Abstract

Semiconductors are promising candidates as fiber materials for transmission in the mid-infrared (IR) region. This paper reports the lowest measured losses for a Ge-core, borosilicate cladded optical fiber produced by the ‘rod-in-tube’ method that is scalable for manufacturability. The fibers were drawn in a mini draw tower at 1000°C. The relatively low drawing temperature and the optimal location of the Ge core in the preform minimize the time the molten Ge interacted with the borosilicate cladding limited diffusion from the cladding to the core. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) match between the core and cladding led to fibers that were crack- and pore- free. Transmission electron microscopy studies showed the Ge core to have good crystalline quality with low impurity content. The optical properties of the fibers were characterized in the mid-IR region with a quantum cascade laser and transmission losses were found to be in the 3.1-9.1 dB/cm range in the spectral range of 5.82-6.28 μm, with an average loss value of 5.1 dB/cm.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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2017 (1)

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

2014 (1)

A. C. Peacock, J. R. Sparks, and N. Healy, “Semiconductor optical fibers: progress and opportunities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 53–72 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

E. F. Nordstrand, A. N. Dibbs, A. J. Erakar, and U. J. Gibson, “Alkaline Oxide Interface Modifiers for Silicon Fiber Production,” Opt. Mater. Express 3(5), 651–657 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

R. Bhargava, “Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging: The Next Generation,” Appl. Spectrosc. 66(10), 1091–1120 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, C. McMillen, L. Burka, J. Reppert, R. Podila, A. M. Rao, and R. R. Rice, “Binary III-V semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Express 18(5), 4972–4979 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

A. Fluegel, “Glass viscosity calculation based on a global statistical modeling approach,” Glass Technology-European J. of Glass Science and Technol. Part A 48(1), 13–30 (2007).

2000 (1)

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

1998 (1)

D. Harris, “Durable 3-5 μm transmitting infrared window materials,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 39(4), 185–201 (1998).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, J. R. Williams, and M. W. Moore, “OH absorption in the low loss window of ZBLAN (P) glass fibre,” J. of non-Crys. Solids 161, 18–22 (1993).

1991 (1)

1987 (1)

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μm infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

A. Sa’ar, F. Moser, S. Akselrod, and A. Katzir, “Infrared optical properties of polycrystalline silver halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(6), 305–307 (1986).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55μm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979).
[Crossref]

1952 (1)

M. E. Straumanis and E. Z. Aka, “Lattice parameters, coefficients of thermal expansion, and atomic weights of purest silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 23(3), 330–334 (1952).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aggarwal, I. D.

D. D. Hudson, S. A. Dekker, E. C. Mägi, A. C. Judge, S. D. Jackson, E. Li, J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, I. D. Aggarwal, and B. J. Eggleton, “Octave spanning supercontinuum in an As2S3 taper using ultralow pump pulse energy,” Opt. Lett. 36(7), 1122–1124 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Aka, E. Z.

M. E. Straumanis and E. Z. Aka, “Lattice parameters, coefficients of thermal expansion, and atomic weights of purest silicon and germanium,” J. Appl. Phys. 23(3), 330–334 (1952).
[Crossref]

Akselrod, S.

A. Sa’ar, F. Moser, S. Akselrod, and A. Katzir, “Infrared optical properties of polycrystalline silver halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(6), 305–307 (1986).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amsden, J. J.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Babikov, Y.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Badding, J. V.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
[Crossref]

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Baril, N. F.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bethea, C. G.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μm infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Bhargava, R.

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bizzocchi, L.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Bo, L.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
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Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Brambilla, G.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
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Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Burka, L.

Busse, L. E.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Charlton O’Mahony, C.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
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Chaudhuri, S.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
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Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Choi, K. K.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μm infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
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Chris Benner, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cohen, E. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Cole, B. C.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dekker, S. A.

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Dibbs, A. N.

Drouin, B. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Eggleton, B. J.

Erakar, A. J.

Erramilli, S.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Farrell, G.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
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Fayt, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Foy, P.

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Gibson, U. J.

Gopalan, V.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
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R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 174–179 (2012).
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P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Harrison, B. B.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hartmann, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hawkins, T.

He, R.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 174–179 (2012).
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Healy, N.

F. H. Suhailin, L. Shen, N. Healy, L. Xiao, M. Jones, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, U. J. Gibson, and A. C. Peacock, “Tapered polysilicon core fibers for nonlinear photonics,” Opt. Lett. 41(7), 1360–1363 (2016).
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A. C. Peacock, J. R. Sparks, and N. Healy, “Semiconductor optical fibers: progress and opportunities,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(1), 53–72 (2014).
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R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 174–179 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
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Heo, J.

Hill, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Hon, N. K.

Hong, M. K.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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Hosaka, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55μm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979).
[Crossref]

Hudson, D. D.

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264(5158), 553–556 (1994).
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Ismaeel, R.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jackson, S. D.

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jalali, B.

Ji, X.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
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Jolly, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Jones, M.

