Abstract

Microwave photonics is an important application for mode-locked lasers and requires the lasers to have high repetition rate and relatively low timing jitter. Although many mode-locked lasers based on two-dimensional (2D) materials have been reported, their applications in high-quality microwave photonics have not been achieved yet. We demonstrate a linear-cavity mode-locked Erbium-doped fiber laser with tungsten disulfide (WS2) saturable absorber (SA). By optimizing the WS2 SA fabrication, SA with low loss and moderate modulation depth is obtained. The laser based on this WS2 SA is demonstrated to have a fundamental repetition rate of 523 MHz, a central wavelength of 1558.6 nm, a 3-dB bandwidth of 7.4 nm and a timing jitter of 28 fs. With this laser, microwave photonic application of frequency synthesis is obtained with a tuning range up to 10 GHz and an extinction ratio greater than 60 dB in the whole range. We believe this is the first work that utilizes a 2D material SA based mode-locked laser for high-quality microwave photonic applications. This work indicates the potential of 2D material SA for high-speed and high-precision photonic and microwave systems.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (9)

S. Yamashita, “Nonlinear optics in carbon nanotube, graphene, and related 2D materials,” APL Photonics 4(3), 034301 (2019).
[Crossref]

B. Fu, J. Li, Z. Cao, and D. Popa, “Bound states of solitons in a harmonic graphene-mode-locked fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(2), 116–120 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. H. Hui, W. Xu, X. L. Li, P. Guo, Y. Z. Zhang, and J. Liu, “Cu2S nanosheets for ultrashort pulse generation in the near-infrared region,” Nanoscale 11(13), 6045–6051 (2019).
[Crossref]

A. Malouf, O. Henderson-Sapir, S. Set, S. Yamashita, and D. J. Ottaway, “Two-photon absorption and saturable absorption of mid-IR in graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 114(9), 091111 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, Q. Long, Z. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Yang, D. Kong, L. Yuan, and K. Oh, “Microfiber interferometer integrated with Au nanorods for an all-fiber phase shifter and switch,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1092–1095 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

P. Xiao, K. Wu, D. Mao, and J. Chen, “A pulsewidth measurement technology based on carbon-nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4188–4203 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, N. Qian, and J. Chen, “Investigation of electronic aperture jitter effect in channel-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9205–9214 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (19)

G. Wang, G. Liang, A. A. Baker-Murray, K. Wang, J. J. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Bennett, J.-T. Luo, J. Wang, P. Fan, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 674–680 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Yang, W. Zou, Y. Yuan, and J. Chen, “Wideband signal detection based on high-speed photonicanalog-to-digital converter,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(3), 030601 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, Y. Wang, C. Qiu, and J. Chen, “Thermo-optic all-optical devices based on two-dimensional materials,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C22–C28 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-Locking of All-Fiber Lasers Operating at Both Anomalous and Normal Dispersion Regimes in the C- and L-Bands Using Thin Film of 2D Perovskite Crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800118 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Qin, T. Hai, G. Xie, J. Ma, P. Yuan, L. Qian, L. Li, L. Zhao, and D. Shen, “Black phosphorus Q-switched and mode-locked mid-infrared Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 3.5 µm wavelength,” Opt. Express 26(7), 8224–8231 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Meng, C. Zhu, Y. Li, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, Y. Shi, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Three-dimensional Dirac semimetal thin-film absorber for broadband pulse generation in the near-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1503–1506 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Steinberg, R. M. Gerosa, F. N. Pellicer, J. D. Zapata, S. H. Domingues, E. A. Thoroh de Souza, and L. A. M. Saito, “Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide as saturable absorbers onto D-shaped fibers for sub 200-fs EDFL mode-locking,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(1), 144–156 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Li, J. Zou, Y. Huang, K. Wang, T. Du, S. Jiang, and Z. Luo, “212-kHz-linewidth, transform-limited pulses from a single-frequency Q-switched fiber laser based on a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C29–C35 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-Switched and Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on an ReS2 Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–6 (2018).
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K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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M. Liu, R. Tang, A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, and Z.-C. Luo, “Graphene-decorated microfiber knot as a broadband resonator for ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse fiber lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C1–C7 (2018).
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G. Li, Y. Chen, X. Yan, and L. Zhao, “Passive mode locking resulting from weak polarization dependence based on evanescent field interaction with a monolayer graphene absorber,” Appl. Opt. 57(13), 3507–3510 (2018).
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J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
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X. Guan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Self-Q-switched and wavelength-tunable tungsten disulfide-based passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 830–836 (2018).
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W. Liu, M. Liu, M. Lei, S. Fang, and Z. Wei, “Titanium Selenide Saturable Absorber Mirror for Passive Q-Switched Er-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–5 (2018).
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W. Liu, Y.-N. Zhu, M. Liu, B. Wen, S. Fang, H. Teng, M. Lei, L.-M. Liu, and Z. Wei, “Optical properties and applications for MoS2-Sb2Te3-MoS2 heterostructure materials,” Photonics Res. 6(3), 220–227 (2018).
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J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “High energy soliton pulse generation by a magnetron-sputtering-deposition-grown MoTe2 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 535–541 (2018).
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P. Yan, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Lai, J. Wang, T. He, and J. Yang, “α-In2Se3 wideband optical modulator for pulsed fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4417–4420 (2018).
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2017 (5)

