Abstract

Reverse type-I core/shell quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much interest owing to their much more tunable emissions as compared with type-I QDs, thus benefiting full color display. However, the choices of the reverse type-I material are quite limited and their photoluminescence quantum yields (QYs) are still low, which restricts their further applications in optoelectronics. Here, we present the synthesis of highly bright CdxZn1-xS/CdSe reverse type-II QDs with a wide tunable emission ranging from 450 to 670 nm and a quantum yield of 61% at 638 nm. Two red quantum dot light-emitting diodes based on Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe and CdSe/Cd0.1Zn0.9S have been fabricated to study the influence of energy level alignment on the device performances. The luminance and external quantum efficiency of the Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe device (11412 cd/m2 and 8.23%) are much higher than that of CdSe/Cd0.1Zn0.9S one, despite its lower PL QY. Evidence shows that the reverse type-I structure benefits the charge injection into the emitting material without overcoming the large physical barrier of the outer shell, thus leading to notable improvements in device performances.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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  27. K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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  29. H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  30. W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  31. Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).
  32. X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
    [PubMed]
  33. P. Yang, M. Ando, and N. Murase, “Highly luminescent CdSe/CdxZn1-xS quantum dots coated with thickness-controlled SiO2 shell through silanization,” Langmuir 27(15), 9535–9540 (2011).
    [PubMed]
  34. J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
    [PubMed]
  35. V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
    [PubMed]
  36. J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
    [PubMed]
  37. W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-scale one-pot synthesis of highly luminescent blue emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5307–5313 (2008).
  38. H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).
  39. H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
    [PubMed]

2017 (1)

Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

2016 (5)

P. Maity, T. Debnath, T. Banerjee, A. Das, and H. N. Ghosh, “Charge delocalization in the cascade band structure CdS/CdSe and CdS/CdTe core–shell sensitized with Re(I)–polypyridyl complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 10051–10061 (2016).

W. Sukkabot, “Atomistic tight-binding computations of excitonic fine structure splitting in CdSe/ZnSe type-I and ZnSe/CdSe invert type-I core/shell nanocrystals,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 47, 57–61 (2016).

K. V. Vokhmintcev, P. S. Samokhvalov, and I. Nabiev, “Charge transfer and separation in photoexcited quantum dot-based systems,” Nano Today 11, 189–211 (2016).

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

2015 (7)

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Bao and M. G. Bawendi, “A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer,” Nature 523(7558), 67–70 (2015).
[PubMed]

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

P. Maity, T. Debnath, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast charge carrier delocalization in CdSe/CdS quasi-type II and CdS/CdSe inverted type I core–shell: a structural analysis through carrier-quenching study,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 26202–26211 (2015).

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
[PubMed]

2014 (6)

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Kumar, P. B. Barman, and R. R. Singh, “Low-Temperature growth of inverted hexagonal ZnS/CdS quantum dots: functional and luminescence properties,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 675–681 (2014).

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

2013 (6)

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[PubMed]

2012 (3)

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
[PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Z. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Cheng, Y. Hou, J. Hua, and X. Zhong, “Highly efficient inverted type-I CdS/CdSe core/shell structure QD-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3982–3991 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

P. Yang, M. Ando, and N. Murase, “Highly luminescent CdSe/CdxZn1-xS quantum dots coated with thickness-controlled SiO2 shell through silanization,” Langmuir 27(15), 9535–9540 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (2)

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
[PubMed]

F. Du, H. Zhang, X. Du, J. Zhu, and X. Zhong, “Controllable synthesis and optical properties of CdS/CdSe hetero-nanostructures with various dimensionalities,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 118–124 (2010).

2009 (1)

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

2008 (2)

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
[PubMed]

W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-scale one-pot synthesis of highly luminescent blue emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5307–5313 (2008).

2005 (2)

X. Zhong, R. Xie, Y. Zhang, T. Basché, and W. Knoll, “High-quality violet- to red-emitting ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 17, 4038–4042 (2005).

