Abstract

Zinc selenide (ZnSe) is a promising mid-infrared waveguide material with a high refractive index and wide transparency. Optical quality ZnSe thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by RF sputtering and thermal evaporation, and characterized and compared for material and optical properties. Evaporated films were found to be denser and smoother than sputtered films. Rib waveguides were fabricated from these films and evaporated films exhibited losses as low as 0.6 dB/cm at wavelengths between 2.5 µm and 3.7 µm. The films were also used as isolation/lower cladding layers on Si with GeTe4 as the waveguide core and propagation losses were determined in this wavelength range.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  2. H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  3. D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Cheng, J. Lv, and F. Chen, “Mid-infrared ZnSe ridge waveguides fabricated by swift Kr8+ ion irradiation combined with precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2292–2299 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. J. R. Macdonald, R. R. Thomson, S. J. Beecher, N. D. Psaila, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of near-infrared waveguides in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4036–4038 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Jia and F. Chen, “Optical channel waveguides in ZnSe single crystal produced by proton implantation,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(4), 455–460 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. C. S. Riccardi, D. W. Hess, and B. Mizaikoff, “Surface-modified ZnSe waveguides for label-free infrared attenuated total reflection detection of DNA hybridization,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(23), 4906–4911 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, and S. K. Narayandass, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(22), 4777–4782 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  13. A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  16. W. Gao, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on vacuum evaporated zinc selenide thin film,” Proc. SPIE 7283, 72832L (2009).
    [Crossref]
  17. V. H. Méndez-García, M. López-López, and I. Hernández-Calderón, “ZnSe epitaxial films grown by MBE on nitrogen treated Si (111) substrates,” Superficies y vacío 8, 46–50 (1999).
  18. J. Midwinter, “On the use of optical waveguide techniques for internal reflection spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7(7), 339–344 (1971).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes and S. S. Saavedra, “Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(1), 28-A (2005).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, “Toward On-Chip Mid-Infrared Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 88(11), 5562–5573 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L. G. Carpenter, J. C. Gates, J. Butement, P. G. Smith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. S. Murugan, “Fabrication and characterization of high-contrast mid-infrared GeTe4 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2016–2019 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. M. Ohring, Film formation and structure. The material science of thin films, (Academic, 1991).
  23. V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875–882 (2004).
  24. S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).
  25. M. Özkan, N. Ekem, M. Z. Balbag, and S. Pat, “ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films deposition on Si substrate by thermionic vacuum arc.,” in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: J. Materials: Design and Applications, (Sage, 2012), pp.103–109.
    [Crossref]
  26. M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  27. D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, and R. E. Simpson, “Chalcogenide glasses for photonics device applications,” in Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics, Murugan, G. S., ed. (Research Signpost, 2010).
  28. D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(3), 539–542 (1964).
    [Crossref]
  29. R. K. Watts, M. de Wit, and W. C. Holton, “Nonoxide chalcogenide glass films for integrated optics,” Appl. Opt. 13(10), 2329–2332 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  32. D. R. Scherer, J. M. Hensley, K. R. Parameswaran, B. D. Casse, V. Singh, P. T. Lin, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, J. Giam-marco, J. Wilkinson, and I. Luzinov, “ Characterization of mid-infrared interband cascade laser coupling to a GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4M.4.
  33. A. Gutierrez-Arroyo, E. Baudet, L. Bodiou, J. Lemaitre, I. Hardy, F. Faijan, B. Bureau, V. Nazabal, and J. Charrier, “Optical characterization at 7.7 µm of an integrated platform based on chalcogenide waveguides for sensing applications in the mid-infrared,” Opt. Express 24(20), 23109–23117 (2016).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. G. M. Lohar, S. K. Shinde, and V. J. Fulari, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film,” J. Semicond. 35(11), 113001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. Mittal, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. S. Murugan, “High contrast GeTe4 waveguides for mid-infrared biomedical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89881A (2014).
    [Crossref]
  36. D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm−1 ≤ ω ≤ 4000 cm−1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2016 (2)

2015 (4)

