Abstract

Aluminum induced texturing (AIT) is an effective method to enhance light trapping in thin film solar cells through texturing the surface of the glass substrate. The topography of the textured glass is closely related to the processes that occur at the Al/glass interface during thermal annealing, which is commonly carried out at temperatures above 500 °C. The annealing temperature significantly influences the redox reaction between Al and SiO2, and thus the resultant surface texture. In this study, the effect of annealing temperature on the AIT process is investigated in order to elucidate on the evolution of the metallic Al over-layer into the final Al2O3 – c-Si mixture. The structural and compositional changes at the Al/glass interface are compared for samples annealed at varying temperatures. The influence of annealing temperature on the final morphology of the glass surface is also discussed, along with its optical transmittance.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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2015 (2)

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

N. Sahraei, S. Venkataraj, A. G. Aberle, and M. Peters, “Optimum feature size of randomly textured glass substrates for maximum scattering inside thin-film silicon solar cells,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO Optoelectron. Devices Mater. 8981, 89811D (2014).

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

2013 (2)

X. Yan, S. Venkataraj, and A. G. Aberle, “Modified surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (azo) transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 33, 157–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Cui, C. Wang, J. Yan, Z. Wang, and D. Wei, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Wetting and reaction promoted by ultrasound between sapphire and liquid Al – 12Si alloy,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry. 20(1), 196–201 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, F. Law, P. I. Widenborg, and A. G. Aberle, “Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process,” J. Cryst. Growth 361, 121–128 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

O. Isabella, J. Krc, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Hegde and K. N. Prabhu, “Modification of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloys,” J. Mater. Sci. 43(9), 3009–3027 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (3)

M. Stöger-Pollach, T. Walter, M. Muske, S. Gall, and P. Schattschneider, “Phase transformations of an alumina membrane and its influence on silicon nucleation during the aluminium induced layer exchange,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3740–3744 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. I. Widenborg and A. G. Aberle, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on AIT-textured glass superstrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 1–7 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Bermel, C. Luo, L. Zeng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Improving thin-film crystalline silicon solar cell efficiencies with photonic crystals,” Opt. Express 15(25), 16986–17000 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. K. Dahle, K. Nogita, S. D. McDonald, C. Dinnis, and L. Lu, “Eutectic modification and microstructure development in Al-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 413–414, 243–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

S. Shankar, Y. W. Riddle, and M. M. Makhlouf, “Nucleation mechanism of the eutectic phases in aluminum-silicon hypoeutectic alloys,” Acta Mater. 52(15), 4447–4460 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Klein, J. Schneider, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of amorphous silicon : influence of the aluminium layer on the process,” Thin Solid Films 452, 481–484 (2004).

J. Schneider, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon : preparation effect on growth kinetics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 340, 127–130 (2004).

2002 (1)

S. Gall, M. Muske, I. Sieber, O. Nast, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 302, 741–745 (2002).

2001 (1)

O. Nast, S. Brehme, S. Pritchard, A. G. Aberle, and S. R. Wenham, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 65, 385–392 (2001).

2000 (1)

D. M. Knotter, “Etching mechanism of vitreous silicon dioxide in HF-based solutions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(18), 4345–4351 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

N. Shibata, “Plasma-chemical vapor-deposited silicon oxide / silicon oxynitride double-layer antireflective coating for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(1), 997–1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Hirata and K. Hoshikawa, “Oxygen solubility and its temperature dependence in a silicon melt in equilibrium with solid silica,” J. Cryst. Growth 106(4), 657–664 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

H. A. Wriedt, “The AI-O (Aluminum-Oxygen) System,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams. 6(6), 548–553 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. L. Murray and A. J. McAlister, “The AI-Si (Aluminum-Silicon) System,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams. 5(1), 74–84 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

S. C. Flood and J. D. Hunt, “Modification of Al-Si eutectic alloys with Na,” Met. Sci. 15(7), 287–294 (1981).
[Crossref]

Aberle, A. G.

