Abstract

We report a study of the thermally activated processes occurring in Bi-doped GeO2-SiO2 fibers using the demarcation energy concept based on a distribution of the activation energies of a first order physico-chemical reaction. Our attention was paid to the processes of formation of the bismuth-related active centers (BACs) and Bi-centers responsible for the unsaturable loss, as well as to the restoration of the BACs in laser-bleached fibers. The activation energies of these processes were determined analyzing the thermal kinetics of these processes. The formation energies of new BACs and Bi-centers responsible for the unsaturable loss were determined to be around 1.1 eV and higher than 2 eV, respectively. The activation energy of thermal restoration process of the bleached BACs is $\approx$ 0.4 eV. The possible underlying mechanisms of these processes are discussed.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  24. M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
    [Crossref]

2019 (2)

2018 (5)

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Wen, and G.-D. Peng, “Dynamic behavior of pump light radiation induced photo-bleaching effect on BAC-Si in bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 1051226 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn, and B. Kusz, “Determination of ionic conductivity in the Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses,” Mater. Sci. 35(4), 681–686 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Firstov, A. Kharakhordin, S. Alyshev, K. Riumkin, E. Firstova, M. Melkumov, V. Khopin, A. Guryanov, and E. Dianov, “Formation of laser-active centers in bismuth-doped high-germania silica fibers by thermal treatment,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12363–12371 (2018).
[Crossref]

Q. Zhao, Y. Luo, Y. Tian, and G.-D. Peng, “Pump wavelength dependence and thermal effect of photobleaching of BAC-Al in bismuth/erbium codoped aluminosilicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 43(19), 4739–4742 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Firstov, S. Alyshev, A. Kharakhordin, K. Riumkin, and E. Dianov, “Laser-induced bleaching and thermo-stimulated recovery of luminescent centers in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3422–3432 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (2)

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ding, S. Wei, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Reversible photo-bleaching effect in a bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber under 830 nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4688–4691 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

2012 (2)

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers: a challenging active medium for near-IR lasers and optical amplifiers,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(5), e12 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

B. Poumellec, “Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 108–115 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Schurman and M. Tomozawa, “Equilibrium oxygen vacancy concentrations and oxidant diffusion in germania, silica, and germania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202(1-2), 93–106 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Afanasiev, F. V.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Alfieri, G.

M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Alyshev, S.

Alyshev, S. V.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Avset, B. S.

M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Barua, P.

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “High gain Bi-doped all fiber amplifier for O-band DWDM optical fiber communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.5.

Bochentyn, B.

J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn, and B. Kusz, “Determination of ionic conductivity in the Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses,” Mater. Sci. 35(4), 681–686 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bufetov, I. A.

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chu, Y.

Denisov, L. K.

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dianov, E.

Dianov, E. M.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. M. Dianov, “Bismuth-doped optical fibers: a challenging active medium for near-IR lasers and optical amplifiers,” Light: Sci. Appl. 1(5), e12 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Ding, M.

M. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Wen, and G.-D. Peng, “Dynamic behavior of pump light radiation induced photo-bleaching effect on BAC-Si in bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 1051226 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ding, S. Wei, Y. Luo, and G.-D. Peng, “Reversible photo-bleaching effect in a bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fiber under 830 nm irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 41(20), 4688–4691 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dvoretskii, D. A.

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fan, D.

Firstov, S.

Firstov, S. V.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref]

Firstova, E.

Firstova, E. G.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref]

Guryanov, A.

Guryanov, A. N.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, S.

Inniss, D.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Jackson, J. M.

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Karczewski, J.

J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn, and B. Kusz, “Determination of ionic conductivity in the Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses,” Mater. Sci. 35(4), 681–686 (2018).
[Crossref]

Kharakhordin, A.

Kharakhordin, A. V.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

Khegai, A.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Khegai, A. M.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

Khegay, A. M.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

Khopin, V.

Khopin, V. F.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, V. F. Khopin, I. A. Bufetov, E. G. Firstova, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Combined excitation-emission spectroscopy of bismuth active centers in optical fibers,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19551–19561 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kinser, D. L.