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Mittal, A. Aghajani, L. G. Carpenter, J. C. Gates, J. Butement, P. G. Smith, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. S. Murugan, “Fabrication and characterization of high-contrast mid-infrared GeTe4 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 40(9), 2016–2019 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Cheng, J. Lv, and F. Chen, “Mid-infrared ZnSe ridge waveguides fabricated by swift Kr8+ ion irradiation combined with precise diamond blade dicing,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(10), 2292–2299 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

G. M. Lohar, S. K. Shinde, and V. J. Fulari, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film,” J. Semicond. 35(11), 113001 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Mittal, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. S. Murugan, “High contrast GeTe4 waveguides for mid-infrared biomedical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89881A (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

C. S. Riccardi, D. W. Hess, and B. Mizaikoff, “Surface-modified ZnSe waveguides for label-free infrared attenuated total reflection detection of DNA hybridization,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(23), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

W. Gao, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on vacuum evaporated zinc selenide thin film,” Proc. SPIE 7283, 72832L (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, V. Tarasov, A. Agarwal, L. Kimerling, N. Carlie, L. Petit, and K. Richardson, “Fabrication and testing of planar chalcogenide waveguide integrated microfluidic sensor,” Opt. Express 15(5), 2307–2314 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, and S. K. Narayandass, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(22), 4777–4782 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm−1 ≤ ω ≤ 4000 cm−1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875–882 (2004).

2003 (1)

D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. H. Méndez-García, M. López-López, and I. Hernández-Calderón, “ZnSe epitaxial films grown by MBE on nitrogen treated Si (111) substrates,” Superficies y vacío 8, 46–50 (1999).

1998 (1)

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
[Crossref]

1974 (1)

1971 (1)

J. Midwinter, “On the use of optical waveguide techniques for internal reflection spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7(7), 339–344 (1971).
[Crossref]

1964 (1)

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(3), 539–542 (1964).
[Crossref]

Agarwal, A.

Aghajani, A.

Amirtharaj, P. M.

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm−1 ≤ ω ≤ 4000 cm−1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Antohe, S.

S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).

Arai, K.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ascencio, J. A.

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ayers, J. E.

D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bacher, G.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Balan, V.

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875–882 (2004).

Barillot, M.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bastard, L.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Baudet, E.

Beecher, S. J.

Berry, P. A.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Billeton, T.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bodiou, L.

Bookey, H. T.

Broquin, J. E.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bureau, B.

Butement, J.

Caneve, L.

A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

Carlie, N.

Carpenter, L. G.

Chandler-Horowitz, D.

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm−1 ≤ ω ≤ 4000 cm−1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

Charrier, J.

Chen, F.

Cheng, Y.

Cho, M. W.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cook, G.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

de Wit, M.

Ding, J.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Doi, H.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Eisert, D.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Escalier, R.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Evans, J.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Faijan, F.

Focsha, A.

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Forchel, A.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Fulari, V. J.

G. M. Lohar, S. K. Shinde, and V. J. Fulari, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film,” J. Semicond. 35(11), 113001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gao, W.

W. Gao, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on vacuum evaporated zinc selenide thin film,” Proc. SPIE 7283, 72832L (2009).
[Crossref]

Garmire, E.

B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
[Crossref]

Gashin, P.

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gates, J. C.

Girtan, M.

S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).

Grillo, D. C.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gunshor, R. L.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Gutierrez-Arroyo, A.

Hahn, B.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hardy, I.

Hernández-Calderón, I.

V. H. Méndez-García, M. López-López, and I. Hernández-Calderón, “ZnSe epitaxial films grown by MBE on nitrogen treated Si (111) substrates,” Superficies y vacío 8, 46–50 (1999).

Hess, D. W.

C. S. Riccardi, D. W. Hess, and B. Mizaikoff, “Surface-modified ZnSe waveguides for label-free infrared attenuated total reflection detection of DNA hybridization,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(23), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Holton, W. C.

Hu, J.

Hua, G. C.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ion, L.

S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).

Irikura, M.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jain, F. C.

D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeon, H.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jia, Y.

