Abstract

We have investigated the structural evolution of Si-rich Er silicate films. Er silicate layers embedded with amorphous silicon (a-Si) clusters are formed upon the annealing above 1000 °C of Er-doped Si-rich SiO2 films with high Er concentrations. It is found that the crystallization of Er silicates annealed at higher temperatures leads to the disappearance of Si-NCs formed at 900 °C. On the other hand, the interface between Er silicate and embedded a-Si clusters increases the nucleation barrier for Si-NCs in these clusters. A two-step annealing process is utilized to obtain a fine structure and a good crystal quality of Er silicates at the same time, which will benefit the sensitized photoluminescence of Er silicates.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  28. R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  29. S. Fujita and N. Sugiyama, “Visible light-emitting devices with Schottky contacts on an ultrathin amorphous silicon layer containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 308–310 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. D. Persans, A. Ruppert, and B. Abeles, “Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Si/SiO2 superlattice structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102(1-3), 130–135 (1988).
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    [Crossref]

2019 (1)

2018 (1)

A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

T.-J. Wang, B.-W. Chen, P.-K. Chen, and C.-H. Chen, “Er/Si interdiffusion effect on photoluminescent properties of erbium oxide/silicon oxide films deposited on silicon,” J. Lumin. 192, 1065–1071 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, L. Xu, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 113103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (1)

Q. Fu, Y. Gao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitizing properties of luminescence centers on the emission of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203106 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitization of Er3+ ions in silicon rich oxynitride films: effect of thermal treatments,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13022–13028 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

A. J. Kenyon, “Erbium in silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(12), R65–R84 (2005).
[Crossref]

L. Pavesi, “Routes toward silicon-based lasers,” Mater. Today 8(1), 18–25 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. Zacharias and P. Streitenberger, “Crystallization of amorphous superlattices in the limit of ultrathin films with oxide interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 8391–8396 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Fujita and N. Sugiyama, “Visible light-emitting devices with Schottky contacts on an ultrathin amorphous silicon layer containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 308–310 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

P. D. Persans, A. Ruppert, and B. Abeles, “Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Si/SiO2 superlattice structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102(1-3), 130–135 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

R. D. Shannon, “Revised Effective Ionic-Radii And Systematic Studies Of Interatomic Distances In Halides And Chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr. 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
[Crossref]

Abeles, B.

P. D. Persans, A. Ruppert, and B. Abeles, “Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Si/SiO2 superlattice structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102(1-3), 130–135 (1988).
[Crossref]

Anopchenko, A.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

Berencén, Y.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bongiorno, C.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cao, J.

Chen, B.-W.

T.-J. Wang, B.-W. Chen, P.-K. Chen, and C.-H. Chen, “Er/Si interdiffusion effect on photoluminescent properties of erbium oxide/silicon oxide films deposited on silicon,” J. Lumin. 192, 1065–1071 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.-H.

T.-J. Wang, B.-W. Chen, P.-K. Chen, and C.-H. Chen, “Er/Si interdiffusion effect on photoluminescent properties of erbium oxide/silicon oxide films deposited on silicon,” J. Lumin. 192, 1065–1071 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, K.

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, P.-K.

T.-J. Wang, B.-W. Chen, P.-K. Chen, and C.-H. Chen, “Er/Si interdiffusion effect on photoluminescent properties of erbium oxide/silicon oxide films deposited on silicon,” J. Lumin. 192, 1065–1071 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cheng, B. W.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Colonna, J. P.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Colonna, J.-P.

Daldosso, N.

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, W. C.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Estradé, S.

Fan, F.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J.-M.

Feng, X.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ferrarese Lupi, F.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ferrarese-Lupi, F.

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fonash, S. J.

R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
[Crossref]

Franzò, G.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fu, Q.

Q. Fu, Y. Gao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitizing properties of luminescence centers on the emission of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203106 (2016).
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A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, H. Shen, J. Cao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Control of the formation and luminescent properties of polymorphic erbium silicates on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1716–1727 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, Y. Gao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitizing properties of luminescence centers on the emission of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203106 (2016).
[Crossref]

García, C.

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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Garrido, B.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gourbilleau, F.

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gregorkiewicz, T.

A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
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J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
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I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
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Hotta, H.

I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
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Iacona, F.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Irrera, A.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

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H. Isshiki, K. Masaki, K. Ueda, and R. Saito, “1.5 µm PL fine structures and their extreme fast decay of crystalline ErSiO compounds,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (2004), 192–193.

Jambois, O.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
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Jin, L.

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
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L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitization of Er3+ ions in silicon rich oxynitride films: effect of thermal treatments,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13022–13028 (2014).
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Kakkad, R.

