Abstract

Tm3+,X+-codoped disordered calcium niobium garnet crystals, Ca3Nb2-xGa3+xO12 (CNGG), where X+ is an alkali cation, Na+ or Li+ (shortly Tm:CNNGG and Tm:CLNGG, respectively), are grown by the Czochralski method. A comparative study of their spectroscopic and laser properties is performed. Raman spectra are also studied. For Tm:CNNGG, the Judd-Ofelt parameters for the Tm3+ dopant ion are Ω2 = 1.847, Ω4 = 1.558 and Ω6 = 0.862 [10−20 cm2] and the radiative lifetime of the 3F4 state is 4.11 ms. The absorption, stimulated-emission (σSE) and gain cross-sections are determined for the 3H63F4 Tm3+-ion transition. For Tm:CNNGG, the maximum σSE is 0.49 × 10−20 cm2 at 1867 nm. Both crystals exhibit flat and broad gain spectra extending beyond 2 µm. A compact diode-pumped Tm:CNNGG laser has generated 1.05 W at 2007.7 nm with a slope efficiency of 35%. Broadband tuning of Tm:CNNGG and Tm:CLNGG lasers (tuning ranges of 168 nm and 224 nm, respectively), was demonstrated. The Tm3+,X+-codoped CNGG crystals are the promising for sub-100 fs pulse generation at ~2 μm.

© 2018 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser

Zhongben Pan, Yicheng Wang, Yongguang Zhao, Hualei Yuan, Xiaojun Dai, Huaqiang Cai, Ji Eun Bae, Sun Young Choi, Fabian Rotermund, Xavier Mateos, Josep Maria Serres, Pavel Loiko, Uwe Griebner, and Valentin Petrov
Photon. Res. 6(8) 800-804 (2018)

Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser

Jie Ma, Zhongben Pan, Jun Wang, Hualei Yuan, Huaqiang Cai, Guoqiang Xie, Liejia Qian, Deyuan Shen, and Dingyuan Tang
Opt. Express 25(13) 14968-14973 (2017)

“Mixed” Tm:Ca(Gd,Lu)AlO4 — a novel crystal for tunable and mode-locked 2 µm lasers

Zhongben Pan, Pavel Loiko, Josep Maria Serres, Esrom Kifle, Hualei Yuan, Xiaojun Dai, Huaqiang Cai, Yicheng Wang, Yongguang Zhao, Magdalena Aguiló, Francesc Díaz, Uwe Griebner, Valentin Petrov, and Xavier Mateos
Opt. Express 27(7) 9987-9995 (2019)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. Yokozawa and H. Hara, “Laser-diode end-pumped Tm(3+):YAG eye-safe laser,” Appl. Opt. 35(9), 1424–1426 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. I. F. Elder and J. Payne, “Diode-pumped, room-temperature Tm:YAP laser,” Appl. Opt. 36(33), 8606–8610 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ∼80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4380–4383 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. R. C. Stoneman and L. Esterowitz, “Efficient, broadly tunable, laser-pumped Tm:YAG and Tm:YSGG cw lasers,” Opt. Lett. 15(9), 486–488 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. A. Lagatsky, O. L. Antipov, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond Tm:Lu2O3 ceramic laser operating around 2070 nm,” Opt. Express 20(17), 19349–19354 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  9. A. A. Lagatsky, P. Koopmann, P. Fuhrberg, G. Huber, C. T. A. Brown, and W. Sibbett, “Passively mode locked femtosecond Tm:Sc2O3 laser at 2.1 μm,” Opt. Lett. 37(3), 437–439 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  13. Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).
  14. M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
    [Crossref]
  15. Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  16. G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  17. Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  19. F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  21. G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1872–1874 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  23. Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  24. F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
    [Crossref]
  25. T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, and K. Shimamura, “Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal,” Opt. Commun. 186(1–3), 127–133 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  26. W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  27. W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  30. G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  31. J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  33. K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  34. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  35. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
  36. L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  38. B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  39. A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  41. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

2018 (1)

2017 (4)

2016 (3)

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (2)

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ∼80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4380–4383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (6)

2010 (2)

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, and K. Shimamura, “Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal,” Opt. Commun. 186(1–3), 127–133 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

1993 (4)

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1988 (2)

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Agnesi, A.

Aguiló, M.

Alonso, J. A.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Álvarez-Pérez, J. O.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Antipov, O. L.

Aravazhi, S.

Aull, B.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. E.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Bolschikov, F. A.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

Byer, R. L.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cai, H.

J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Cascales, C.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Castellano-Hernández, E.

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, W.

Cho, Y. J.

Choi, S. Y.

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Chong, T. C.

G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dai, X.

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Di, J.

Díaz, F.

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Elder, I. F.

Es’kov, N. A.

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Eskov, N. A.