J. Sotor, J. Bogusławski, T. Martynkien, P. Mergo, A. Krajewska, A. Przewłoka, W. StrupiŃski, and G. SoboŃ, “All-polarization-maintaining, stretched-pulse Tm-doped fiber laser, mode-locked by a graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 42(8), 1592–1595 (2017).
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C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14111 (2017).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550 nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17639–17649 (2017).
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2016 (7)

S. Yu, X. Wu, K. Chen, B. Chen, X. Guo, D. Dai, L. Tong, W. Liu, and Y. Ron Shen, “All-optical graphene modulator based on optical Kerr phase shift,” Optica 3(5), 541–544 (2016).
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J. Zhang, Z. Kong, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Compact 517 MHz soliton mode-locked Er-doped fiber ring laser,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 27–29 (2016).
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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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W. Li, J. Peng, Y. Zhong, D. Wu, H. Lin, Y. Cheng, Z. Luo, J. Weng, H. Xu, and Z. Cai, “Orange-light passively Q-switched Pr3+-doped all-fiber lasers with transition-metal dichalcogenide saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 2031–2039 (2016).
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H. Jeong, S. Y. Choi, M. H. Kim, F. Rotermund, Y.-H. Cha, D.-Y. Jeong, S. B. Lee, K. Lee, and D.-I. Yeom, “All-fiber Tm-doped soliton laser oscillator with 6 nJ pulse energy based on evanescent field interaction with monoloayer graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 24(13), 14152–14158 (2016).
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X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25266 (2016).
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I. Baylam, O. Balci, N. Kakenov, C. Kocabas, and A. Sennaroglu, “Graphene-gold supercapacitor as a voltage controlled saturable absorber for femtosecond pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 41(5), 910–913 (2016).
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2015 (7)

2014 (3)

2013 (4)

C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller, “Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 21(25), 31548–31559 (2013).
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Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S.-C. Wen, and W.-C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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2012 (3)

2010 (3)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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H. Byun, M. Y. Sander, A. Motamedi, H. Shen, G. S. Petrich, L. A. Kolodziejski, E. P. Ippen, and F. X. Kärtner, “Compact, stable 1 GHz femtosecond Er-doped fiber lasers,” Appl. Opt. 49(29), 5577–5582 (2010).
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2009 (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, N. Macadam, G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, T. Hasan, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN fiber lasers beyond 3 µm: comparison of pulse generation using acousto-optic modulation and inkjet-printed black phosphorus,” arXiv, 1902.06945 (2019).

Ali, A.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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Anasori, B.

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene Saturable Absorber for Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29(40), 1702496 (2017).
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Baker-Murray, A. A.

G. Wang, G. Liang, A. A. Baker-Murray, K. Wang, J. J. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Bennett, J.-T. Luo, J. Wang, P. Fan, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 674–680 (2018).
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Balci, O.

Bao, J.

W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
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Bao, Q.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Basko, D. M.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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Baylam, I.

Bennett, D.