N. Sahraei, S. Venkataraj, A. G. Aberle, and M. Peters, “Optimum feature size of randomly textured glass substrates for maximum scattering inside thin-film silicon solar cells,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO Optoelectron. Devices Mater. 8981, 89811D (2014).

X. Yan, S. Venkataraj, and A. G. Aberle, “Modified surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (azo) transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 33, 157–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Huang, F. Law, P. I. Widenborg, and A. G. Aberle, “Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process,” J. Cryst. Growth 361, 121–128 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. I. Widenborg and A. G. Aberle, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on AIT-textured glass superstrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 1–7 (2007).
[Crossref]

O. Nast, S. Brehme, S. Pritchard, A. G. Aberle, and S. R. Wenham, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 65, 385–392 (2001).

Antony, A.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Asensi, J. M.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Bai, Y.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bermel, P.

Bertomeu, J.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Bhatia, C. S.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Böttler, W.

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Brehme, S.

O. Nast, S. Brehme, S. Pritchard, A. G. Aberle, and S. R. Wenham, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 65, 385–392 (2001).

Cárabe, J.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Chen, N.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cui, W.

W. Cui, C. Wang, J. Yan, Z. Wang, and D. Wei, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Wetting and reaction promoted by ultrasound between sapphire and liquid Al – 12Si alloy,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry. 20(1), 196–201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dahle, A. K.

A. K. Dahle, K. Nogita, S. D. McDonald, C. Dinnis, and L. Lu, “Eutectic modification and microstructure development in Al-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 413–414, 243–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Danner, A. J.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dinnis, C.

A. K. Dahle, K. Nogita, S. D. McDonald, C. Dinnis, and L. Lu, “Eutectic modification and microstructure development in Al-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 413–414, 243–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Fernández, S.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Flood, S. C.

S. C. Flood and J. D. Hunt, “Modification of Al-Si eutectic alloys with Na,” Met. Sci. 15(7), 287–294 (1981).
[Crossref]

Fuhs, W.

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Klein, J. Schneider, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of amorphous silicon : influence of the aluminium layer on the process,” Thin Solid Films 452, 481–484 (2004).

J. Schneider, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon : preparation effect on growth kinetics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 340, 127–130 (2004).

S. Gall, M. Muske, I. Sieber, O. Nast, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 302, 741–745 (2002).

Gall, S.

M. Stöger-Pollach, T. Walter, M. Muske, S. Gall, and P. Schattschneider, “Phase transformations of an alumina membrane and its influence on silicon nucleation during the aluminium induced layer exchange,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3740–3744 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Klein, J. Schneider, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of amorphous silicon : influence of the aluminium layer on the process,” Thin Solid Films 452, 481–484 (2004).

J. Schneider, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon : preparation effect on growth kinetics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 340, 127–130 (2004).

S. Gall, M. Muske, I. Sieber, O. Nast, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 302, 741–745 (2002).

Gandía, J. J.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

González, J. P.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Gordijn, A.

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Gordon, Y.

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Günöven, M.

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, A. Tankut, İ. Sökmen, and R. Turan, “Aluminum induced glass texturing (ait) on soda-lime, borosilicate, alkali-free and fused silica glass for thin film solar cell applications,” in: 31st Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 230–234 (2015).

Güttler, D.

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Hegde, S.

S. Hegde and K. N. Prabhu, “Modification of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloys,” J. Mater. Sci. 43(9), 3009–3027 (2008).
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Hirata, H.

H. Hirata and K. Hoshikawa, “Oxygen solubility and its temperature dependence in a silicon melt in equilibrium with solid silica,” J. Cryst. Growth 106(4), 657–664 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hoshikawa, K.

H. Hirata and K. Hoshikawa, “Oxygen solubility and its temperature dependence in a silicon melt in equilibrium with solid silica,” J. Cryst. Growth 106(4), 657–664 (1990).
[Crossref]

Huang, T.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Huang, Y.

Y. Huang, F. Law, P. I. Widenborg, and A. G. Aberle, “Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process,” J. Cryst. Growth 361, 121–128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hunt, J. D.

