Abstract

Bioinspired moth-eye surface provides broadband antireflection features, which significantly enhance performances in optical components/devices. However, their practical uses are strictly limited due to poor mechanical stability of nano-patterns. In this study, we artificially engineered moth-eye structures on polycarbonate substrate through a thin-film coating of mechanically stable dielectric materials (i.e., Al2O3, Cr2O3, ZrO2, and TiO2 etc). The geometry of Al2O3-coated moth-eye surface is designed by considering the effective medium theory and confirmed by calculation of diffraction efficiency based on a rigorous coupled-wave analysis method. The tailored Al2O3-coating on moth eye surface exhibit the improved hardness while maintaining high optical transmittance.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (2)

V. Garg, R. G. Mote, and J. Fu, “Rapid prototyping of highly ordered subwavelength silicon nanostructures with enhanced light trapping,” Opt. Mater. 94, 75–85 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (2)

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

G. Tan, J. H. Lee, Y. H. Lan, M. K. Wei, L. H. Peng, I. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Broadband antireflection film with moth-eye-like structure for flexible display applications,” Optica 4(7), 678–683 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (6)

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Q. D. Ou, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Light manipulation in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Sci. 3(7), 1600123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Özel and E. Vural, “The microstructure and hardness properties of plasma sprayed Cr2O3/Al2O3 coatings,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 18(11-12), 1052–1056 (2016).

W. I. Nam, Y. J. Yoo, and Y. M. Song, “Geometrical shape design of nanophotonic surfaces for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1033–A1044 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, Y. Kim, H. Jang, and W. Chung, “Cr2O3 sealing of anodized aluminum alloy by heat treatment,” Surf. Coat. Technol. 243, 34–38 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Shen, X. X. Dong, and L. S. Chen, “Low-cost fabrication of large area sub-wavelength anti-reflective structures on polymer film using a soft PUA mold,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1842–1851 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (8)

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. J. Kim, Y. Lee, H. G. Kim, K. J. Choi, H. S. Kweon, S. Park, and K. H. Jeong, “Biologically inspired LED lens from cuticular nanostructures of firefly lantern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 109(46), 18674–18678 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Ji, J. Park, and H. Lim, “Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning,” Nanoscale 4(15), 4603–4610 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, E. K. Kang, and Y. T. Lee, “Size-dependent optical behavior of disordered nanostructures on glass substrates,” Appl. Opt. 51(24), 5890–5896 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, Y. Jeong, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A916–A923 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (6)

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Yamada, T. Ijiro, E. Okamoto, K. Hayashi, and H. Masuda, “Characterization of antireflection moth-eye film on crystalline silicon photovoltaic module,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A118–A125 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (7)

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

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Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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Cheng, L. P.

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Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
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K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
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S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
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C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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Cui, Y.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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U. Cvelbar, K. K. Ostrikov, and M. Mozetic, “Reactive oxygen plasma-enabled synthesis of nanostructured CdO: tailoring nanostructures through plasma–surface interactions,” Nanotechnology 19(40), 405605 (2008).
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P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
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M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
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Fan, S.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
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K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
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C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
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S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
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T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
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Hong, S. W.

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
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Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
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Hwang, F. H.

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K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
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Jang, H.

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H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
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Jang, S.

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
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H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, K.

S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, W.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. M

H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Song, Y. M.

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. I. Nam, Y. J. Yoo, and Y. M. Song, “Geometrical shape design of nanophotonic surfaces for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1033–A1044 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, Y. Jeong, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Enhanced power generation in concentrated photovoltaics using broadband antireflective coverglasses with moth eye structures,” Opt. Express 20(S6), A916–A923 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, E. K. Kang, and Y. T. Lee, “Size-dependent optical behavior of disordered nanostructures on glass substrates,” Appl. Opt. 51(24), 5890–5896 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Souma, N.

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Southwell, W. H.

Sugimura, S.

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sutter, P.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tan, G.

Tan, R.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tang, J. X.

Q. D. Ou, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Light manipulation in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Sci. 3(7), 1600123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tang, Y.

J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, and M. Ouyang, “Tailoring light–matter–spin interactions in colloidal hetero-nanostructures,” Nature 466(7302), 91–95 (2010).
[Crossref]

Thébault, P.