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
[PubMed]

2003 (1)

J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
[PubMed]

2000 (1)

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
[PubMed]

1996 (1)

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).

Aerts, M.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

Alivisatos, A. P.

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
[PubMed]

A. P. Alivisatos, “Semiconductor clusters, nanocrystals, and quantum dots,” Science 271, 933–937 (1996).

Ando, M.

P. Yang, M. Ando, and N. Murase, “Highly luminescent CdSe/CdxZn1-xS quantum dots coated with thickness-controlled SiO2 shell through silanization,” Langmuir 27(15), 9535–9540 (2011).
[PubMed]

Bae, W. K.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[PubMed]

W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-scale one-pot synthesis of highly luminescent blue emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5307–5313 (2008).

Bai, X.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Bals, S.

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
[PubMed]

Banerjee, T.

P. Maity, T. Debnath, T. Banerjee, A. Das, and H. N. Ghosh, “Charge delocalization in the cascade band structure CdS/CdSe and CdS/CdTe core–shell sensitized with Re(I)–polypyridyl complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 10051–10061 (2016).

Bao, J.

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Basché, T.

X. Zhong, R. Xie, Y. Zhang, T. Basché, and W. Knoll, “High-quality violet- to red-emitting ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 17, 4038–4042 (2005).

Bawendi, M. G.

J. Bao and M. G. Bawendi, “A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer,” Nature 523(7558), 67–70 (2015).
[PubMed]

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
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Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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Berthe, M.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
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Biadala, L.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

Buil, S.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
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Bulovic, V.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
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Canneson, D.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

Cao, H.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

Capiod, P.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
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Caruge, J. M.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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Chang, J. H.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
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Char, K.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
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J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-scale one-pot synthesis of highly luminescent blue emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5307–5313 (2008).

Chauhan, V. P.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
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Chen, C.

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, L.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, O.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Chen, X.

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
[PubMed]

Chen, Z.

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Cheng, K.

Z. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Cheng, Y. Hou, J. Hua, and X. Zhong, “Highly efficient inverted type-I CdS/CdSe core/shell structure QD-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3982–3991 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cheng, Y. Y.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Cho, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Cho, I.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cho, J.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

Cho, K.-S.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Choi, B. L.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Cui, F.

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
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Cui, J.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Dai, X.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

Das, A.

P. Maity, T. Debnath, T. Banerjee, A. Das, and H. N. Ghosh, “Charge delocalization in the cascade band structure CdS/CdSe and CdS/CdTe core–shell sensitized with Re(I)–polypyridyl complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 10051–10061 (2016).

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

Debnath, T.

P. Maity, T. Debnath, T. Banerjee, A. Das, and H. N. Ghosh, “Charge delocalization in the cascade band structure CdS/CdSe and CdS/CdTe core–shell sensitized with Re(I)–polypyridyl complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 10051–10061 (2016).

P. Maity, T. Debnath, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast charge carrier delocalization in CdSe/CdS quasi-type II and CdS/CdSe inverted type I core–shell: a structural analysis through carrier-quenching study,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 26202–26211 (2015).

Delerue, C.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
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Donega, Cde. M.

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
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F. Du, H. Zhang, X. Du, J. Zhu, and X. Zhong, “Controllable synthesis and optical properties of CdS/CdSe hetero-nanostructures with various dimensionalities,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 118–124 (2010).

Du, X.

F. Du, H. Zhang, X. Du, J. Zhu, and X. Zhong, “Controllable synthesis and optical properties of CdS/CdSe hetero-nanostructures with various dimensionalities,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 118–124 (2010).

Dubertret, B.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
[PubMed]

El-Sayed, M. A.

C. Burda, X. Chen, R. Narayanan, and M. A. El-Sayed, “Chemistry and properties of nanocrystals of different shapes,” Chem. Rev. 105(4), 1025–1102 (2005).
[PubMed]

Evers, W. H.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
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Fang, W.

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
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Fukumura, D.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
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Ghosh, H. N.

