Abstract

We describe the application of the gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) and of the accelerated neutral atom beam (ANAB) surface treatments to ceramic Yb:YAG. We demonstrate that these techniques allow accurate control of ceramic Yb:YAG surface characteristics and constitute an alternative to conventional surface finishing techniques. In this study, we analyse the impact of angstrom level polishing and surface nano-texturing on laser induced damage threshold (LIDT) in the nanosecond pulsed regime of uncoated and antireflective coated ceramic Yb:YAG samples. We show that both techniques allow meeting the requirements on resilience to laser irradiation at fluence levels characterising high-energy laser systems. Moreover, we show that surface nano-texturing improves the LIDT of coated samples, possibly through an improvement in adherence of coatings to ceramic Yb:YAG substrates.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. P. D. Mason, M. Fitton, A. Lintern, S. Banerjee, K. Ertel, T. Davenne, J. Hill, S. P. Blake, P. J. Phillips, T. J. Butcher, J. M. Smith, M. De Vido, R. J. S. Greenhalgh, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. L. Collier, “Scalable design for a high energy cryogenic gas cooled diode pumped laser amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4227–4238 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. A. Manenkov, “Fundamental mechanisms of laser-induced damage in optical materials: today’s state of understanding and problems,” Opt. Eng. 53(1), 010901 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. F. Koldunov and A. A. Manenkov, “Theory of laser-induced inclusion-initiated damage in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121811 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. De Vido, “Impact of GCIB and ANAB surface treatments on the LIDT of ceramic Yb:YAG,” STFC Data Repository (2017).
  12. C. J. McHargue and W. B. Snyder, Jr., “Surface modification of sapphire for IR window application,” SPIE's 1993 International Symposium on Optics, Imaging, and Instrumentation, 135–142 (1993).
  13. H. Laseroptik Gmb, http://www.laseroptik.de/en/customer-service/cleaning-of-substrates .

2015 (1)

2014 (1)

A. A. Manenkov, “Fundamental mechanisms of laser-induced damage in optical materials: today’s state of understanding and problems,” Opt. Eng. 53(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. F. Koldunov and A. A. Manenkov, “Theory of laser-induced inclusion-initiated damage in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121811 (2012).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Amthor, K. U.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Banerjee, S.

Bellei, C.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, S. P.

Bourgeois, N.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butcher, T. J.

Chau, S.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Collier, J. L.

P. D. Mason, M. Fitton, A. Lintern, S. Banerjee, K. Ertel, T. Davenne, J. Hill, S. P. Blake, P. J. Phillips, T. J. Butcher, J. M. Smith, M. De Vido, R. J. S. Greenhalgh, C. Hernandez-Gomez, and J. L. Collier, “Scalable design for a high energy cryogenic gas cooled diode pumped laser amplifier,” Appl. Opt. 54(13), 4227–4238 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dangor, A. E.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Davenne, T.

De Vido, M.

Divall, E. J.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dunne, M.

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ertel, K.

Esirkepov, T.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fitton, M.

Foster, P. S.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gallacher, J. G.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gopal, A.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Greenhalgh, R. J. S.

Harrison, S.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heathcote, R.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hernandez-Gomez, C.

Hill, J.

Hooker, C. J.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jäckel, O.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaroszynski, D. A.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Khoury, J.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kirkpatrick, A.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kirkpatrick, S.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kneip, S.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koldunov, M. F.

M. F. Koldunov and A. A. Manenkov, “Theory of laser-induced inclusion-initiated damage in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121811 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krushelnick, K.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langley, A. J.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ledingham, K. W. D.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liesfeld, B.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lintern, A.

Mack, M.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Maksimchuk, A.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manenkov, A. A.

A. A. Manenkov, “Fundamental mechanisms of laser-induced damage in optical materials: today’s state of understanding and problems,” Opt. Eng. 53(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. F. Koldunov and A. A. Manenkov, “Theory of laser-induced inclusion-initiated damage in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121811 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mangles, S. P. D.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marquès, J. R.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mason, P. D.

Matsuo, J.

I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Miller, G.

G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mori, W. B.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moses, E.

G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Murphy, C. D.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nagel, S. R.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Najmudin, Z.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilson, P. M.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norreys, P. A.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pfotenhauer, S.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phillips, P. J.