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ting, C. J.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tommila, J.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tong, X.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tsai, H. Y.

C. J. Ting, M. C. Huang, H. Y. Tsai, C. P. Chou, and C. C. Fu, “Low cost fabrication of the large-area anti-reflection films from polymer by nanoimprint/hot-embossing technology,” Nanotechnology 19(20), 205301 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tukiainen, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turtiainen, A.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vakil, H.

Van Duyne, R. P.

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Viheriälä, J.

J. Tommila, V. Polojärvi, A. Aho, A. Tukiainen, J. Viheriälä, J. Salmi, A. Schramm, J. M. Konitio, A. Turtiainen, M. Niemi, and M. Guina, “Nanostructured broadband antireflection coatings on AlInP fabricated by nanoimprint lithography,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94(10), 1845–1848 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vroon, Z.

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

Vural, E.

S. Özel and E. Vural, “The microstructure and hardness properties of plasma sprayed Cr2O3/Al2O3 coatings,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 18(11-12), 1052–1056 (2016).

Wang, K. X.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, W. N.

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, M. K.

Wu, H.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wu, S. T.

Xi, J. Q.

Xin, H.

A. Rahman, A. Ashraf, H. Xin, X. Tong, P. Sutter, M. D. Eisaman, and C. T. Black, “Sub-50-nm self-assembled nanotextures for enhanced broadband antireflection in silicon solar cells,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 5963 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, W.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yakimets, I.

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yamada, N.

Yang, H.

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yeo, C. I.

Yi, P.

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yoo, Y. J.

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnO hollow nanosphere arrays for UV absorbing transparent glasses,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 48(2), 88 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. I. Nam, Y. J. Yoo, and Y. M. Song, “Geometrical shape design of nanophotonic surfaces for thin film solar cells,” Opt. Express 24(14), A1033–A1044 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Yoo, K. S. Chang, S. W. Hong, and Y. M. Song, “Design of ZnS antireflective microstructures for mid-and far-infrared applications,” Opt. Quant. Electron. 47(6), 1503–1508 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. H.

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. S.

J. W. Leem, Y. M. Song, and J. S. Yu, “Biomimetic artificial Si compound eye surface structures with broadband and wide-angle antireflection properties for Si-based optoelectronic applications,” Nanoscale 5(21), 10455–10460 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, J. S. Yu, C. I. Yeo, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective properties of porous Si nanocolumnar structures with graded refractive index layers,” Opt. Lett. 36(2), 253–255 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. J. Jang, Y. M. Song, C. I. Yeo, C. Y. Park, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Antireflective property of thin film a-Si solar cell structures with graded refractive index structure,” Opt. Express 19(S2), A108–A117 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, S. J. Jang, J. S. Yu, and Y. T. Lee, “Bioinspired parabola subwavelength structures for improved broadband antireflection,” Small 6(9), 984–987 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, Z.

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, S. Shen, X. X. Dong, and L. S. Chen, “Low-cost fabrication of large area sub-wavelength anti-reflective structures on polymer film using a soft PUA mold,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1842–1851 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Y. Tang, K. Lee, and M. Ouyang, “Tailoring light–matter–spin interactions in colloidal hetero-nanostructures,” Nature 466(7302), 91–95 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

J. Li, Y. Lu, P. Lan, X. Zhang, W. Xu, R. Tan, W. Song, and K. L. Choy, “Design, preparation, and durability of TiO2/SiO2 and ZrO2/SiO2 double-layer antireflective coatings in crystalline silicon solar modules,” Sol. Energy 89, 134–142 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

Y. Qiu, W. Liu, W. Chen, G. Zhou, P. C. Hsu, R. Zhang, Z. Liang, S. Fan, Y. Zhang, and Y. Cui, “Efficient solar-driven water splitting by nanocone BiVO4-perovskite tandem cells,” Sci. Adv. 2(6), e1501764 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zou, S.

