Campbell, C. G.

Cao, L.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Cheang, P.

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, D.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

Chen, H.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

Chen, J. M.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cho, Y.

Choi, S.

Chung, W.

Chung, W. J.

Coates, P. D.

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Cui, Z.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Deng, D.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Dong, F.

Z. Wang, B. Shen, F. Dong, S. Wang, and W. S. Su, “A First-principles study of the electronic structure and mechanical and optical properties of CaAlSiN3,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(22), 15065–15070 (2015).
[PubMed]

Duran, A.

M. Pascual, A. Duran, and M. Prado, “A new method for determining fixed viscosity points of glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 46(5), 512–520 (2005).

Eisert, D.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Esposito, L.

W. Pabst, J. Hostaša, and L. Esposito, “Porosity and pore size dependence of the real in-line transmission of YAG and alumina ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 34(11), 2745–2756 (2014).

Feng, Y.

Francini, R.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Fujita, S.

S. Fujita, Y. Umayahara, and S. Tanabe, “Influence of light scattering on luminous efficacy in Ce:YAG glass-ceramic phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 118(2), 128–131 (2010).

Groza, J.

S. Yoo, J. Groza, T. Sudarshan, and K. Yamazaki, “Diffusion bonding of boron nitride on metal substrates by plasma activated sintering (PAS) process,” Scr. Mater. 34(9), 1383–1386 (1996).

Gu, Y. W.

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

Hannah, M.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Heo, J.

Herrmann, A.

Hintzen, H. T.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hirosaki, N.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Hostasa, J.

W. Pabst and J. Hostasa, “A closed-form expression approximating the MIE solution for the real-in-line transmission of ceramics with spherical inclusions or pores,” Ceram. Silik. 57(2), 151–161 (2013).

Hostaša, J.

W. Pabst, J. Hostaša, and L. Esposito, “Porosity and pore size dependence of the real in-line transmission of YAG and alumina ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 34(11), 2745–2756 (2014).

Hu, S. F.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Hua, Y.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Huang, F.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

Huang, L.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Huang, Z.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Iba, H.

H. Iba, T. Naganuma, K. Matsumura, and Y. Kagawa, “Fabrication of transparent continuous oxynitride glass fiber-reinforced glass matrix composite,” J. Mater. Sci. 34(23), 5701–5705 (1999).

Im, W.

Im, W. B.

Iqbal, F.

Jang, J.

Jermann, F.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Jia, G.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Joseph, R.

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kagawa, Y.

H. Iba, T. Naganuma, K. Matsumura, and Y. Kagawa, “Fabrication of transparent continuous oxynitride glass fiber-reinforced glass matrix composite,” J. Mater. Sci. 34(23), 5701–5705 (1999).

Kelso, J.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Kho, K. A.

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

Kim, E.

Kim, H.

Kim, J.

O. Kwon, J. Kim, J. Jang, H. Yang, and Y. Cho, “White luminescence characteristics of red/green silicate phosphor-glass thick film layers printed on glass substrate,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(3), 938–945 (2016).

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

Kim, S.

Kim, Y.

Kim, Y. H.

Kwon, O.

Lee, Y. K.

Li, F.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Li, S.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Likar, B.

M. Bürmen, F. Pernuš, and B. Likar, “LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(12), 122002 (2008).

Lin, C.

C. Lin and R. Liu, “Thermal effects in (oxy)nitride phosphors,” J. Sol. State. Light. 1, 1–13 (2014).

Lin, H.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

Y. Tang, S. Zhou, C. Chen, X. Yi, Y. Feng, H. Lin, and S. Zhang, “Composite phase ceramic phosphor of Al2O3-Ce:YAG for high efficiency light emitting,” Opt. Express 23(14), 17923–17928 (2015).
[PubMed]

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

Lin, Z.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

Linkov, A.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Liu, R.

C. Lin and R. Liu, “Thermal effects in (oxy)nitride phosphors,” J. Sol. State. Light. 1, 1–13 (2014).

Liu, R. S.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Liu, X.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Loh, N. H.

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

Lu, T.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Lu, Z.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Ma, B.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Ma, H.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Maître, A.

Martyn, M. T.

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Matsumura, K.

H. Iba, T. Naganuma, K. Matsumura, and Y. Kagawa, “Fabrication of transparent continuous oxynitride glass fiber-reinforced glass matrix composite,” J. Mater. Sci. 34(23), 5701–5705 (1999).

McGregor, W. J.

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Mont, F.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

Munir, Z. A.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Naganuma, T.

H. Iba, T. Naganuma, K. Matsumura, and Y. Kagawa, “Fabrication of transparent continuous oxynitride glass fiber-reinforced glass matrix composite,” J. Mater. Sci. 34(23), 5701–5705 (1999).

