Abstract

We design and demonstrate newcomers in the field of frequency down-converters based on quasi-phase matching: low-loss orientation-patterned gallium antimonide ridge waveguides suited to parametric conversion from pumping lasers around 2 µm to mid-infrared wavelengths around 4 µm. Thanks to careful control of the epitaxial growth conditions including low N-type doping and to an optimized dry etching process, losses as low as 0.7 dB/cm at 2 µm and 1.1 dB/cm at 4 µm are obtained.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. L. Vodopyanov, I. Makasyuk, and P. G. Schunemann, “Grating tunable 4-14 µm GaAs optical parametric oscillator pumped at 3 µm,” Opt. Express 22(4), 4131–4136 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).
  3. J. Hite, M. Twigg, M. Mastro, J. Freitas, J. Meyer, I. Vurgaftman, S. O’Connor, N. Condon, F. Kub, S. Bowman, and C. Eddy, “Development of periodically oriented gallium nitride for non-linear optics [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1203–1208 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, and P. G. Schunemann, “Mid-wave infrared generation by difference frequency mixing of continuous wave lasers in orientation-patterned Gallium Phosphide,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2911–2923 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. X. Yu, L. Scaccabarozzi, J. S. Harris, P. S. Kuo, and M. M. Fejer, “Efficient continuous wave second harmonic generation pumped at 1.55 microm in quasi-phase-matched AlGaAs waveguides,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10742–10748 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, “Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C (2012).
    [Crossref]
  8. T. Matsushita, I. Ohta, and T. Kondo, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Parametric Fluorescence in a Periodically Inverted GaP Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 061101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  11. L. Cerutti, S. Roux, G. Patriarche, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, A. Grisard, and E. Tournié, “MBE growth of periodically-oriented GaSb on GaAs templates for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” presented at the 19th MBE Interational Conference, Paper Tu-B14, Montpellier, France, 4–9 Sept. 2016.
  12. R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
    [Crossref]

2017 (1)

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

2016 (1)

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Guha, J. O. Barnes, and P. G. Schunemann, “Mid-wave infrared generation by difference frequency mixing of continuous wave lasers in orientation-patterned Gallium Phosphide,” Opt. Mater. Express 5(12), 2911–2923 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

2012 (2)

2009 (1)

T. Matsushita, I. Ohta, and T. Kondo, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Parametric Fluorescence in a Periodically Inverted GaP Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 061101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

1995 (1)

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Barnes, J. O.

Barritault, P.

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blau, P.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, “Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C (2012).
[Crossref]

Bowman, S.

Caneau, C.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cerutti, L.

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Condon, N.

Eddy, C.

Fejer, M. M.

Freitas, J.

Garcia, M.

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gérard, B.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Grisard, A.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Guha, S.

Gutty, F.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Harris, J. S.

Hite, J.

Katz, M.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, “Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C (2012).
[Crossref]

Kondo, T.

T. Matsushita, I. Ohta, and T. Kondo, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Parametric Fluorescence in a Periodically Inverted GaP Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 061101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koza, M. A.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kub, F.

Kuo, P. S.

Lallier, E.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Larat, C.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Lartigue, O.

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Makasyuk, I.

Mastro, M.

Matsushita, T.

T. Matsushita, I. Ohta, and T. Kondo, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Parametric Fluorescence in a Periodically Inverted GaP Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 061101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meyer, J.

O’Connor, S.

Ohta, I.

T. Matsushita, I. Ohta, and T. Kondo, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Parametric Fluorescence in a Periodically Inverted GaP Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 061101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Oron, M. B.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, “Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C (2012).
[Crossref]

Ostendorf, R.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Papillon, D.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Patriarche, G.

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pearl, S.

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, “Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C (2012).
[Crossref]

Regener, R.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Roux, S.

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Scaccabarozzi, L.

Schunemann, P. G.

Sohler, W.

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tournié, E.

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

Twigg, M.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

Vurgaftman, I.

Wagner, J.

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Yoo, S. J. B.

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

F. Gutty, A. Grisard, C. Larat, D. Papillon, B. Gérard, R. Ostendorf, J. Wagner, and E. Lallier, “High peak-power laser system tuneable from 8 to 10 µm,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 6(2), 95–101 (2017).

Appl. Phys. B (1)

R. Regener and W. Sohler, “Loss in low-finesse Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide resonator,” Appl. Phys. B 36(3), 143–147 (1985).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Matsushita, I. Ohta, and T. Kondo, “Quasi-Phase-Matched Parametric Fluorescence in a Periodically Inverted GaP Waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Express 2, 061101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Roux, P. Barritault, O. Lartigue, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, B. Gérard, and A. Grisard, “Mid-infrared characterization of refractive indices and propagation losses in GaSb/ AlXGa1-XAsSb waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107(17), 171901 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. J. B. Yoo, R. Bhat, C. Caneau, and M. A. Koza, “Quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in AlGaAs waveguides with periodic domain inversion achieved by wafer-bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(25), 3410–3412 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Proc. SPIE (2)

M. B. Oron, P. Blau, S. Pearl, and M. Katz, “Optical parametric oscillation in orientation patterned GaAs waveguides,” Proc. SPIE 8240, 82400C (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Roux, L. Cerutti, E. Tournié, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, G. Patriarche, and A. Grisard, “First orientation-patterned GaSb ridge waveguides fabrication and preliminary characterization for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared,” Proc. SPIE 9894, 989415 (2016).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

L. Cerutti, S. Roux, G. Patriarche, M. Garcia, B. Gérard, A. Grisard, and E. Tournié, “MBE growth of periodically-oriented GaSb on GaAs templates for frequency conversion in the mid-infrared wavelength range,” presented at the 19th MBE Interational Conference, Paper Tu-B14, Montpellier, France, 4–9 Sept. 2016.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Waveguide structure. (b) Calculated pump mode profile in a 4 µm-wide waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Tuning curve calculations in bulk (solid lines) and guided-wave (dashed lines) configurations for different pump wavelengths as a function of QPM period.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Fabrication of OP-GaSb waveguides by epitaxial regrowth on OP-template substrates.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Net carrier-concentration determined from Hall measurements performed on GaSb:Te layers grown on semi-insulating GaAs substrates. The solid line shows the expected values in the absence of residual P-type doping. The experimental data show the potential to control low N-GaSb doping by changing the Te cell temperature to compensate for the residual doping.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 TEM picture of the GaAs bonding interface and of the vertical wall between the two adjacent opposite crystal orientations (A GaAs buffer is grown before the GaSb-based layers).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 SEM picture of a 4 µm-wide OP-GaSb ridge waveguide grown on a GaAs template.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Propagation losses at 2 µm in TE polarization for several 21-µm-period OP-GaSb waveguides of various ridge widths on the same 7.5 mm-long sample (P-type, 2.5 10−16 cm3).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Propagation losses at 4 µm in TE polarization for several reference GaSb waveguides of various ridge widths and residual doping levels.

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