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Esterowitz, L.

Fan, T. Y.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Díaz, M. T.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Freeman, B.

G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fuhrberg, P.

Gao, W.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, W. L.

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

García-Blanco, S. M.

Gessen, S. B.

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Grivas, C.

Gruber, J. B.

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

Guina, M.

Guo, S. Y.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hara, H.

Härkönen, A.

He, J. L.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hills, M. E.

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hromov, M. N.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

Huber, G.

Jenssen, H.

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

Jezowski, A.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M.

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jiang, M. H.

Jiménez Riobóo, R. J.

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jing, W.

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Karasik, A. Y.

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kiryukhin, A. A.

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kisel’, V. E.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Koopmann, P.

Kudryavtsev, A. B.

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Kuleshov, N. V.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Li, M.

G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lin, H.

Lin, Z.

Liu, J.

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liu, J. H.

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M. N.

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, X. M.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Loiko, P.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Loiko, P. A.

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Lou, F.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Luo, H.

Lv, P.

Ma, J.

J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandrik, A. V.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mateos, X.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Mero, M.

Mitzscherlich, P.

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

Morrison, C. A.

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

Obara, M.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Ohta, K.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993).
[Crossref]

Osiko, V. V.

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Pan, Z.

J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Payne, J.

Petrov, V.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Pollnau, M.

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. van Dalfsen, S. Aravazhi, C. Grivas, S. M. García-Blanco, and M. Pollnau, “Thulium channel waveguide laser with 1.6 W of output power and ∼80% slope efficiency,” Opt. Lett. 39(15), 4380–4383 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popov, A. V.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Qian, L.

J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qian, L. J.

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1872–1874 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qin, Z.

Quarles, G. J.

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

Rabochkina, P. A.

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rotermund, F.

Y. Wang, W. Chen, M. Mero, L. Zhang, H. Lin, Z. Lin, G. Zhang, F. Rotermund, Y. J. Cho, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-100 fs Tm:MgWO4 laser at 2017 nm mode locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(16), 3076–3079 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Ryabochkina, P. A.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Saito, H.

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sanz, J.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, A.

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Segura, M.

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seltzer, M. D.

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

Serrano, M. D.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Serres, J. M.

L. Zhang, H. Lin, G. Zhang, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, Y. Wang, P. Loiko, E. Vilejshikova, K. Yumashev, Z. Lin, and W. Chen, “Crystal growth, optical spectroscopy and laser action of Tm3+-doped monoclinic magnesium tungstate,” Opt. Express 25(4), 3682–3693 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Shcherbitskii, V. G.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shen, D.

Shimamura, K.

T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, and K. Shimamura, “Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal,” Opt. Commun. 186(1–3), 127–133 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sibbett, W.

Sobol, A. A.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sobol’, A. A.

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Sobrados, I.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sorokin, E. V.

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Spiridonov, F. M.

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Stoneman, R. C.

Suomalainen, S.

Tan, W. D.

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, D.

Tang, D. Y.

Tanigawa, M.

T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, and K. Shimamura, “Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal,” Opt. Commun. 186(1–3), 127–133 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tao, X. T.

Tatarintsev, V. M.

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tsuboi, T.

T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, and K. Shimamura, “Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal,” Opt. Commun. 186(1–3), 127–133 (2000).
[Crossref]

Tsymbal, L. I.

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ushakov, S. N.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

van Dalfsen, K.

Vilejshikova, E.

Voron’ko, Yu. K.

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Voronko, Y. K.

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Voronko, Yu. K.

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, J. Y.

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1872–1874 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, R. H.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Wang, Z. W.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xie, G.

Xie, G. Q.

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1872–1874 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, X.

Y. Wang, G. Xie, X. Xu, J. Di, Z. Qin, S. Suomalainen, M. Guina, A. Härkönen, A. Agnesi, U. Griebner, X. Mateos, P. Loiko, and V. Petrov, “SESAM mode-locked Tm:CALGO laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(1), 131–136 (2016).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yang, K. J.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yasyukevich, A. S.

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yeom, D.-I.

A. Schmidt, P. Koopmann, G. Huber, P. Fuhrberg, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “175 fs Tm:Lu2O3 laser at 2.07 µm mode-locked using single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5313–5318 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yokozawa, T.

Yu, H.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, H. H.

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1872–1874 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, H.

J. Ma, Z. Pan, J. Wang, H. Yuan, H. Cai, G. Xie, L. Qian, D. Shen, and D. Tang, “Generation of sub-50fs soliton pulses from a mode-locked Yb,Na:CNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Express 25(13), 14968–14973 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Yuan, P.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yumashev, K.

Zaldo, C.

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B. T.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, H.

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H. J.