G. Wang, G. Liang, A. A. Baker-Murray, K. Wang, J. J. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Bennett, J.-T. Luo, J. Wang, P. Fan, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 674–680 (2018).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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G. Wang, G. Liang, A. A. Baker-Murray, K. Wang, J. J. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Bennett, J.-T. Luo, J. Wang, P. Fan, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 674–680 (2018).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Boguslawski, J.

Bonaccorso, F.

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4(9), 611–622 (2010).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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Byun, H.

Cai, Z.

X. Guan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Self-Q-switched and wavelength-tunable tungsten disulfide-based passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 830–836 (2018).
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W. Li, J. Peng, Y. Zhong, D. Wu, H. Lin, Y. Cheng, Z. Luo, J. Weng, H. Xu, and Z. Cai, “Orange-light passively Q-switched Pr3+-doped all-fiber lasers with transition-metal dichalcogenide saturable absorbers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(6), 2031–2039 (2016).
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Cao, R.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
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Cao, Z.

B. Fu, J. Li, Z. Cao, and D. Popa, “Bound states of solitons in a harmonic graphene-mode-locked fiber laser,” Photonics Res. 7(2), 116–120 (2019).
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Cha, S. J.

Cha, Y.-H.

Charlier, J.-C.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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Chen, B.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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S. Yu, X. Wu, K. Chen, B. Chen, X. Guo, D. Dai, L. Tong, W. Liu, and Y. Ron Shen, “All-optical graphene modulator based on optical Kerr phase shift,” Optica 3(5), 541–544 (2016).
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W. Li, B. Chen, C. Meng, W. Fang, Y. Xiao, X. Li, Z. Hu, Y. Xu, L. Tong, H. Wang, W. Liu, J. Bao, and Y. R. Shen, “Ultrafast All-Optical Graphene Modulator,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 955–959 (2014).
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Chen, H.

J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “High energy soliton pulse generation by a magnetron-sputtering-deposition-grown MoTe2 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 535–541 (2018).
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P. Yan, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Lai, J. Wang, T. He, and J. Yang, “α-In2Se3 wideband optical modulator for pulsed fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4417–4420 (2018).
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Chen, J.

G. Yang, W. Zou, L. Yu, N. Qian, and J. Chen, “Investigation of electronic aperture jitter effect in channel-interleaved photonic analog-to-digital converter,” Opt. Express 27(6), 9205–9214 (2019).
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P. Xiao, K. Wu, D. Mao, and J. Chen, “A pulsewidth measurement technology based on carbon-nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 27(4), 4188–4203 (2019).
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G. Yang, W. Zou, Y. Yuan, and J. Chen, “Wideband signal detection based on high-speed photonicanalog-to-digital converter,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 16(3), 030601 (2018).
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K. Wu, Y. Wang, C. Qiu, and J. Chen, “Thermo-optic all-optical devices based on two-dimensional materials,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C22–C28 (2018).
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K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550 nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17639–17649 (2017).
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K. Wu, X. Li, Y. Wang, Q. J. Wang, P. P. Shum, and J. Chen, “Towards low timing phase noise operation in fiber lasers mode locked by graphene oxide and carbon nanotubes at 1.5 µm,” Opt. Express 23(1), 501–511 (2015).
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H. Zhang, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “Generation of a widely tunable linearly chirped microwave waveform based on spectral filtering and unbalanced dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1085–1088 (2015).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1374–1377 (2015).
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Chen, K.

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M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
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Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
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Chen, Y.

Cheng, Y.

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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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Coleman, J. N.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Crespi, V. H.

A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-Switched and Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on an ReS2 Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–6 (2018).
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Dai, D.

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W. Li, J. Zou, Y. Huang, K. Wang, T. Du, S. Jiang, and Z. Luo, “212-kHz-linewidth, transform-limited pulses from a single-frequency Q-switched fiber laser based on a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C29–C35 (2018).
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A. Berkdemir, H. R. Gutiérrez, A. R. Botello-Méndez, N. Perea-López, A. L. Elías, C.-I. Chia, B. Wang, V. H. Crespi, F. López-Urías, J.-C. Charlier, H. Terrones, and M. Terrones, “Identification of individual and few layers of WS2 using Raman Spectroscopy,” Sci. Rep. 3(1), 1755 (2013).
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Fan, D.