P. Maity, T. Debnath, T. Banerjee, A. Das, and H. N. Ghosh, “Charge delocalization in the cascade band structure CdS/CdSe and CdS/CdTe core–shell sensitized with Re(I)–polypyridyl complex,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120, 10051–10061 (2016).

P. Maity, T. Debnath, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast charge carrier delocalization in CdSe/CdS quasi-type II and CdS/CdSe inverted type I core–shell: a structural analysis through carrier-quenching study,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 26202–26211 (2015).

Gong, J.

Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

Grandidier, B.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
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Groeneveld, E.

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
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Guo, W.

J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
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Halpert, J. E.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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Han, H.-S.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
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Han, J. Y.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Harris, D. K.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
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He, X.

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hermier, J. P.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

Hermier, J.-P.

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
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Hou, Y.

Z. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Cheng, Y. Hou, J. Hua, and X. Zhong, “Highly efficient inverted type-I CdS/CdSe core/shell structure QD-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3982–3991 (2012).
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Hua, J.

Z. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Cheng, Y. Hou, J. Hua, and X. Zhong, “Highly efficient inverted type-I CdS/CdSe core/shell structure QD-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3982–3991 (2012).
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Hyvonen, J.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Jain, R. K.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Jang, E.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Javaux, C.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

Jeong, B. G.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

Jin, X.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jin, Y.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

Johnson, M. B.

J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
[PubMed]

Joo, W.-J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Kadavanich, A.

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
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E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
[PubMed]

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J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
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Kim, H.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

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B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
[PubMed]

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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

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B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
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K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[PubMed]

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W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
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J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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Lai, R.

Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
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W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
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J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
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K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lee, D. C.

B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
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K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Lee, J.-H.

K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
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K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.

J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-scale one-pot synthesis of highly luminescent blue emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5307–5313 (2008).

Lee, S. J.

K.-S. Cho, E. K. Lee, W.-J. Joo, E. Jang, T.-H. Kim, S. J. Lee, S.-J. Kwon, J. Y. Han, B.-K. Kim, B. L. Choi, and J. M. Kim, “High-performance crosslinked colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 3, 341–345 (2009).

Lefferts, M.

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
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J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
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H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
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Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
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Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

Li, Q. H.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Li, Y.

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
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X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
[PubMed]

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
[PubMed]

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H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
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Luo, S.

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Luo, S. L.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Luo, X.

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Luo, X. B.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

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B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
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P. Maity, T. Debnath, and H. N. Ghosh, “Ultrafast charge carrier delocalization in CdSe/CdS quasi-type II and CdS/CdSe inverted type I core–shell: a structural analysis through carrier-quenching study,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119, 26202–26211 (2015).

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X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
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Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

Meng, R.

Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
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J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
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W. K. Bae, M. K. Nam, K. Char, and S. Lee, “Gram-scale one-pot synthesis of highly luminescent blue emitting Cd1−xZnxS/ZnS nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 20, 5307–5313 (2008).

Nan, W.

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
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H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
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Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
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X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
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W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
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Park, M.

J. Kwak, J. Lim, M. Park, S. Lee, K. Char, and C. Lee, “High-power genuine ultraviolet light-emitting diodes based on colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots,” Nano Lett. 15(6), 3793–3799 (2015).
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J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
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B. G. Jeong, Y.-S. Park, J. H. Chang, I. Cho, J. K. Kim, H. Kim, K. Char, J. Cho, V. I. Klimov, P. Park, D. C. Lee, and W. K. Bae, “Colloidal spherical quantum wells with near-unity photoluminescence quantum yield and suppressed blinking,” ACS Nano 10, 9297–9305 (2016).
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Peng, X.

Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
[PubMed]

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
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J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
[PubMed]

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
[PubMed]

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W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

Pu, C.

Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

Qian, L.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Qin, H.

Y. Niu, C. Pu, R. Lai, R. Meng, W. Lin, H. Qin, and X. Peng, “One-pot/three-step synthesis of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals with thick shells,” Nano Res. 10, 1149–1162 (2017).