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ma, G. Q. Xie, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene mode-locked femtosecond laser at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Lett. 37(11), 2085–2087 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, P. Lv, W. L. Gao, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and D. Y. Tang, “Graphene saturable absorber for Q-switching and mode locking at 2 μm wavelength,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(6), 878–883 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Q. Xie, D. Y. Tang, H. Luo, H. J. Zhang, H. H. Yu, J. Y. Wang, X. T. Tao, M. H. Jiang, and L. J. Qian, “Dual-wavelength synchronously mode-locked Nd:CNGG laser,” Opt. Lett. 33(16), 1872–1874 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

Zhang, X.

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. T.

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. G.

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

Y. Wang, W. Jing, P. Loiko, Y. Zhao, H. Huang, X. Mateos, S. Suomalainen, A. Härkönen, M. Guina, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Sub-10 optical-cycle passively mode-locked Tm:(Lu2/3Sc1/3)2O3 ceramic laser at 2 µm,” Opt. Express 26(8), 10299–10304 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

F. Lou, S. Y. Guo, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Hou, Z. W. Wang, X. T. Zhang, K. J. Yang, R. H. Wang, and X. M. Liu, “Diode-pumped passively mode-locked femtosecond Yb:CTGG laser,” Appl. Phys. B 115(2), 247–250 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Schmidt, S. Y. Choi, D.-I. Yeom, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, M. Segura, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “Femtosecond pulses near 2 μm from a Tm:KLuW laser mode-locked by a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 092704 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

E. Castellano-Hernández, M. D. Serrano, R. J. Jiménez Riobóo, C. Cascales, C. Zaldo, A. Jezowski, and P. A. Loiko, “Na modification of lanthanide doped Ca3Nb1.5Ga3.5O12-type laser garnets: Czochralski crystal growth and characterization,” Cryst. Growth Des. 16(3), 1480–1491 (2016).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

T. Y. Fan, G. Huber, R. L. Byer, and P. Mitzscherlich, “Spectroscopy and diode laser-pumped operation of Tm,Ho:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24(6), 924–933 (1988).
[Crossref]

B. Aull and H. Jenssen, “Vibronic interactions in Nd:YAG resulting in nonreciprocity of absorption and stimulated emission cross sections,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 18(5), 925–930 (1982).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. D. Seltzer, J. B. Gruber, M. E. Hills, G. J. Quarles, and C. A. Morrison, “Multisite optical spectra and energy levels of trivalent thulium ions in yttrium scandium gallium garnet,” J. Appl. Phys. 74(4), 2821–2829 (1993).
[Crossref]

K. Ohta, H. Saito, and M. Obara, “Spectroscopic characterization of Tm3+:YVO4 crystal as an efficient diode pumped laser source near 2000 nm,” J. Appl. Phys. 73(7), 3149–3152 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

A. S. Yasyukevich, V. G. Shcherbitskii, V. E. Kisel’, A. V. Mandrik, and N. V. Kuleshov, “Integral method of reciprocity in the spectroscopy of laser crystals with impurity centers,” J. Appl. Spectrosc. 71(2), 202–208 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

G. Zhang, M. Li, T. C. Chong, X. Xu, and B. Freeman, “Congruency and morphology of Ca3(LiNbGa)5O12 garnet crystals grown by Czochralski method,” J. Cryst. Growth 250(1–2), 90–93 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

M. D. Serrano, J. O. Álvarez-Pérez, C. Zaldo, J. Sanz, I. Sobrados, J. A. Alonso, C. Cascales, M. T. Fernández-Díaz, and A. Jezowski, “Design of Yb3+ optical bandwidths by crystallographic modification of disordered calcium niobium gallium laser garnets,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 5(44), 11481–11495 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

P. Loiko and M. Pollnau, “Stochastic model of energy-transfer processes among rare-earth ions. Example of Al2O3:Tm3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 120(46), 26480–26489 (2016).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (2)

G. Q. Xie, L. J. Qian, P. Yuan, D. Y. Tang, W. D. Tan, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Generation of 534 fs pulses from a passively mode-locked Nd:CLNGG-CNGG disordered crystal hybrid laser,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(7), 483–486 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, J. Y. Wang, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic characteristics and efficient laser operation of Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(5), 055809 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

A. Schmidt, U. Griebner, H. Zhang, J. Wang, M. Jiang, J. Liu, and V. Petrov, “Passive mode-locking of the Yb:CNGG laser,” Opt. Commun. 283(4), 567–569 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Tsuboi, M. Tanigawa, and K. Shimamura, “Optical absorption and emission bands of Tm3+ ions in calcium niobium gallium garnet crystal,” Opt. Commun. 186(1–3), 127–133 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

Y. G. Zhang, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, X. Zhang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. H. Liu, “Diode-pumped SESAM mode-locked Yb:CLNGG laser,” Opt. Laser Technol. 69, 144–147 (2015).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Opt. Mater. (2)