S. C. Flood and J. D. Hunt, “Modification of Al-Si eutectic alloys with Na,” Met. Sci. 15(7), 287–294 (1981).
[Crossref]

Hüpkes, J.

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Isabella, O.

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

O. Isabella, J. Krc, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

Kimerling, L. C.

Klein, J.

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Klein, J. Schneider, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of amorphous silicon : influence of the aluminium layer on the process,” Thin Solid Films 452, 481–484 (2004).

J. Schneider, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon : preparation effect on growth kinetics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 340, 127–130 (2004).

Knotter, D. M.

D. M. Knotter, “Etching mechanism of vitreous silicon dioxide in HF-based solutions,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122(18), 4345–4351 (2000).
[Crossref]

Krc, J.

O. Isabella, J. Krc, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textures for enhanced light trapping in thin-film silicon solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(10), 101106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kundu, S.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

Law, F.

Y. Huang, F. Law, P. I. Widenborg, and A. G. Aberle, “Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process,” J. Cryst. Growth 361, 121–128 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lluscà, M.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Lu, L.

A. K. Dahle, K. Nogita, S. D. McDonald, C. Dinnis, and L. Lu, “Eutectic modification and microstructure development in Al-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 413–414, 243–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Luo, C.

Makhlouf, M. M.

S. Shankar, Y. W. Riddle, and M. M. Makhlouf, “Nucleation mechanism of the eutectic phases in aluminum-silicon hypoeutectic alloys,” Acta Mater. 52(15), 4447–4460 (2004).
[Crossref]

McAlister, A. J.

J. L. Murray and A. J. McAlister, “The AI-Si (Aluminum-Silicon) System,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams. 5(1), 74–84 (1984).
[Crossref]

McDonald, S. D.

A. K. Dahle, K. Nogita, S. D. McDonald, C. Dinnis, and L. Lu, “Eutectic modification and microstructure development in Al-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 413–414, 243–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Meier, M.

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

Murray, J. L.

J. L. Murray and A. J. McAlister, “The AI-Si (Aluminum-Silicon) System,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams. 5(1), 74–84 (1984).
[Crossref]

Muske, M.

M. Stöger-Pollach, T. Walter, M. Muske, S. Gall, and P. Schattschneider, “Phase transformations of an alumina membrane and its influence on silicon nucleation during the aluminium induced layer exchange,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3740–3744 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Schneider, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon : preparation effect on growth kinetics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 340, 127–130 (2004).

J. Klein, J. Schneider, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of amorphous silicon : influence of the aluminium layer on the process,” Thin Solid Films 452, 481–484 (2004).

S. Gall, M. Muske, I. Sieber, O. Nast, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 302, 741–745 (2002).

Nasser, H.

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, A. Tankut, İ. Sökmen, and R. Turan, “Aluminum induced glass texturing (ait) on soda-lime, borosilicate, alkali-free and fused silica glass for thin film solar cell applications,” in: 31st Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 230–234 (2015).

Nast, O.

S. Gall, M. Muske, I. Sieber, O. Nast, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 302, 741–745 (2002).

O. Nast, S. Brehme, S. Pritchard, A. G. Aberle, and S. R. Wenham, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 65, 385–392 (2001).

Nogita, K.

A. K. Dahle, K. Nogita, S. D. McDonald, C. Dinnis, and L. Lu, “Eutectic modification and microstructure development in Al-Si Alloys,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 413–414, 243–248 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paetzold, U. W.

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

Peters, M.

N. Sahraei, S. Venkataraj, A. G. Aberle, and M. Peters, “Optimum feature size of randomly textured glass substrates for maximum scattering inside thin-film silicon solar cells,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO Optoelectron. Devices Mater. 8981, 89811D (2014).

Prabhu, K. N.

S. Hegde and K. N. Prabhu, “Modification of eutectic silicon in Al-Si alloys,” J. Mater. Sci. 43(9), 3009–3027 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pritchard, S.