R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
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Kalkman, J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an Erbium Doped Microdisk Laser on a Silicon Chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CFI1.

Kawai, K.

I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
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A. J. Kenyon, “Erbium in silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(12), R65–R84 (2005).
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R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an Erbium Doped Microdisk Laser on a Silicon Chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CFI1.

Komiyama, H.

I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
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Lau, W. S.

R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
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Lebrun, D. M.

A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Lesage, A.

A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Li, D.

Y. Gao, H. Shen, J. Cao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Control of the formation and luminescent properties of polymorphic erbium silicates on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1716–1727 (2019).
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H. Shen, L. Xu, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 113103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, Y. Gao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitizing properties of luminescence centers on the emission of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitization of Er3+ ions in silicon rich oxynitride films: effect of thermal treatments,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13022–13028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
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T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
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Liu, X.

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
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Liu, Z.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lo Savio, R.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marconi, A.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

Masaki, K.

H. Isshiki, K. Masaki, K. Ueda, and R. Saito, “1.5 µm PL fine structures and their extreme fast decay of crystalline ErSiO compounds,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (2004), 192–193.

Michel, J.

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
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Miritello, M.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Navarro-Urrios, D.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ning, C. Z.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pacifici, D.

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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L. Pavesi, “Routes toward silicon-based lasers,” Mater. Today 8(1), 18–25 (2005).
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Pellegrino, P.

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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Persans, P. D.

P. D. Persans, A. Ruppert, and B. Abeles, “Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Si/SiO2 superlattice structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102(1-3), 130–135 (1988).
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Piro, A. M.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pitanti, A.

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

A. Polman, “Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 82(1), 1–39 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an Erbium Doped Microdisk Laser on a Silicon Chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CFI1.

Priolo, F.

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prtljaga, N.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
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A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qin, G. G.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Que, D.

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ramírez, J. M.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ran, G. Z.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rebled, J. M.

Rivallin, P.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
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Rizk, R.

A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
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B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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Ruppert, A.

P. D. Persans, A. Ruppert, and B. Abeles, “Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Si/SiO2 superlattice structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102(1-3), 130–135 (1988).
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Saito, R.

H. Isshiki, K. Masaki, K. Ueda, and R. Saito, “1.5 µm PL fine structures and their extreme fast decay of crystalline ErSiO compounds,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (2004), 192–193.

Seo, S. Y.

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
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Shannon, R. D.

R. D. Shannon, “Revised Effective Ionic-Radii And Systematic Studies Of Interatomic Distances In Halides And Chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr. 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
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Shen, H.

Y. Gao, H. Shen, J. Cao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Control of the formation and luminescent properties of polymorphic erbium silicates on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1716–1727 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, L. Xu, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 113103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y. F.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Smith, J.

R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
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Streitenberger, P.

M. Zacharias and P. Streitenberger, “Crystallization of amorphous superlattices in the limit of ultrathin films with oxide interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 8391–8396 (2000).
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Sugiyama, N.

S. Fujita and N. Sugiyama, “Visible light-emitting devices with Schottky contacts on an ultrathin amorphous silicon layer containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 308–310 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, H.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Swihart, M. T.

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
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Tanaka, K.

I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
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Tengattini, A.

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Tengattini, A. Anopchenko, J. M. Ramírez, J. M. Rebled, S. Estradé, J.-P. Colonna, J.-M. Fedeli, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Limit to the erbium ions emission in silicon-rich oxide films by erbium ion clustering,” Opt. Mater. Express 2(9), 1278–1285 (2012).
[Crossref]

Timmerman, D.

A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
[Crossref]

Ueda, K.

H. Isshiki, K. Masaki, K. Ueda, and R. Saito, “1.5 µm PL fine structures and their extreme fast decay of crystalline ErSiO compounds,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (2004), 192–193.

Vahala, K. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an Erbium Doped Microdisk Laser on a Silicon Chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CFI1.

Wang, F.

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. L.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, Q. M.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.-J.

T.-J. Wang, B.-W. Chen, P.-K. Chen, and C.-H. Chen, “Er/Si interdiffusion effect on photoluminescent properties of erbium oxide/silicon oxide films deposited on silicon,” J. Lumin. 192, 1065–1071 (2017).
[Crossref]

Wei, F.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiang, L.

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

H. Shen, L. Xu, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 113103 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitization of Er3+ ions in silicon rich oxynitride films: effect of thermal treatments,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13022–13028 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. J.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xue, C. L.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

Y. Gao, H. Shen, J. Cao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Control of the formation and luminescent properties of polymorphic erbium silicates on silicon,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(4), 1716–1727 (2019).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, L. Xu, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 113103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, Y. Gao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitizing properties of luminescence centers on the emission of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203106 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Xu, L. Jin, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitization of Er3+ ions in silicon rich oxynitride films: effect of thermal treatments,” Opt. Express 22(11), 13022–13028 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, Q. G.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
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Yao, S. D.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yin, B.