H. Qin, Y. Niu, R. Meng, X. Lin, R. Lai, W. Fang, and X. Peng, “Single-dot spectroscopy of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: nonblinking and correlation with ensemble measurements,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(1), 179–187 (2014).
[PubMed]

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
[PubMed]

Qin, Y.

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Qin, Y. C.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Quelin, X.

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
[PubMed]

Quélin, X.

D. Canneson, L. Biadala, S. Buil, X. Quélin, C. Javaux, B. Dubertret, and J. P. Hermier, “Blinking suppression and biexcitonic emission in thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals at cryogenic temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 035303 (2014).

Rowland, C. E.

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

Samokhvalov, P. S.

K. V. Vokhmintcev, P. S. Samokhvalov, and I. Nabiev, “Charge transfer and separation in photoexcited quantum dot-based systems,” Nano Today 11, 189–211 (2016).

Schaller, R. D.

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

Scher, E.

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
[PubMed]

Schins, J. M.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

Shamirian, A.

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

Shao, L.

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Shen, H.

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Shirasaki, Y.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).

Siebbeles, L. D. A.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

Singh, R. R.

H. Kumar, P. B. Barman, and R. R. Singh, “Low-Temperature growth of inverted hexagonal ZnS/CdS quantum dots: functional and luminescence properties,” J. Electron. Mater. 44, 675–681 (2014).

Snee, P. T.

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

Song, W.-S.

K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[PubMed]

Song, Y.

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Spinicelli, P.

B. Mahler, P. Spinicelli, S. Buil, X. Quelin, J.-P. Hermier, and B. Dubertret, “Towards non-blinking colloidal quantum dots,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 659–664 (2008).
[PubMed]

Sukkabot, W.

W. Sukkabot, “Atomistic tight-binding computations of excitonic fine structure splitting in CdSe/ZnSe type-I and ZnSe/CdSe invert type-I core/shell nanocrystals,” Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 47, 57–61 (2016).

Sun, W.

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Sun, W. F.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Supran, G. J.

Y. Shirasaki, G. J. Supran, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulovic, “Emergence of colloidal quantum-dot light-emitting technologies,” Nat. Photonics 7, 13–23 (2013).

Titov, A.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Tyrakowski, C. M.

C. M. Tyrakowski, A. Shamirian, C. E. Rowland, H. Shen, A. Das, R. D. Schaller, and P. T. Snee, “Bright type II quantum dots,” Chem. Mater. 27, 7276–7281 (2015).

van der Zant, H. S. J.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

van Overbeek, C.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

Van Tendeloo, G.

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
[PubMed]

Vanmaekelbergh, D.

W. H. Evers, J. M. Schins, M. Aerts, A. Kulkarni, P. Capiod, M. Berthe, B. Grandidier, C. Delerue, H. S. J. van der Zant, C. van Overbeek, J. L. Peters, D. Vanmaekelbergh, and L. D. A. Siebbeles, “High charge mobility in two-dimensional percolative networks of PbSe quantum dots connected by atomic bonds,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8195 (2015).
[PubMed]

Vokhmintcev, K. V.

K. V. Vokhmintcev, P. S. Samokhvalov, and I. Nabiev, “Charge transfer and separation in photoexcited quantum dot-based systems,” Nano Today 11, 189–211 (2016).

Wang, A.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

Wang, H.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, H. N.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Wang, J.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

Wang, S.

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wang, Y. A.

J. J. Li, Y. A. Wang, W. Guo, J. C. Keay, T. D. Mishima, M. B. Johnson, and X. Peng, “Large-scale synthesis of nearly monodisperse CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals using air-stable reagents via successive ion layer adsorption and reaction,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(41), 12567–12575 (2003).
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O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wei, T.

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Wei, T. H.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Wei, T.-h.

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

Wickham, J.

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
[PubMed]

Witteman, L.

E. Groeneveld, L. Witteman, M. Lefferts, X. Ke, S. Bals, G. Van Tendeloo, and Cde. M. Donega, “Tailoring ZnSe-CdSe colloidal quantum dots via cation exchange: from core/shell to alloy nanocrystals,” ACS Nano 7(9), 7913–7930 (2013).
[PubMed]

Wong, C.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Woo, H.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
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Wood, V.