O. Nast, S. Brehme, S. Pritchard, A. G. Aberle, and S. R. Wenham, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 65, 385–392 (2001).

Pust, S. E.

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Quinn, T.

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

Reehal, H. S.

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

Riddle, Y. W.

S. Shankar, Y. W. Riddle, and M. M. Makhlouf, “Nucleation mechanism of the eutectic phases in aluminum-silicon hypoeutectic alloys,” Acta Mater. 52(15), 4447–4460 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sahraei, N.

N. Sahraei, S. Venkataraj, A. G. Aberle, and M. Peters, “Optimum feature size of randomly textured glass substrates for maximum scattering inside thin-film silicon solar cells,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO Optoelectron. Devices Mater. 8981, 89811D (2014).

Sakhuja, M.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Santos, J. D.

M. Lluscà, J. D. Santos, S. Fernández, J. P. González, J. J. Gandía, J. Cárabe, A. Antony, J. M. Asensi, and J. Bertomeu, “Textured Glass Substrates for Thin Film Silicon Solar Cells,” in: 28th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 2170–2174 (2012).

Sarikov, A.

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schattschneider, P.

M. Stöger-Pollach, T. Walter, M. Muske, S. Gall, and P. Schattschneider, “Phase transformations of an alumina membrane and its influence on silicon nucleation during the aluminium induced layer exchange,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3740–3744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schneider, A.

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schneider, J.

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

J. Schneider, A. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization: Nucleation and growth process,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 352(9-20), 972–975 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Klein, J. Schneider, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of amorphous silicon : influence of the aluminium layer on the process,” Thin Solid Films 452, 481–484 (2004).

J. Schneider, J. Klein, M. Muske, S. Gall, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon : preparation effect on growth kinetics,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 340, 127–130 (2004).

Shankar, S.

S. Shankar, Y. W. Riddle, and M. M. Makhlouf, “Nucleation mechanism of the eutectic phases in aluminum-silicon hypoeutectic alloys,” Acta Mater. 52(15), 4447–4460 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shibata, N.

N. Shibata, “Plasma-chemical vapor-deposited silicon oxide / silicon oxynitride double-layer antireflective coating for solar cells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30(1), 997–1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

Sieber, I.

J. Schneider, A. Sarikov, J. Klein, M. Muske, I. Sieber, T. Quinn, and H. S. Reehal, “A simple model explaining the preferential (1 0 0) orientation of silicon thin films made by aluminum-induced layer exchange,” J. Cryst. Growth 287, 423–427 (2006).

S. Gall, M. Muske, I. Sieber, O. Nast, and W. Fuhs, “Aluminum-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 302, 741–745 (2002).

Sökmen, I.

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, A. Tankut, İ. Sökmen, and R. Turan, “Aluminum induced glass texturing (ait) on soda-lime, borosilicate, alkali-free and fused silica glass for thin film solar cell applications,” in: 31st Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 230–234 (2015).

Son, J.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stöger-Pollach, M.

M. Stöger-Pollach, T. Walter, M. Muske, S. Gall, and P. Schattschneider, “Phase transformations of an alumina membrane and its influence on silicon nucleation during the aluminium induced layer exchange,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3740–3744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tan, H.

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tankut, A.

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, A. Tankut, İ. Sökmen, and R. Turan, “Aluminum induced glass texturing (ait) on soda-lime, borosilicate, alkali-free and fused silica glass for thin film solar cell applications,” in: 31st Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 230–234 (2015).

Tiwari, A. N.

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Turan, R.

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, A. Tankut, İ. Sökmen, and R. Turan, “Aluminum induced glass texturing (ait) on soda-lime, borosilicate, alkali-free and fused silica glass for thin film solar cell applications,” in: 31st Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 230–234 (2015).

Ünal, M.