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Koplow, J. P.

Kordas, G.

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Kusz, B.

J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn, and B. Kusz, “Determination of ionic conductivity in the Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses,” Mater. Sci. 35(4), 681–686 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lancry, M.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lingle, R.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Lobanov, A. S.

Luo, J.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Luo, Y.

Magruder, R. H.

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Melkumov, M.

S. Firstov, A. Kharakhordin, S. Alyshev, K. Riumkin, E. Firstova, M. Melkumov, V. Khopin, A. Guryanov, and E. Dianov, “Formation of laser-active centers in bismuth-doped high-germania silica fibers by thermal treatment,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12363–12371 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Firstov, S. Alyshev, V. Khopin, M. Melkumov, A. Guryanov, and E. Dianov, “Photobleaching effect in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” Opt. Express 23(15), 19226–19233 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Melkumov, M. A.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, E. G. Firstova, M. A. Melkumov, A. M. Khegay, V. F. Khopin, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Dependence of the photobleaching on laser radiation wavelength in bismuth-doped germanosilicate fibers,” J. Lumin. 182, 87–90 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mikelsen, M.

M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Mikhailov, V.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Miruszewski, T.

J. Karczewski, T. Miruszewski, B. Bochentyn, and B. Kusz, “Determination of ionic conductivity in the Bi-Si-O and Pb-Si-O glasses,” Mater. Sci. 35(4), 681–686 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Monakhov, E. V.

M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Peng, G.-D.

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec and M. Lancry, “Kinetics of thermally activated physical processes in disordered media,” Fibers 3(4), 206–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, “Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 108–115 (1998).
[Crossref]

Puc, G.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Richardson, D. J.

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “High gain Bi-doped all fiber amplifier for O-band DWDM optical fiber communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.5.

Riumkin, K.

S. Firstov, A. Kharakhordin, S. Alyshev, K. Riumkin, E. Firstova, M. Melkumov, V. Khopin, A. Guryanov, and E. Dianov, “Formation of laser-active centers in bismuth-doped high-germania silica fibers by thermal treatment,” Opt. Express 26(10), 12363–12371 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Firstov, S. Alyshev, A. Kharakhordin, K. Riumkin, and E. Dianov, “Laser-induced bleaching and thermo-stimulated recovery of luminescent centers in bismuth-doped optical fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3422–3432 (2017).
[Crossref]

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Riumkin, K. E.

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, A. V. Kharakhordin, A. S. Lobanov, E. G. Firstova, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Effect of heat treatment parameters on the optical properties of bismuth-doped GeO$_{2}$2:SiO$_{2}$2 glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(5), 2165–2174 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. V. Firstov, E. G. Firstova, S. V. Alyshev, V. F. Khopin, K. E. Riumkin, M. A. Melkumov, A. N. Guryanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Recovery of IR luminescence in photobleached bismuth-doped fibers by thermal annealing,” Laser Phys. 26(8), 084007 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “High gain Bi-doped all fiber amplifier for O-band DWDM optical fiber communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.5.

Schurman, M.

M. Schurman and M. Tomozawa, “Equilibrium oxygen vacancy concentrations and oxidant diffusion in germania, silica, and germania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202(1-2), 93–106 (1996).
[Crossref]

Semenov, S. L.

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shenk, S.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Soderlund, M. J.

Sun, Y.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Svensson, B. G.

M. Mikelsen, E. V. Monakhov, G. Alfieri, B. S. Avset, and B. G. Svensson, “Kinetics of divacancy annealing and divacancy-oxygen formation in oxygen-enriched high-purity silicon,” Phys. Rev. B 72(19), 195207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Talal, M.

Thipparapu, N. K.

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “High gain Bi-doped all fiber amplifier for O-band DWDM optical fiber communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.5.

Tian, Y.

Tomozawa, M.

M. Schurman and M. Tomozawa, “Equilibrium oxygen vacancy concentrations and oxidant diffusion in germania, silica, and germania-silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 202(1-2), 93–106 (1996).
[Crossref]

Umnikov, A. A.