Jung, H. D.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, S.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kar, A. K.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. R. Macdonald, R. R. Thomson, S. J. Beecher, N. D. Psaila, H. T. Bookey, and A. K. Kar, “Ultrafast laser inscription of near-infrared waveguides in polycrystalline ZnSe,” Opt. Lett. 35(23), 4036–4038 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katayama, K.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kim, B. G.

B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L.

Kirschner, V.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, M.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Koh, K. W.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kühnelt, M.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lancaster, A.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Leichtner, T.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lemaitre, J.

Leondar, V.

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Lohar, G. M.

G. M. Lohar, S. K. Shinde, and V. J. Fulari, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film,” J. Semicond. 35(11), 113001 (2014).
[Crossref]

López-López, M.

V. H. Méndez-García, M. López-López, and I. Hernández-Calderón, “ZnSe epitaxial films grown by MBE on nitrogen treated Si (111) substrates,” Superficies y vacío 8, 46–50 (1999).

Lv, J.

Macdonald, J. R.

Mangalaraj, D.

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, and S. K. Narayandass, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(22), 4777–4782 (2006).
[Crossref]

Marple, D. T. F.

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(3), 539–542 (1964).
[Crossref]

Matsubara, H.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Matsuoka, T.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

McDaniel, S. A.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Méndez-García, V. H.

V. H. Méndez-García, M. López-López, and I. Hernández-Calderón, “ZnSe epitaxial films grown by MBE on nitrogen treated Si (111) substrates,” Superficies y vacío 8, 46–50 (1999).

Midwinter, J.

J. Midwinter, “On the use of optical waveguide techniques for internal reflection spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7(7), 339–344 (1971).
[Crossref]

Mitsui, T.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mittal, V.

Mizaikoff, B.

M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, “Toward On-Chip Mid-Infrared Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 88(11), 5562–5573 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Riccardi, D. W. Hess, and B. Mizaikoff, “Surface-modified ZnSe waveguides for label-free infrared attenuated total reflection detection of DNA hybridization,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(23), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morikawa, K.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Murugan, G. S.

Nakamura, T.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nakanishi, F.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Narayandass, S. K.

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, and S. K. Narayandass, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(22), 4777–4782 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nazabal, V.

Nishine, S.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nurmikko, A. V.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Okada, Y.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Otsuka, N.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Parent, D. W.

D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
[Crossref]

Parent, G.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Petit, L.

Potlog, T.

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pradel, A.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875–882 (2004).

Psaila, N. D.

Riccardi, C. S.

C. S. Riccardi, D. W. Hess, and B. Mizaikoff, “Surface-modified ZnSe waveguides for label-free infrared attenuated total reflection detection of DNA hybridization,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(23), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Richardson, K.

Rizzo, A.

A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rodriguez, A.

D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saegusa, A.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Scaglione, S.

A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schabes-Retchkiman, P.

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shephard, J. D.

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
[Crossref]

Shinde, S. K.

G. M. Lohar, S. K. Shinde, and V. J. Fulari, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film,” J. Semicond. 35(11), 113001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shirakawa, T.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sieger, M.

M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, “Toward On-Chip Mid-Infrared Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 88(11), 5562–5573 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Simashkevich, A. V.

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Smith, P. G.

Tagliente, M. A.

A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

Takebe, T.

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tarasov, V.

Thomson, R. R.

Toma, O.

S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).

Velumani, S.

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

Venkatachalam, S.

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, and S. K. Narayandass, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(22), 4777–4782 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vigreux, C.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875–882 (2004).

Wagner, H. P.

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

Watts, R. K.

Wilkinson, J. S.

Xie, W.

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

Yao, T.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Zembutsu, S.

B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, Z.