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (4)

W. K. Kuo, J. J. Hsu, C. K. Nien, and H. H. Yu, “Moth-eye-inspired biophotonic surfaces with antireflective and hydrophobic characteristics,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(46), 32021–32030 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Kim, G. J. Lee, S. Kim, J. W. Min, S. Y. Jeong, Y. J. Yoo, S. H. Lee, and Y. M. Song, “Efficient light absorption by GaN truncated nanocones for high performance water splitting applications,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 10(34), 28672–28678 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Ji, K. Song, T. B. Nguyen, N. Kim, and H. Lim, “Optimal moth eye nanostructure array on transparent glass towards broadband antireflection,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 5(21), 10731–10737 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jang, S. M. Kang, and M. Choi, “Multifunctional moth-eye TiO2/PDMS pads with high transmittance and UV filtering,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9(50), 44038–44044 (2017).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “Large-area roll-to-roll and roll-to-plate nanoimprint lithography: a step toward high-throughput application of continuous nanoimprinting,” ACS Nano 3(8), 2304–2310 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

C. W. Kuo, J. Y. Shiu, Y. H. Cho, and P. E. I. L. I. N. Chen, “Fabrication of large-area periodic nanopillar arrays for nanoimprint lithography using polymer colloid masks,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1065–1068 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. H. Ahn and L. J. Guo, “High-speed roll-to-roll nanoimprint lithography on flexible plastic substrates,” Adv. Mater. 20(11), 2044–2049 (2008).
[Crossref]

P. Thébault, S. Niedermayer, S. Landis, N. Chaix, P. Guenoun, J. Daillant, and H. Orland, “Tailoring nanostructures using copolymer nanoimprint lithography,” Adv. Mater. 24(15), 1952–1955 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, Y. T. Lee, C. K. Hwangbo, H. Yang, and H. S. Lee, “Nano-tailoring the surface structure for the monolithic high-performance antireflection polymer film,” Adv. Mater. 22(33), 3713–3718 (2010).
[Crossref]

Adv. Sci. (1)

Q. D. Ou, Y. Q. Li, and J. X. Tang, “Light manipulation in organic photovoltaics,” Adv. Sci. 3(7), 1600123 (2016).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. A. Boden and D. M. Bagnall, “Tunable reflection minima of nanostructured antireflective surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(13), 133108 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, G. Hubbard, P. A. Shields, C. Liu, D. W. Allsopp, W. N. Wang, and S. Abbott, “Broadband moth-eye antireflection coatings fabricated by low-cost nanoimprinting,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(26), 263118 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. M. Song, E. S. Choi, G. C. Park, C. Y. Park, S. J. Jang, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective nanostructures on GaN-based light-emitting diodes using Ag nanoparticles for improved light extraction efficiency,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093110 (2010).
[Crossref]

Coatings (1)

H. J. Jang, Y. J. Kim, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, M. S. Kim, K. S. Chang, and Y. M. Song, “Double-Sided Anti-Reflection Nanostructures on Optical Convex Lenses for Imaging Applications,” Coatings 9(6), 404 (2019).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

H. K. Raut, V. A. Ganesh, A. S. Nair, and S. Ramakrishna, “Anti-reflective coatings: A critical, in-depth review,” Energy Environ. Sci. 4(10), 3779–3804 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (1)

C. Zhang, P. Yi, L. Peng, X. Lai, and J. Ni, “Fabrication of moth-eye nanostructure arrays using roll-to-roll UV-nanoimprint lithography with an anodic aluminum oxide mold,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. 14(6), 1127–1137 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

K. Choi, S. H. Park, Y. M. Song, C. Cho, and H. S. Lee, “Robustly nano-tailored honeycomb structure for high-throughput antireflection polymer films,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(33), 17037–17043 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Nanomater. (1)

H. S. Song, Y. J. Yoo, G. J. Lee, K. S. Chang, and Y. M Song, “Optical Design of Porous ZnO/TiO2 Films for Highly Transparent Glasses with Broadband Ultraviolet Protection,” J. Nanomater. 2017, 1–8 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (2)

G. C. Park, Y. M. Song, J. H. Ha, and Y. T. Lee, “Broadband antireflective glasses with subwavelength structures using randomly distributed Ag nanoparticles,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(7), 6152–6156 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. S. Choi, Y. M. Song, G. C. Park, and Y. T. Lee, “Disordered antireflective subwavelength structures using Ag nanoparticles for GaN-based optical device applications,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 11(2), 1342–1345 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