Phuoc, K. T.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, S.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousse, A.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sauerbrey, R.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schwoerer, H.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smith, J. M.

Svrluga, R.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thomas, A. G. R.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toyoda, N.

I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsung, F. S.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzoufras, M.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Viskup, R.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, M.

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Walton, B. R.

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Willingale, L.

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuest, C.

G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yamada, I.

I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, W.

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. (1)

I. Yamada, J. Matsuo, N. Toyoda, and A. Kirkpatrick, “Materials processing by gas cluster ion beams,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep. 34(6), 231–295 (2001).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

M. Dunne, “A high-power laser fusion facility for Europe,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 2–5 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

S. P. D. Mangles, C. D. Murphy, Z. Najmudin, A. G. R. Thomas, J. L. Collier, A. E. Dangor, E. J. Divall, P. S. Foster, J. G. Gallacher, C. J. Hooker, D. A. Jaroszynski, A. J. Langley, W. B. Mori, P. A. Norreys, F. S. Tsung, R. Viskup, B. R. Walton, and K. Krushelnick, “Monoenergetic beams of relativistic electrons from intense laser-plasma interactions,” Nature 431(7008), 535–538 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Schwoerer, S. Pfotenhauer, O. Jäckel, K. U. Amthor, B. Liesfeld, W. Ziegler, R. Sauerbrey, K. W. D. Ledingham, and T. Esirkepov, “Laser-plasma acceleration of quasi-monoenergetic protons from microstructured targets,” Nature 439(7075), 445–448 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (1)

A. Kirkpatrick, S. Kirkpatrick, M. Walsh, S. Chau, M. Mack, S. Harrison, R. Svrluga, and J. Khoury, “Investigation of accelerated neutral atom beams created from gas cluster ion beams,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 307, 281–289 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (3)

G. Miller, E. Moses, and C. Wuest, “The national ignition facility,” Opt. Eng. 43(12), 2841–2853 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. A. Manenkov, “Fundamental mechanisms of laser-induced damage in optical materials: today’s state of understanding and problems,” Opt. Eng. 53(1), 010901 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. F. Koldunov and A. A. Manenkov, “Theory of laser-induced inclusion-initiated damage in optical materials,” Opt. Eng. 51(12), 121811 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Kneip, S. R. Nagel, C. Bellei, N. Bourgeois, A. E. Dangor, A. Gopal, R. Heathcote, S. P. D. Mangles, J. R. Marquès, A. Maksimchuk, P. M. Nilson, K. T. Phuoc, S. Reed, M. Tzoufras, F. S. Tsung, L. Willingale, W. B. Mori, A. Rousse, K. Krushelnick, and Z. Najmudin, “Observation of synchrotron radiation from electrons accelerated in a petawatt-laser-generated plasma cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(10), 105006 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. De Vido, “Impact of GCIB and ANAB surface treatments on the LIDT of ceramic Yb:YAG,” STFC Data Repository (2017).

C. J. McHargue and W. B. Snyder, Jr., “Surface modification of sapphire for IR window application,” SPIE's 1993 International Symposium on Optics, Imaging, and Instrumentation, 135–142 (1993).

H. Laseroptik Gmb, http://www.laseroptik.de/en/customer-service/cleaning-of-substrates .

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of ANAB processing station.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 10 µm x 10 µm (a) and 1 µm x 1 µm (b) AFM surface image and statistics of an untreated sample (from [11]).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 1 µm x 1 µm AFM surface image and 3D reconstruction of a nano-textured sample.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 10 µm x 10 µm AFM image (a) and 2D surface roughness PSD of a nano-textured sample (b).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 10 µm x 10 µm (a) and 1 µm x 1 µm (b) AFM surface image and statistics of an ANAB polished sample.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmission curves for un-polarised light at 0 deg and 10 deg incidence angles for IAD (a) and IBS (b) coatings (source: Laseroptik GmbH).

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Front surface and back surface 1000-on-1 LIDT values of uncoated samples.

Tables Icon

Table 2 1000-on-1 LIDT results of nano-textured samples, both uncoated and coated.

Tables Icon

Table 3 1000-on-1 LIDT results of polished samples, both uncoated and coated.

Tables Icon

Table 4 Raster scanning results of nano-textured and polished coated samples.

Metrics