V. Wood, M. J. Panzer, J. M. Caruge, J. E. Halpert, M. G. Bawendi, and V. Bulović, “Air-stable operation of transparent, colloidal quantum dot based LEDs with a unipolar device architecture,” Nano Lett. 10(1), 24–29 (2010).
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Xie, R.

X. Zhong, R. Xie, Y. Zhang, T. Basché, and W. Knoll, “High-quality violet- to red-emitting ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 17, 4038–4042 (2005).

Xu, H. J.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

Yang, H.

K.-H. Lee, J.-H. Lee, W.-S. Song, H. Ko, C. Lee, J.-H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Highly efficient, color-pure, color-stable blue quantum dot light-emitting devices,” ACS Nano 7(8), 7295–7302 (2013).
[PubMed]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, M. Ando, and N. Murase, “Highly luminescent CdSe/CdxZn1-xS quantum dots coated with thickness-controlled SiO2 shell through silanization,” Langmuir 27(15), 9535–9540 (2011).
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Yang, W.

X. Peng, L. Manna, W. Yang, J. Wickham, E. Scher, A. Kadavanich, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Shape control of CdSe nanocrystals,” Nature 404(6773), 59–61 (2000).
[PubMed]

Yang, X.

Q. Li, X. Jin, X. Yang, C. Chen, Z. Chen, Y. Qin, T.-h. Wei, and W. Sun, “Reducing the excess energy offset in organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells: Toward faster electron transfer,” Appl. Catal. B 162, 524–531 (2015).

Yang, Y.

Q. H. Li, X. Jin, Y. Yang, H. N. Wang, H. J. Xu, Y. Y. Cheng, T. H. Wei, Y. C. Qin, X. B. Luo, W. F. Sun, and S. L. Luo, “Nd2(S, Se, Te)3 colloidal quantum dots: synthesis, energy level alignment, charge transfer dynamics, and their applications to solar cells,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 26, 254–266 (2016).

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

W. Nan, Y. Niu, H. Qin, F. Cui, Y. Yang, R. Lai, W. Lin, and X. Peng, “Crystal structure control of zinc-blende CdSe/CdS core/shell nanocrystals: synthesis and structure-dependent optical properties,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134(48), 19685–19693 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yoon, D. Y.

J. Kwak, W. K. Bae, D. Lee, I. Park, J. Lim, M. Park, H. Cho, H. Woo, D. Y. Yoon, K. Char, S. Lee, and C. Lee, “Bright and efficient full-color colloidal quantum dot light-emitting diodes using an inverted device structure,” Nano Lett. 12(5), 2362–2366 (2012).
[PubMed]

Yu, J.

Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

Yuan, Y.

X. Jin, W. Sun, Z. Chen, T. Wei, C. Chen, X. He, Y. Yuan, Y. Li, and Q. Li, “Exciton generation/dissociation/charge-transfer enhancement in inorganic/organic hybrid solar cells by robust single nanocrystalline LnPxOy (Ln = Eu, Y) doping,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 6(11), 8771–8781 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Z. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Cheng, Y. Hou, J. Hua, and X. Zhong, “Highly efficient inverted type-I CdS/CdSe core/shell structure QD-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3982–3991 (2012).
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F. Du, H. Zhang, X. Du, J. Zhu, and X. Zhong, “Controllable synthesis and optical properties of CdS/CdSe hetero-nanostructures with various dimensionalities,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 121, 118–124 (2010).

Zhang, J.

X. Jin, W. Sun, S. Luo, L. Shao, J. Zhang, X. Luo, T. Wei, Y. Qin, Y. Song, and Q. Li, “Energy gradient architectured praseodymium chalcogenide quantum dot solar cells: towards unidirectionally funneling energy transfer,” J. Mater. Chem. A Mater. Energy Sustain. 3, 23876–23887 (2015).