W. L. Gao, G. Q. Xie, J. Ma, M. N. Liu, P. Yuan, L. J. Qian, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, and J. Y. Wang, “Efficient 2 μm Tm:CLNGG disordered crystal laser,” Opt. Mater. 35(4), 715–717 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu. K. Voronko, A. A. Sobol, A. Y. Karasik, N. A. Eskov, P. A. Rabochkina, and S. N. Ushakov, “Calcium niobium gallium and calcium lithium niobium gallium garnets doped with rare earth ions – effective laser media,” Opt. Mater. 20(3), 197–209 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

F. A. Bolschikov, M. N. Hromov, A. V. Popov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and Yu. K. Voronko, “Spectral and laser properties of Tm-doped calcium-niobium-gallium garnets,” Proc. SPIE 6731, 67311J (2007).
[Crossref]

Quantum Electron. (2)

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Lasing and spectroscopic properties of calcium-niobium-gallium garnet crystals doped with Tm3+ ions,” Quantum Electron. 23(4), 309–311 (1993).
[Crossref]

Y. K. Voronko, S. B. Gessen, N. A. Es’kov, A. A. Kiryukhin, P. A. Ryabochkina, A. A. Sobol, V. M. Tatarintsev, S. N. Ushakov, and L. I. Tsymbal, “Interaction of Tm3+ ions in calcium-niobium-gallium and yttrium-aluminum garnet laser crystals,” Quantum Electron. 23(11), 958–961 (1993).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 5016 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

Yu. K. Voron’ko, A. B. Kudryavtsev, N. A. Es’kov, V. V. Osiko, A. A. Sobol’, E. V. Sorokin, and F. M. Spiridonov, “Raman scattering of light in crystals and melt of calcium-niobium gallium garnet,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32(1), 70–73 (1988).

Other (1)

Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Zhao, H. Yuan, X. Dai, H. Cai, J. E. Bae, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, X. Mateos, J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, U. Griebner, and V. Petrov, “Generation of 84-fs pulses from a mode-locked Tm:CNNGG disordered garnet crystal laser,” Photon. Res.submitted.

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The as-grown Tm:CNNGG crystal boule: (a) side view and (b) top view.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 XRD pattern of the as-grown Tm:CNNGG crystal, numbers denote the Miller’s indices, (hkl).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Comparison of RT absorption spectra of 3.2 at.% Tm:CNNGG and 3.6 at.% Tm:CLNGG crystals; (b) absorption cross-sections, σabs, corresponding to the 3H63H4 Tm3+ transition in these crystals.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Emission properties of Tm:CNNGG and Tm:CLNGG crystals: (a) normalized RT luminescence spectra, λexc = 802 nm; (b) luminescence decay curves at RT: symbols – experimental data, solid lines – single-exponential fits for the determination of τlum, λexc = 802 nm, λlum = 1800 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Low-temperature (LT, 6 K) spectroscopy of Tm3+ ions in CNNGG crystal: (a) measured absorption and luminescence (λexc = 802 nm) spectra for the 3F43H6 transitions, “+” indicates the peaks assigned to the Stark-to-Stark transitions; (b) deduced Stark splitting of the 3F4 and 3H6 multiplets in D2 sites, dashed lines – missing Stark sub-levels according to Ref [37]. for Tm3+:YSGG.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 3F43H6 transition of Tm3+ ions in (a,b) Tm:CNNGG and (c,d) Tm:CLNGG crystals: (a,c) absorption (σabs) and calculated (by a combination of the modified RM and F-L methods) stimulated-emission (σSE) cross-sections, (b) gain cross-sections, σgain = βσSE – (1 – β)σabs, at different inversion rates β. All spectra are at RT.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 RT Raman spectra of Tm:CNNGG and Tm:CLNGG: numbers – frequencies of the Raman band components (in cm−1).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Scheme of the CW Tm:CNNGG / Tm:CLNGG laser (LD, laser diode; PM, pump mirror; DM, dichroic mirror; OC, output coupler).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 CW (a,b) Tm:CNNGG and (c,d) Tm:CLNGG lasers: (a,c) input-output dependences, η is the slope efficiency; (b,d) typical laser emission spectra measured at the maximum Pabs.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Scheme of the tunable Tm:CNNGG / Tm:CLNGG laser (L, lens; M1 – M2, dichroic folding mirrors; M3, plane mirror; OC - output coupler).
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Wavelength tuning performance of the Tm:CNNGG and Tm:CLNGG lasers.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Absorption Oscillator Strengths for a Tm:CNNGG Crystal

Tables Icon

Table 2 Calculated Probabilities of Spontaneous Radiative Transitions of Tm3+ Ions in CNNGG Crystal

Metrics