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

Anal. Chem. (1)

M. Sieger and B. Mizaikoff, “Toward On-Chip Mid-Infrared Sensors,” Anal. Chem. 88(11), 5562–5573 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Analyst (Lond.) (1)

C. S. Riccardi, D. W. Hess, and B. Mizaikoff, “Surface-modified ZnSe waveguides for label-free infrared attenuated total reflection detection of DNA hybridization,” Analyst (Lond.) 136(23), 4906–4911 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. Jeon, J. Ding, A. V. Nurmikko, W. Xie, D. C. Grillo, M. Kobayashi, R. L. Gunshor, G. C. Hua, and N. Otsuka, “Blue and green diode lasers in ZnSe‐based quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(17), 2045–2047 (1992).
[Crossref]

A. Lancaster, G. Cook, S. A. McDaniel, J. Evans, P. A. Berry, J. D. Shephard, and A. K. Kar, “Mid-infrared laser emission from Fe: ZnSe cladding waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(3), 031108 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Kühnelt, T. Leichtner, S. Kaiser, B. Hahn, H. P. Wagner, D. Eisert, G. Bacher, and A. Forchel, “Quasiphase matched second harmonic generation in ZnSe waveguide structures modulated by focused ion beam implantation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73(5), 584–586 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. G. Kim, E. Garmire, N. Shibata, and S. Zembutsu, “Optical bistability and nonlinear switching due to increasing absorption in single‐crystal ZnSe waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(7), 475–477 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

J. Midwinter, “On the use of optical waveguide techniques for internal reflection spectroscopy,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 7(7), 339–344 (1971).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. T. F. Marple, “Refractive index of ZnSe, ZnTe, and CdTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 35(3), 539–542 (1964).
[Crossref]

D. Chandler-Horowitz and P. M. Amirtharaj, “High-accuracy, midinfrared (450 cm−1 ≤ ω ≤ 4000 cm−1) refractive index values of silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(12), 123526 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

K. Katayama, H. Matsubara, F. Nakanishi, T. Nakamura, H. Doi, A. Saegusa, T. Mitsui, T. Matsuoka, M. Irikura, T. Takebe, S. Nishine, and T. Shirakawa, “ZnSe-based white LEDs,” J. Cryst. Growth 214-215, 1064–1070 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Electron. Mater. (1)

M. W. Cho, K. W. Koh, K. Morikawa, K. Arai, H. D. Jung, Z. Zhu, T. Yao, and Y. Okada, “Surface treatment of ZnSe substrate and homoepitaxy of ZnSe,” J. Electron. Mater. 26(5), 423–428 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. (1)

V. Balan, C. Vigreux, and A. Pradel, “Chalcogenide thin films deposited by radio-frequency sputtering,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 6, 875–882 (2004).

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, and S. K. Narayandass, “Influence of substrate temperature on the structural, optical and electrical properties of zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 39(22), 4777–4782 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Semicond. (1)

G. M. Lohar, S. K. Shinde, and V. J. Fulari, “Structural, morphological, optical and photoluminescent properties of spray-deposited ZnSe thin film,” J. Semicond. 35(11), 113001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mater. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. Venkatachalam, D. Mangalaraj, S. K. Narayandass, S. Velumani, P. Schabes-Retchkiman, and J. A. Ascencio, “Structural studies on vacuum evaporated ZnSe/p-Si Schottky diodes,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 103(2-3), 305–311 (2007).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. Vigreux, R. Escalier, A. Pradel, L. Bastard, J. E. Broquin, X. Zhang, T. Billeton, G. Parent, M. Barillot, and V. Kirschner, “Telluride buried channel waveguides operating from 6 to 20μm for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. 49, 218–223 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (3)

V. Mittal, J. S. Wilkinson, and G. S. Murugan, “High contrast GeTe4 waveguides for mid-infrared biomedical sensing applications,” Proc. SPIE 8988, 89881A (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Rizzo, L. Caneve, S. Scaglione, and M. A. Tagliente, “Structural and optical properties of zinc selenide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering,” Proc. SPIE 3738, 40–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

W. Gao, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies on vacuum evaporated zinc selenide thin film,” Proc. SPIE 7283, 72832L (2009).
[Crossref]

Rom. Rep. Phys. (1)

S. Antohe, L. Ion, M. Girtan, and O. Toma, “Optical and morphological studies of thermally vacuum evaporated ZnSe thin films,” Rom. Rep. Phys. 65(3), 805–811 (2013).