Nishimura, T.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Ouyang, G.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Pabst, W.

W. Pabst, J. Hostaša, and L. Esposito, “Porosity and pore size dependence of the real in-line transmission of YAG and alumina ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 34(11), 2745–2756 (2014).

W. Pabst and J. Hostasa, “A closed-form expression approximating the MIE solution for the real-in-line transmission of ceramics with spherical inclusions or pores,” Ceram. Silik. 57(2), 151–161 (2013).

Pachler, P.

Pascual, M.

M. Pascual, A. Duran, and M. Prado, “A new method for determining fixed viscosity points of glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 46(5), 512–520 (2005).

Pernuš, F.

M. Bürmen, F. Pernuš, and B. Likar, “LED light sources: a survey of quality-affecting factors and methods for their assessment,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 19(12), 122002 (2008).

Pietrantoni, S.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Prado, M.

M. Pascual, A. Duran, and M. Prado, “A new method for determining fixed viscosity points of glasses,” Phys. Chem. Glasses 46(5), 512–520 (2005).

Qi, J.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Rabinovitch, Y.

Raukas, M.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Reynaud, F.

Riello, P.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Rouault, Y.

Y. Rouault and S. Assouline, “A probabilistic approach towards modeling the relationships between particle and pore size distributions: the multicomponent packed sphere case,” Powder Technol. 96(1), 33–41 (1998).

Rüssel, C.

Schubert, E.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

Schubert, M.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

Shen, B.

Z. Wang, B. Shen, F. Dong, S. Wang, and W. S. Su, “A First-principles study of the electronic structure and mechanical and optical properties of CaAlSiN3,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(22), 15065–15070 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sheu, H. S.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Shi, F. G.

Siegel, R.

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

Sohn, I.

Stough, M.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Su, W. S.

Z. Wang, B. Shen, F. Dong, S. Wang, and W. S. Su, “A First-principles study of the electronic structure and mechanical and optical properties of CaAlSiN3,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(22), 15065–15070 (2015).
[PubMed]

Sudarshan, T.

S. Yoo, J. Groza, T. Sudarshan, and K. Yamazaki, “Diffusion bonding of boron nitride on metal substrates by plasma activated sintering (PAS) process,” Scr. Mater. 34(9), 1383–1386 (1996).

Sung, A.

Tanabe, S.

S. Fujita, Y. Umayahara, and S. Tanabe, “Influence of light scattering on luminous efficacy in Ce:YAG glass-ceramic phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 118(2), 128–131 (2010).

Tang, D.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Tang, Y.

Tanner, K. E.

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Tor, S. B.

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

Tran, N. T.

Umayahara, Y.

S. Fujita, Y. Umayahara, and S. Tanabe, “Influence of light scattering on luminous efficacy in Ce:YAG glass-ceramic phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 118(2), 128–131 (2010).

Unithrattil, S.

Wang, B.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

Wang, H.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Wang, S.

Z. Wang, B. Shen, F. Dong, S. Wang, and W. S. Su, “A First-principles study of the electronic structure and mechanical and optical properties of CaAlSiN3,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(22), 15065–15070 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, B. Shen, F. Dong, S. Wang, and W. S. Su, “A First-principles study of the electronic structure and mechanical and optical properties of CaAlSiN3,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(22), 15065–15070 (2015).
[PubMed]

Wei, G.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Wei, N.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Wirth, R.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Xie, R.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Xu, J.

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

Xu, S.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Yamazaki, K.

S. Yoo, J. Groza, T. Sudarshan, and K. Yamazaki, “Diffusion bonding of boron nitride on metal substrates by plasma activated sintering (PAS) process,” Scr. Mater. 34(9), 1383–1386 (1996).

Yang, H.

Yeh, C. W.

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yi, X.

Yie, H.

Yoo, S.

S. Yoo, J. Groza, T. Sudarshan, and K. Yamazaki, “Diffusion bonding of boron nitride on metal substrates by plasma activated sintering (PAS) process,” Scr. Mater. 34(9), 1383–1386 (1996).

Yu, Y.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

Zamengo, L.

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

Zhang, R.

R. Zhang, H. Lin, Y. Yu, D. Chen, J. Xu, and Y. Wang, “A new-generation color converter for high-power white LED: transparent Ce3+:YAG phosphor-in-glass,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 158–164 (2014).

Zhang, S.

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

Zhao, S.

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

Zheng, Y.

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Zhou, S.

Zhu, Q.

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

Zink, N.