C. C. Chang, T. Y. Oyang, F. H. Hwang, C. C. Chen, and L. P. Cheng, “Preparation of polymer/silica hybrid hard coatings with enhanced hydrophobicity on plastic substrates,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(1), 72–76 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. (1)

S. Özel and E. Vural, “The microstructure and hardness properties of plasma sprayed Cr2O3/Al2O3 coatings,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. M. 18(11-12), 1052–1056 (2016).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

T. Nakanishi, T. Hiraoka, A. Fujimoto, T. Okino, S. Sugimura, T. Shimada, and K. Asakawa, “Large area fabrication of moth-eye antireflection structures using self-assembled nanoparticles in combination with nanoimprinting,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 49(7), 075001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Langmuir (1)

A. D. Ormonde, E. C. Hicks, J. Castillo, and R. P. Van Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Fabrication of Large-Area Ag Nanoparticle Arrays by Convective Self-Assembly and Their Characterization by Scanning UV− Visible Extinction Spectroscopy,” Langmuir 20(16), 6927–6931 (2004).
[Crossref]

Mater. Res. Express (1)

K. Kurihara, Y. Saitou, N. Souma, S. Makihara, H. Kato, and T. Nakano, “Fabrication of nano-structure anti-reflective lens using platinum nanoparticles in injection moulding,” Mater. Res. Express 2(1), 015008 (2014).
[Crossref]

Materials (1)

M. Burghoorn, D. Roosen-Melsen, J. de Riet, S. Sabik, Z. Vroon, I. Yakimets, and P. Buskens, “Single layer broadband anti-reflective coatings for plastic substrates produced by full wafer and roll-to-roll step-and-flash nano-imprint lithography,” Materials 6(9), 3710–3726 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

K. X. Wang, Z. Yu, V. Liu, Y. Cui, and S. Fan, “Absorption enhancement in ultrathin crystalline silicon solar cells with antireflection and light-trapping nanocone gratings,” Nano Lett. 12(3), 1616–1619 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Res. (1)

S. B. Khan, H. Wu, X. Huai, S. Zou, Y. Liu, and Z. Zhang, “Mechanically robust antireflective coatings,” Nano Res. 11(3), 1699–1713 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (2)

S. Ji, J. Park, and H. Lim, “Improved antireflection properties of moth eye mimicking nanopillars on transparent glass: flat antireflection and color tuning,” Nanoscale 4(15), 4603–4610 (2012).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic illustration of antireflective moth-eye structures (AMSs) with Al2O3 monolayer on polycarbonate (PC) film. (b) Geometrical parameters of period, height, and filling fraction (FF) of AMSs (c) Calculated effective refractive indices of the Al2O3 coated AMSs on PC film. (d) Real part of electric-field distributions from three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations. (e) Measured transmittances of fabricated samples with different Al2O3 coating thicknesses
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Fabrication steps for Al2O3 coated moth-eye polycarbonate films (b) Photographs of flat PC, moth-eye patterned PC, and Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC. (c) SEM images of top view and cross sectioned view for fabricated samples varying Al2O3 deposition thickness (0 nm, 50 nm, 75 nm, and 100 nm). The scale bar is 250 nm.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Schemes of scratch tests on samples (b) Optical microscope images of scratched Al2O3 coated moth-eye PC. (c) Frictional coefficient versus lateral displacement depending on the Al2O3 coating thickness.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated refractive index depending on (a) FF and (b) Al2O3 thickness. (c) Contour plots of transmittance for FF and Al2O3 thickness. (d) Calculated average transmittance depending on Al2O3 thickness and FF.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Schematic view of nanostructures with varying parabolic ratio. (b) Refractive index profile of AMSs for the parabolic ratio with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). (c) Contour plots of transmittance of AMSs without and with Al2O3 coating (i.e., 75 nm). (d) Calculated transmittance depending on the angle of incident light. (e) Calculated refractive index with different coating materials (i.e., Si3N4 and SiO2).

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