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

P. Gashin, A. Focsha, T. Potlog, A. V. Simashkevich, and V. Leondar, “n-ZnSe/p-ZnTe/n-CdSe tandem solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 46(4), 323–331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

D. W. Parent, A. Rodriguez, J. E. Ayers, and F. C. Jain, “Photo-assisted MOVPE grown (n) ZnSe/(p+) GaAs heterojunction solar cells,” Solid-State Electron. 47(4), 595–599 (2003).
[Crossref]

Superficies y vacío (1)

V. H. Méndez-García, M. López-López, and I. Hernández-Calderón, “ZnSe epitaxial films grown by MBE on nitrogen treated Si (111) substrates,” Superficies y vacío 8, 46–50 (1999).

Thin Solid Films (1)

A. Rizzo, M. A. Tagliente, L. Caneve, and S. Scaglione, “The influence of the momentum transfer on the structural and optical properties of ZnSe thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films 368(1), 8–14 (2000).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

M. Özkan, N. Ekem, M. Z. Balbag, and S. Pat, “ZnSe nanocrystalline thin films deposition on Si substrate by thermionic vacuum arc.,” in Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part L: J. Materials: Design and Applications, (Sage, 2012), pp.103–109.
[Crossref]

D. W. Hewak, D. Brady, R. J. Curry, G. Elliott, C. C. Huang, M. Hughes, K. Knight, A. Mairaj, M. N. Petrovich, and R. E. Simpson, “Chalcogenide glasses for photonics device applications,” in Photonic Glasses and Glass-Ceramics, Murugan, G. S., ed. (Research Signpost, 2010).

J. T. Bradshaw, S. B. Mendes and S. S. Saavedra, “Planar integrated optical waveguide spectroscopy,” Anal. Chem. 77(1), 28-A (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Ohring, Film formation and structure. The material science of thin films, (Academic, 1991).

D. R. Scherer, J. M. Hensley, K. R. Parameswaran, B. D. Casse, V. Singh, P. T. Lin, A. Agarwal, L. C. Kimerling, J. Giam-marco, J. Wilkinson, and I. Luzinov, “ Characterization of mid-infrared interband cascade laser coupling to a GeSbS chalcogenide glass waveguide,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM4M.4.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) XRD patterns and (b) sample photographic images of ZnSe films deposited on glass substrates and bulk ZnSe substrate.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 FESEM images of surface and cross-section of sputtered (a), (b) and evaporated (c), (d) ZnSe film on Si. AFM image of a 2x2 µm2 scan area of (e) sputtered and (f) evaporated ZnSe film on Si.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 XPS Spectra of sputtered and evaporated ZnSe films showing fitted peaks for the elements Zn, Se and O.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Infrared transmission spectra of bulk ZnSe substrate, Ge substrate, sputtered and evaporated ZnSe films on Ge substrates.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) FESEM image of a cross-section of a ZnSe rib waveguide on oxidized Si, (b) and (c) IR images of the guided light emerging from the waveguide end, for the sputtered and evaporated ZnSe waveguides, respectively at λ = 3.7 μm, (d) propagation losses for the sputtered and evaporated ZnSe waveguides respectively, for λ = 2.5-3.7 µm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 FESEM image of cross-section of GeTe4 channel waveguide on Si with a ZnSe isolation layer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a), (b) and (c) FESEM image of surface and (d) XRD pattern of Sputtered ZnSe film deposited on Si after annealing.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Water contact angle of sputtered, evaporated and bulk ZnSe
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) Schematic diagram of GeTe4/ZnSe/Si slab waveguide design; (b) Mode field profile for ac = 2 µm and ai = 4 µm at λ = 3.5 µm; (c) waveguide material and effective indices vs wavelength, and (d) thickness τ for a propagation loss of 0.1 dB/cm, for both polarizations.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Composition analysis using XPS depth profiling of sputtered and evaporated ZnSe films

Tables Icon

Table 2 Prism coupling measurements for ZnSe films in TE polarization at 1550 nm

Metrics