M. Raukas, G. Wei, K. Bergenek, J. Kelso, N. Zink, Y. Zheng, M. Hannah, M. Stough, R. Wirth, A. Linkov, F. Jermann, and D. Eisert, “Luminescent ceramics for LED conversion,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 795415 (2011).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biomaterials (2)

R. Joseph, W. J. McGregor, M. T. Martyn, K. E. Tanner, and P. D. Coates, “Effect of hydroxyapatite morphology/surface area on the rheology and processability of hydroxyapatite filled polyethylene composites,” Biomaterials 23(21), 4295–4302 (2002).
[PubMed]

Y. W. Gu, N. H. Loh, K. A. Kho, S. B. Tor, and P. Cheang, “Spark plasma sintering of hydroxyapatite powders,” Biomaterials 23(1), 37–43 (2002).
[PubMed]

Ceram. Silik. (1)

W. Pabst and J. Hostasa, “A closed-form expression approximating the MIE solution for the real-in-line transmission of ceramics with spherical inclusions or pores,” Ceram. Silik. 57(2), 151–161 (2013).

ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. (1)

M. Raukas, J. Kelso, Y. Zheng, K. Bergenek, D. Eisert, A. Linkov, and F. Jermann, “Ceramic phosphors for light conversion in LEDs,” ECS J. Solid. State Sci. Technol. 2(2), R3168–R3176 (2013).

J. Alloys Compd. (2)

Z. Lin, H. Lin, J. Xu, F. Huang, H. Chen, B. Wang, and Y. Wang, “Highly thermal-stable warm w-LED based on Ce:YAG PiG stacked with a red phosphor layer,” J. Alloys Compd. 649(15), 661–665 (2015).

W. Zhang, T. Lu, N. Wei, Y. Wang, B. Ma, F. Li, Z. Lu, and J. Qi, “Assessment of light scattering by pores in Nd:YAG transparent ceramics,” J. Alloys Compd. 520, 36–41 (2012).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

C. W. Yeh, W. T. Chen, R. S. Liu, S. F. Hu, H. S. Sheu, J. M. Chen, and H. T. Hintzen, “Origin of thermal degradation of Sr2-xSi5N8:Eux phosphors in air for light-emitting diodes,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(34), 14108–14117 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

F. Mont, J. Kim, M. Schubert, E. Schubert, and R. Siegel, “High-refractive-index TiO2-nanoparticle-loaded encapsulants for light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(8), 083120 (2008).

J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. (1)

S. Fujita, Y. Umayahara, and S. Tanabe, “Influence of light scattering on luminous efficacy in Ce:YAG glass-ceramic phosphor,” J. Ceram. Soc. Jpn. 118(2), 128–131 (2010).

J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. (2)

W. Pabst, J. Hostaša, and L. Esposito, “Porosity and pore size dependence of the real in-line transmission of YAG and alumina ceramics,” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 34(11), 2745–2756 (2014).

P. Riello, S. Bucella, L. Zamengo, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, R. Francini, S. Pietrantoni, and Z. A. Munir, “Erbium-doped LAS glass ceramics prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS),” J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 26(15), 3301–3306 (2006).

J. Lumin. (1)

Z. Cui, G. Jia, D. Deng, Y. Hua, S. Zhao, L. Huang, H. Wang, H. Ma, and S. Xu, “Synthesis and luminescence properties of glass ceramics containing MSiO3:Eu2+ (M=Ca, Sr, Ba) phosphors for white LED,” J. Lumin. 132(1), 153–160 (2012).

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

S. Li, Q. Zhu, D. Tang, X. Liu, G. Ouyang, L. Cao, N. Hirosaki, T. Nishimura, Z. Huang, and R. Xie, “Al2O3-YAG:Ce composite phosphor ceramic: a thermally robust and efficient color converter for solid state laser lighting,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 4(37), 8648–8654 (2016).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Particle size distributions of the glass frit, Y phosphor, and R phosphor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) DSC curves and (b) mass change curves of the glass frit, phosphor, and glass with phosphor.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Viscosity of the glass frit and the glass with each phosphor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of cross-sections of PIGs: (a) Y1 and (b) R1.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Pore size and porosity of the glass plate with (a) Y_PIGs and (b) R_PIGs.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Pore size distribution of the glass plate with (a) Y_PIGs and (b) R_PIGs.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmittance of the glass plate with (a) Y_PIGs and (b) R_PIGs.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Intensity of blue light from the LED chip with (a) yellow light and (b) red light emitted by the phosphor.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Color chromaticity of (a) Y_PIGs and (b) R_PIGs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Relationship between the luminous efficacy, CRI, and scattering coefficient for (a) Y_PIGs and (b) R_PIGs.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 The effect of pore properties based on the heating rate on the scattering angle and interaction between blue light and phosphors: (a) SPS PIG with a low porosity and high densification at a slow heating rate, (b) SPS PIG with a high porosity and insufficient densification at fast heating rate, and (c) Ref PIG with excessive scattering.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Particle size, density, and surface area of the glass frit and the phosphors.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Sintering conditions used for the preparation of PIGs.

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