Judge, A. C.

Kanamori, T.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kaplan, D. L.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Katzir, A.

A. Sa’ar, F. Moser, S. Akselrod, and A. Katzir, “Infrared optical properties of polycrystalline silver halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(6), 305–307 (1986).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthi, M.

R. He, P. J. A. Sazio, A. C. Peacock, N. Healy, J. R. Sparks, M. Krishnamurthi, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Integration of gigahertz-bandwidth semiconductor devices inside microstructured optical fibres,” Nat. Photonics 6(3), 174–179 (2012).
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P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kung, F.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Lamouroux, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Le Roy, R. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, T.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Levine, B. F.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μm infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Li, E.

Li, G.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, W.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
[Crossref]

Long, D. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lyulin, O. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mackie, C. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mägi, E. C.

Malik, R. J.

B. F. Levine, K. K. Choi, C. G. Bethea, J. Walker, and R. J. Malik, “New 10 μm infrared detector using intersubband absorption in resonant tunneling GaAlAs superlattices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50(16), 1092–1094 (1987).
[Crossref]

Massie, S. T.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

McDonagh, C.

P. Wang, C. Charlton O’Mahony, T. Lee, R. Ismaeel, T. Hawkins, Y. Semenova, L. Bo, Q. Wu, C. McDonagh, G. Farrell, J. Ballato, and G. Brambilla, “Mid-infrared Raman sources using spontaneous Raman scattering in germanium core optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(1), 011111 (2013).
[Crossref]

McMillen, C.

Mehta, P.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(7), 071117 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mikhailenko, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Miya, T.

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55μm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979).
[Crossref]

Miyashita, T.

T. Kanamori, Y. Terunuma, S. Takahashi, and T. Miyashita, “Chalcogenide glass fibers for mid-infrared transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol. 2(5), 607–613 (1984).
[Crossref]

T. Miya, Y. Terunuma, T. Hosaka, and T. Miyashita, “Ultimate low-loss single-mode fibre at 1.55μm,” Electron. Lett. 15(4), 106–108 (1979).
[Crossref]

Mohney, S. E.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 1600592 (2017).
[Crossref]

Moore, M. W.

D. Szebesta, S. T. Davey, J. R. Williams, and M. W. Moore, “OH absorption in the low loss window of ZBLAN (P) glass fibre,” J. of non-Crys. Solids 161, 18–22 (1993).

Morris, S.

Moser, F.

A. Sa’ar, F. Moser, S. Akselrod, and A. Katzir, “Infrared optical properties of polycrystalline silver halide fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(6), 305–307 (1986).
[Crossref]

Mossadegh, R.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Müller, H. S. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, V. Q.

J. S. Sanghera, L. B. Shaw, L. E. Busse, V. Q. Nguyen, P. C. Pureza, B. C. Cole, B. B. Harrison, I. D. Aggarwal, R. Mossadegh, F. Kung, and D. Talley, “Development and infrared applications of chalcogenide glass optical fibers,” Fiber Integr. Opt. 19(3), 251–274 (2000).

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. Chris Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. Le Roy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, V. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nordstrand, E. F.

Omenetto, F. G.

R. Adato, A. A. Yanik, J. J. Amsden, D. L. Kaplan, F. G. Omenetto, M. K. Hong, S. Erramilli, and H. Altug, “Ultra-Sensitive Vibrational Spectroscopy of Protein Monolayers with Plasmonic Nanoantenna Arrays,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106(46), 19227–19232 (2009).
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Orphal, J.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical micrograph of a polished fiber cross-section. The bright center is the Ge core, surrounded by the borosilicate glass cladding. The most outer part is hardened epoxy, into which the fiber was embedded to improve facet quality during polishing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) TEM bright-field micrograph of core/cladding interface of fiber. EDX dot maps of (b) Ge (c) O and (d) Si. (e) EDX line scan showing the composition profile of Si, Ge, O, B, K, Na, and Al across the core/cladding interface. The diffusion of oxygen from the cladding to the core is minimal.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) High resolution TEM micrograph of the core and cladding interface, showing the crystalline nature of the Ge core. (b) Reciprocal space mapping of the Ge core with 1 mm X-ray beam and a 2D detector, showing a single (111) peak.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Wavelength dependent FTIR spectroscopy results showing lack of mid-IR transmission through borosilicate glass and hardened epoxy.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic of the optical characterization setup for QCL measurements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Horizontal and vertical scans of fiber core with QCL. (b) Transmission characteristics in the QCL range of Ge fibers of three different lengths of 8.63 mm, 8.25 mm, and 7.91 mm, as well as the laser output signal with no sample in the path of the QCL. The sharp dips are due to atmospheric absorption peaks. (c) Best fit of a 4th order polynomial to the transmission spectrum of the 8.63 mm fiber, using a reduced data set of points away from the atmospheric absorption peaks.

Equations (1)

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Loss= 10 L lo g 10 ( P fiber 0.64 2 P background )

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