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yin, L.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y.

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, J. Z.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zacharias, M.

M. Zacharias and P. Streitenberger, “Crystallization of amorphous superlattices in the limit of ultrathin films with oxide interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 8391–8396 (2000).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, S.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zheng, J.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zheng, Y.

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Z.

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zuo, Y. H.

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
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Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr. (1)

R. D. Shannon, “Revised Effective Ionic-Radii And Systematic Studies Of Interatomic Distances In Halides And Chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr. 32(5), 751–767 (1976).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

M. Miritello, R. Lo Savio, F. Iacona, G. Franzò, A. Irrera, A. M. Piro, C. Bongiorno, and F. Priolo, “Efficient Luminescence and Energy Transfer in Erbium Silicate Thin Films,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1582–1588 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

T. Lin, X. Zhang, J. Xu, X. Liu, M. T. Swihart, L. Xu, and K. Chen, “Strong energy-transfer-induced enhancement of Er3+ luminescence in In2O3 nanocrystal codoped silica films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(18), 181906 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Lesage, D. Timmerman, D. M. Lebrun, Y. Fujiwara, and T. Gregorkiewicz, “Hot-carrier-mediated impact excitation of Er3+ ions in SiO2 sensitized by Si Nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 113(3), 031109 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Fujita and N. Sugiyama, “Visible light-emitting devices with Schottky contacts on an ultrathin amorphous silicon layer containing silicon nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74(2), 308–310 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (6)

R. Kakkad, J. Smith, W. S. Lau, S. J. Fonash, and R. Kerns, “Crystallized Si films by low-temperature rapid thermal annealing of amorphous-silicon,” J. Appl. Phys. 65(5), 2069–2072 (1989).
[Crossref]

H. Shen, L. Xu, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitized photoluminescence of erbium silicate synthesized on porous silicon framework,” J. Appl. Phys. 122(11), 113103 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Prtljaga, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, F. Ferrarese-Lupi, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Silicon nanocluster sensitization of erbium ions under low-energy optical excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(9), 094314 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Fu, Y. Gao, D. Li, and D. Yang, “Sensitizing properties of luminescence centers on the emission of Er3+ in Si-rich SiO2 film,” J. Appl. Phys. 119(20), 203106 (2016).
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A. Pitanti, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Prtljaga, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer mechanism and Auger effect in Er3+ coupled silicon nanoparticle samples,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(5), 053518 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lumin. (2)

T.-J. Wang, B.-W. Chen, P.-K. Chen, and C.-H. Chen, “Er/Si interdiffusion effect on photoluminescent properties of erbium oxide/silicon oxide films deposited on silicon,” J. Lumin. 192, 1065–1071 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Zheng, W. C. Ding, C. L. Xue, Y. H. Zuo, B. W. Cheng, J. Z. Yu, Q. M. Wang, G. L. Wang, and H. Q. Guo, “Highly efficient photoluminescence of Er2SiO5 films grown by reactive magnetron sputtering method,” J. Lumin. 130(3), 411–414 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

P. D. Persans, A. Ruppert, and B. Abeles, “Crystallization kinetics of amorphous Si/SiO2 superlattice structures,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 102(1-3), 130–135 (1988).
[Crossref]

I. Honma, H. Hotta, K. Kawai, H. Komiyama, and K. Tanaka, “The structural stability of reactively-sputtered amorphous multilayer films,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97-98, 947–950 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Yin, W. J. Xu, F. Wei, G. Z. Ran, G. G. Qin, Y. F. Shi, Q. G. Yao, and S. D. Yao, “Room temperature Er3+1.54 µm electroluminescence from Si-rich erbium silicate deposited by magnetron sputtering,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(33), 335102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Light: Sci. Appl. (1)

Z. Zhou, B. Yin, and J. Michel, “On-chip light sources for silicon photonics,” Light: Sci. Appl. 4(11), e358 (2015).
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Mater. Today (1)

L. Pavesi, “Routes toward silicon-based lasers,” Mater. Today 8(1), 18–25 (2005).
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Nanoscale Res. Lett. (1)