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, İ. Sökmen, A. Tankut, and R. Turan, “Effect of aluminum thickness and etching time of aluminum induced texturing process on soda lime glass substrates for thin solar cell applications,” Phys. Status Solidi 12(9-11), 1201–1205 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Ünal, H. Nasser, M. Günöven, A. Tankut, İ. Sökmen, and R. Turan, “Aluminum induced glass texturing (ait) on soda-lime, borosilicate, alkali-free and fused silica glass for thin film solar cell applications,” in: 31st Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf. Exhib.: pp. 230–234 (2015).

van Swaaij, R. C. M. M.

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Venkataraj, S.

N. Sahraei, S. Venkataraj, A. G. Aberle, and M. Peters, “Optimum feature size of randomly textured glass substrates for maximum scattering inside thin-film silicon solar cells,” SPIE Photonics West 2014-OPTO Optoelectron. Devices Mater. 8981, 89811D (2014).

X. Yan, S. Venkataraj, and A. G. Aberle, “Modified surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (azo) transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 33, 157–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Verma, L. K.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Walter, T.

M. Stöger-Pollach, T. Walter, M. Muske, S. Gall, and P. Schattschneider, “Phase transformations of an alumina membrane and its influence on silicon nucleation during the aluminium induced layer exchange,” Thin Solid Films 515(7-8), 3740–3744 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, C.

W. Cui, C. Wang, J. Yan, Z. Wang, and D. Wei, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Wetting and reaction promoted by ultrasound between sapphire and liquid Al – 12Si alloy,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry. 20(1), 196–201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

W. Cui, C. Wang, J. Yan, Z. Wang, and D. Wei, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Wetting and reaction promoted by ultrasound between sapphire and liquid Al – 12Si alloy,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry. 20(1), 196–201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wei, D.

W. Cui, C. Wang, J. Yan, Z. Wang, and D. Wei, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Wetting and reaction promoted by ultrasound between sapphire and liquid Al – 12Si alloy,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry. 20(1), 196–201 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wenham, S. R.

O. Nast, S. Brehme, S. Pritchard, A. G. Aberle, and S. R. Wenham, “Aluminium-induced crystallisation of silicon on glass for thin-film solar cells,” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 65, 385–392 (2001).

Widenborg, P. I.

Y. Huang, F. Law, P. I. Widenborg, and A. G. Aberle, “Crystalline silicon growth in the aluminium-induced glass texturing process,” J. Cryst. Growth 361, 121–128 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. I. Widenborg and A. G. Aberle, “Polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on AIT-textured glass superstrates,” Adv. Optoelectron. 2007, 1–7 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wriedt, H. A.

H. A. Wriedt, “The AI-O (Aluminum-Oxygen) System,” Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams. 6(6), 548–553 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wyrsch, N.

J. Hüpkes, S. E. Pust, W. Böttler, A. Gordijn, N. Wyrsch, D. Güttler, A. N. Tiwari, and Y. Gordon, “Light scattering and trapping in different thin film photovoltaic devices,” in: 24th Eur. Photovolt. Sol. Energy Conf.: pp. 2766–2769 (2009).

Yan, J.

W. Cui, C. Wang, J. Yan, Z. Wang, and D. Wei, “Ultrasonics Sonochemistry Wetting and reaction promoted by ultrasound between sapphire and liquid Al – 12Si alloy,” Ultrason. - Sonochemistry. 20(1), 196–201 (2013).
[Crossref]

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X. Yan, S. Venkataraj, and A. G. Aberle, “Modified surface texturing of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (azo) transparent conductive oxides for thin-film silicon solar cells,” Energy Procedia 33, 157–165 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, G.

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yang, H.

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
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T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, Z.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zeman, M.

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
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[Crossref]

Zeng, H. C.

L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zeng, L.

Zhang, H.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

Zhang, X.

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
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[Crossref]

W. Zhang, U. W. Paetzold, M. Meier, A. Gordijn, and J. Hüpkes, “Thin-film silicon solar cells on dry etched textured glass,” Energy Procedia 44, 151–159 (2014).