Zhang, Y.

X. Zhong, R. Xie, Y. Zhang, T. Basché, and W. Knoll, “High-quality violet- to red-emitting ZnSe/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals,” Chem. Mater. 17, 4038–4042 (2005).

Zhang, Z.

X. Dai, Z. Zhang, Y. Jin, Y. Niu, H. Cao, X. Liang, L. Chen, J. Wang, and X. Peng, “Solution-processed, high-performance light-emitting diodes based on quantum dots,” Nature 515(7525), 96–99 (2014).
[PubMed]

Zhao, J.

O. Chen, J. Zhao, V. P. Chauhan, J. Cui, C. Wong, D. K. Harris, H. Wei, H.-S. Han, D. Fukumura, R. K. Jain, and M. G. Bawendi, “Compact high-quality CdSe-CdS core-shell nanocrystals with narrow emission linewidths and suppressed blinking,” Nat. Mater. 12(5), 445–451 (2013).
[PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

H. Shen, X. Bai, A. Wang, H. Wang, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “High-efficient deep-blue light-emitting diodes by using high quality ZnxCd1-xS/ZnS core/shell quantum dots,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 2367–2373 (2014).

H. Shen, S. Wang, H. Wang, J. Niu, L. Qian, Y. Yang, A. Titov, J. Hyvonen, Y. Zheng, and L. S. Li, “Highly efficient blue-green quantum dot light-emitting diodes using stable low-cadmium quaternary-alloy ZnCdSSe/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(10), 4260–4265 (2013).
[PubMed]

Q. Li, H. Meng, P. Zhou, Y. Zheng, J. Wang, J. Yu, and J. Gong, “Zn1–xCdxS solid solutions with controlled bandgap and enhanced visible-light photocatalytic H2-production activity,” ACS Catal. 3, 882–889 (2013).

Zhong, X.

Z. Pan, H. Zhang, K. Cheng, Y. Hou, J. Hua, and X. Zhong, “Highly efficient inverted type-I CdS/CdSe core/shell structure QD-sensitized solar cells,” ACS Nano 6(5), 3982–3991 (2012).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 XRD patterns of the pure Cd0.1Zn0.9S with a diameter of 4.5 nm, Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe core/shell nanocrystals with CdSe shell thickness of 2 ML and 4 ML. The line XRD spectra correspond to bulk wurtzite Cd0.1Zn0.9S (bottom) and bulk zinc blende CdSe (top), respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) TEM image of Cd0.1Zn0.9S; (b) High resolution TEM image of Cd0.1Zn0.9S; (c) TEM image of Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe with two monlayer (2 ML) CdSe shell; (d) High resolution TEM image of Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe. Insets highlight the size distributions.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Digital photographs of Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe QD solutions with different CdSe shell thickness under the irradiation of a UV lamp. The absorption (b) and PL (c) spectra of the QDs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Time-resolved PL decays of the Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe core/shell QDs with 1 ML, 2 ML, 3 ML and 4 ML CdSe shell in n-hexane, excited at λ = 573, 602, 632 and 653 nm, respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The current density versus driving voltage of the electron-only (a) and the hole-only (b) devices.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of the device structure; (b) Cross-sectional TEM image of a typical device.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PL and EL spectra of the Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe (a) and CdSe/Cd0.1Zn0.9S (b) based LED; Evolution of EL spectra with driving voltages of the Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe (c) and CdSe/Cd0.1Zn0.9S (d) based devices.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Current density, luminance of the Cd0.1Zn0.9S/CdSe (a), CdSe/Cd0.1Zn0.9S (b) based devices; (c) EQEs of the two devices.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical parameters of the QDs.

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Table 2 Kinetic parameters of the QDs obtained from time-resolved PL decays.

Equations (2)

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I ( t ) = [ a 1 exp ( - t / τ 1 ) + a 2 exp ( - t / τ 2 ) ] F ( t )
τ = a 1 τ 1 2 + a 2 τ 2 2 a 1 τ 1 + a 2 τ 2

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