L. Xu, D. Li, L. Jin, L. Xiang, F. Wang, D. Yang, and D. Que, “Evolution of the sensitized Er3+ emission by silicon nanoclusters and luminescence centers in silicon-rich silica,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 456 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, O. Jambois, Y. Berencén, D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Anopchenko, A. Marconi, N. Prtljaga, A. Tengattini, L. Pavesi, J. P. Colonna, J. M. Fedeli, and B. Garrido, “Erbium emission in MOS light emitting devices: from energy transfer to direct impact excitation,” Nanotechnology 23(12), 125203 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ramírez, F. Ferrarese Lupi, Y. Berencén, A. Anopchenko, J. P. Colonna, O. Jambois, J. M. Fedeli, L. Pavesi, N. Prtljaga, P. Rivallin, A. Tengattini, D. Navarro-Urrios, and B. Garrido, “Er-doped light emitting slot waveguides monolithically integrated in a silicon photonic chip,” Nanotechnology 24(11), 115202 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

H. Sun, L. Yin, Z. Liu, Y. Zheng, F. Fan, S. Zhao, X. Feng, Y. Li, and C. Z. Ning, “Giant optical gain in a single-crystal erbium chloride silicate nanowire,” Nat. Photonics 11(9), 589–593 (2017).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. E (1)

D. Pacifici, A. Irrera, G. Franzò, M. Miritello, F. Iacona, and F. Priolo, “Erbium-doped Si nanocrystals: optical properties and electroluminescent devices,” Phys. E 16(3-4), 331–340 (2003).
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Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Zacharias and P. Streitenberger, “Crystallization of amorphous superlattices in the limit of ultrathin films with oxide interfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 62(12), 8391–8396 (2000).
[Crossref]

D. Navarro-Urrios, A. Pitanti, N. Daldosso, F. Gourbilleau, R. Rizk, B. Garrido, and L. Pavesi, “Energy transfer between amorphous Si nanoclusters and Er3+ ions in a SiO2 matrix,” Phys. Rev. B 79(19), 193312 (2009).
[Crossref]

B. Garrido, C. García, S. Y. Seo, P. Pellegrino, D. Navarro-Urrios, N. Daldosso, L. Pavesi, F. Gourbilleau, and R. Rizk, “Excitable Er fraction and quenching phenomena in Er-doped SiO2 layers containing Si nanoclusters,” Phys. Rev. B 76(24), 245308 (2007).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. J. Kenyon, “Erbium in silicon,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20(12), R65–R84 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

T. J. Kippenberg, J. Kalkman, A. Polman, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of an Erbium Doped Microdisk Laser on a Silicon Chip,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2006), CFI1.

H. Isshiki, K. Masaki, K. Ueda, and R. Saito, “1.5 µm PL fine structures and their extreme fast decay of crystalline ErSiO compounds,” in IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics, (2004), 192–193.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. XRD spectra of the Er-Si-O films annealed at different temperatures.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. TEM images of the Er-Si-O film annealed at 1000 °C for 30 min. (a) Cross-sectional TEM image. (b) HR-TEM image of the indicated area with the corresponding FFT pattern as inset. (c) HAADF image and (d) the corresponding XEDS map of Er, Si, O atoms.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. TEM images of the Er-Si-O films annealed at different temperatures. (a) HR-TEM image of the film annealed at 900°C for 30 min. Inset is an enlarged image of the indicated area. (b) HR-TEM image of the film annealed at 900°C for 30 min followed by 950 °C for 30 min. (c) Cross-sectional TEM image and (d) HR-TEM image of the indicated area of the film annealed at 900°C for 30 min followed by 1000 °C for 30 min. (e) Cross-sectional TEM image and (f) HR-TEM image of the indicated area of the film annealed at 1000°C for 30 min followed by 1200 °C for 30 min. Insets of (d) and (f) are the corresponding FFT patterns.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Model of a spherical shaped crystalline nucleus embedded in an a-Si cluster with Er silicate interfaces.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Cross-sectional TEM image of the Er-Si-O film annealed at 1200°C for 1 min. Inset is the HR-TEM image of the indicated bright area. (b) HR-TEM image of the indicated dark area in (a). Inset is the corresponding FFT pattern.

Equations (11)

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γ s c e f f = γ a c + ( γ s c γ a c ) K ,
γ s a e f f = γ s a K .
Δ G  =  4 3 π r 3 Δ G v  + 4 π r 2 Δ γ e f f ,
Δ γ e f f = γ a c + ( γ s c γ a c γ s a ) K .
Δ G r = 0.
r = 2 Δ γ e f f Δ G v .
Δ G = 16 π Δ γ e f f 3 3 Δ G v 2 .
Δ G b = 16 π γ a c 3 3 Δ G v 2 .
γ o c γ o a = 1.73 γ a c .
Δ γ e f f γ a c ( 1 + 0.73 K ) ,
Δ G Δ G b ( 1 + 0 .73 K ) 3 .

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