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L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, J. Son, A. J. Danner, H. Yang, H. C. Zeng, and C. S. Bhatia, “Self-cleaning and antireflective packaging glass for solar modules,” Renew. Energy 36(9), 2489–2493 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sci. China Technol. Sci. (1)

T. Huang, N. Chen, X. Zhang, Y. Bai, Z. Yin, H. Shi, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and X. Yang, “Aluminum induced crystallization of strongly (111) oriented polycrystalline silicon thin film and nucleation analysis,” Sci. China Technol. Sci. 53(11), 3002–3005 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (2)

J. Son, S. Kundu, L. K. Verma, M. Sakhuja, A. J. Danner, C. S. Bhatia, and H. Yang, “A practical superhydrophilic self cleaning and antireflective surface for outdoor photovoltaic applications,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 98, 46–51 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, R. C. M. M. van Swaaij, H. Tan, O. Isabella, and M. Zeman, “Modulated surface textured glass as substrate for high efficiency microcrystalline silicon solar cells,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 133, 156–162 (2015).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) OM of 550_090, (b) image from built-in optical microscope of Raman spectroscope of 550_090, (c) Raman spectra of 550_090, (d) OM of 550_120, (e) image from built-in optical microscope of Raman spectroscope of 550_120, (f) Raman spectra of 550_120.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 EDX mapping for (a) 550_120, (b) 550_300, (c) 575_105 and (d) 600_060. Secondary electron image (top left) and maps of Si (top right), O (bottom left) and Al (bottom right).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Optical images of annealed samples with varying durations at a temperature of a) 550 °C, b) 575 °C, c) 600 °C. All images are obtained using reflected light.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 SEM images of samples after etching. (a) 550_090, (b) 550_120, (c) 550_300, (d) 600_010, (e) 600_030, and (f) 600_060. Left column shows low magnification image, middle high magnification image, and right column tilted view for each temperature.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 AFM images of sample 550_300. (a) 2D image with 40 µm x 40 µm scan area (b) 3D image with 40 µm x 40 µm scan area, (c) 2D image with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area of the place indicated as “1” in the image with 40 µm2 scan area (d) 2D image with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area of the place indicated as “2” in the image with 40 µm2 scan area, (e) 3D image of “1” with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area and (f) 3D image of “2” with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 AFM images of 600_060. (a) 2D image with 40 µm x 40 µm scan area (b) 3D image with 40 µm x 40 µm scan area, (c) 2D image with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area of the place indicated as “1” in the image with 40 µm2 scan area (d) 2D image with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area of the place indicated as “2” in the image with 40 µm2 scan area, (e) 3D image of “1” with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area and (f) 3D image of “2” with 10 µm x 10 µm scan area.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Transmittance and (b) haze of samples annealed at different temperatures and durations with 2 reference sample.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Al-Si phase diagram with sketches illustrating the evolution of the film and interface morphology. Phase regions are defined as (A) α-Al (<1.3% Si), (B) α-Al + Si, (C) Liquid Al (~11-14% Si), (D) α-Al (<1.3% Si) + Liquid Al (~11% Si) and (E) Liquid Al (~14% Si) + Si (~100% Si)
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Overlaid Si, Al, and O EDX maps of (a) 550_120 and (b) 550_300. The green arrows indicate the direction that Si dendrites are allowed to grow, while the red lines suggest where growth is restricted.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Optical microscope images of (a) 600_011, (b) 600_012 and (c) 600_013.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Comparison of EDX map of Si with textured surface. (a) EDX map of Si belongs to 550_120, (b) SEM image of 550_120 after etching. (c) EDX map of Si belongs to 600_060 and (d) SEM image of 600_060 after etching process. Plateaus are circled with red dashes.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Comparison of surfaces by Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of 40 µm x 40 µm AFM images; (a) AFM image of 550_300, (b) AFM image of 600_060, (c) 2D FFT of AFM image of 550_300 and (d) 2D FFT of AFM image of 600_060.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 List of samples used in the AIT experiments. The number before the underscore designates the annealing temperature in °C, and the one after denotes the annealing duration in minutes

Equations (1)

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4Al+3Si O 2 2A l 2 O 3 +3Si

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