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “High gain Bi-doped all fiber amplifier for O-band DWDM optical fiber communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.5.

Velmiskin, V. V.

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

N. K. Thipparapu, Y. Wang, A. A. Umnikov, P. Barua, D. J. Richardson, and J. K. Sahu, “High gain Bi-doped all fiber amplifier for O-band DWDM optical fiber communication,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.5.

Weeks, R. A.

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wei, S.

Wells, M. E.

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

Wen, J.

M. Ding, Y. Luo, J. Wen, and G.-D. Peng, “Dynamic behavior of pump light radiation induced photo-bleaching effect on BAC-Si in bismuth/erbium co-doped optical fibers,” Proc. SPIE 10512, 1051226 (2018).
[Crossref]

Westbrook, P.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Windeler, R.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Xiao, G.

Yan, M.

V. Mikhailov, M. Melkumov, D. Inniss, A. Khegai, K. Riumkin, S. Firstov, F. V. Afanasiev, M. Yan, Y. Sun, J. Luo, G. Puc, S. Shenk, R. Windeler, P. Westbrook, R. Lingle, E. Dianov, and D. DiGiovanni, “Simple broadband bismuth doped fiber amplifier (BDFA) to extend O-band transmission reach and capacity,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2019, (Optical Society of America, 2019), p. M1J.4.

Zhang, B.

Zhao, Q.

Zlenko, A. S.

D. A. Dvoretskii, I. A. Bufetov, V. V. Velmiskin, A. S. Zlenko, V. F. Khopin, S. L. Semenov, A. N. Guryanov, L. K. Denisov, and E. M. Dianov, “Optical properties of bismuth-doped silica fibres in the temperature range 300-1500 K,” Quantum Electron. 42(9), 762–769 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fibers (1)

B. Poumellec and M. Lancry, “Kinetics of thermally activated physical processes in disordered media,” Fibers 3(4), 206–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. V. Firstov, S. V. Alyshev, K. E. Riumkin, A. M. Khegai, A. V. Kharakhordin, M. A. Melkumov, and E. M. Dianov, “Laser-active fibers doped with bismuth for a wavelength region of 1.6 - 1.8 $\mu$μm,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(5), 1–15 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. M. Jackson, M. E. Wells, G. Kordas, D. L. Kinser, R. A. Weeks, and R. H. Magruder, “Preparation effects on the UV optical properties of GeO$_{2}$2 glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 58(6), 2308–2311 (1985).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (1)

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. a) Temporal evolution of normalized PACs concentration at different temperature of treatment. (symbols - experimental data; lines - fitting). Fitting parameters are shown at the corresponding curve. Factor $A$ (b) and exponent coefficient $\alpha$ (c) as a function of temperature.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. a) Plot of the normalized $N_{PAC}$ versus the demarcation energy $E_{d}$ . The rate factor $k_{0}$ is ${10}^{4}$ s $^{-1}$ . The dashed line is fitting curve (Eq. 2); b) The distribution $g(E)$ calculated by differentiation of the line in (a). The range of demarcation energies of the BACs formation process is indicated by symbols (experimental data).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Normalized concentration of the precursors for bleached BACs versus the demarcation energy $E_{d}$ . (dashed line - fitting curve; symbols - experimental data). The rate factor $k_{0}$ in this case is between ${10}^{0}$ and ${10}^{1}$ s $^{-1}$ . Inset: Calculated activation energy distribution function $g(E)$ .
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated activation energy distribution $g(E)$ for the studied processes (dashed lines). Experimental data with regard to the unsaturable loss are shown with stars.

Equations (3)

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g ( E ) = 1 k B T 0 e x p ( E E 0 k B T 0 ) ( 1 + e x p ( E E 0 k B T 0 ) ) 2
N P A C ( t , T ) = 1 0 E d g ( E ) d E 1 1 + e x p ( E d E 0 k B T 0 ) = 1 1 + ( k 0 t ) T T 0 e x p ( E 0 k B T 0 )
A = A 0 e x p ( a T )

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