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
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Fan, J.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Fan, P.

G. Wang, G. Liang, A. A. Baker-Murray, K. Wang, J. J. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Bennett, J.-T. Luo, J. Wang, P. Fan, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 674–680 (2018).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
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R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, N. Macadam, G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, T. Hasan, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN fiber lasers beyond 3 µm: comparison of pulse generation using acousto-optic modulation and inkjet-printed black phosphorus,” arXiv, 1902.06945 (2019).

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M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
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B. Yao, G. Soavi, T. Ma, X. Zhang, B. Fu, D. Yoon, S. A. Hussain, A. Lombardo, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Gate controllable ultrafast fiber lasers based on graphene,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), SF3K.6.

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Jackson, S. D.

R. I. Woodward, M. R. Majewski, N. Macadam, G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, T. Hasan, and S. D. Jackson, “Q-switched Dy:ZBLAN fiber lasers beyond 3 µm: comparison of pulse generation using acousto-optic modulation and inkjet-printed black phosphorus,” arXiv, 1902.06945 (2019).

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Jeong, H.

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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7965 (2015).
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W. Li, J. Zou, Y. Huang, K. Wang, T. Du, S. Jiang, and Z. Luo, “212-kHz-linewidth, transform-limited pulses from a single-frequency Q-switched fiber laser based on a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C29–C35 (2018).
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P. Yan, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Lai, J. Wang, T. He, and J. Yang, “α-In2Se3 wideband optical modulator for pulsed fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4417–4420 (2018).
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M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
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Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22(25), 31113–31122 (2014).
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Khazaeizhad, R.

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Kim, B.

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-Locking of All-Fiber Lasers Operating at Both Anomalous and Normal Dispersion Regimes in the C- and L-Bands Using Thin Film of 2D Perovskite Crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800118 (2018).
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Kim, D.

Kim, J.

Kim, M. H.

Kim, Y.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
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S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-Locking of All-Fiber Lasers Operating at Both Anomalous and Normal Dispersion Regimes in the C- and L-Bands Using Thin Film of 2D Perovskite Crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800118 (2018).
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Lee, H.

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-Locking of All-Fiber Lasers Operating at Both Anomalous and Normal Dispersion Regimes in the C- and L-Bands Using Thin Film of 2D Perovskite Crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800118 (2018).
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Lee, J.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
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Lee, J. H.

J. Lee, Y. Kim, K. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Femtosecond mode-locking of a fiber laser using a CoSb3-skutterudite-based saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C36–C43 (2018).
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Lee, J.-W.

Lee, K.

Lee, K. E. K.

Lee, S. B.

Lee, Y.

Lee, Y. S.

S. Hong, F. Lédée, J. Park, S. Song, H. Lee, Y. S. Lee, B. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, E. Deleporte, and K. Oh, “Mode-Locking of All-Fiber Lasers Operating at Both Anomalous and Normal Dispersion Regimes in the C- and L-Bands Using Thin Film of 2D Perovskite Crystallites,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800118 (2018).
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Lei, M.

W. Liu, M. Liu, M. Lei, S. Fang, and Z. Wei, “Titanium Selenide Saturable Absorber Mirror for Passive Q-Switched Er-Doped Fiber Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–5 (2018).
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W. Liu, Y.-N. Zhu, M. Liu, B. Wen, S. Fang, H. Teng, M. Lei, L.-M. Liu, and Z. Wei, “Optical properties and applications for MoS2-Sb2Te3-MoS2 heterostructure materials,” Photonics Res. 6(3), 220–227 (2018).
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X. Guan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Self-Q-switched and wavelength-tunable tungsten disulfide-based passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 830–836 (2018).
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Xu, W.

Z. H. Hui, W. Xu, X. L. Li, P. Guo, Y. Z. Zhang, and J. Liu, “Cu2S nanosheets for ultrashort pulse generation in the near-infrared region,” Nanoscale 11(13), 6045–6051 (2019).
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Xu, W.-C.

M. Liu, R. Tang, A.-P. Luo, W.-C. Xu, and Z.-C. Luo, “Graphene-decorated microfiber knot as a broadband resonator for ultrahigh-repetition-rate pulse fiber lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C1–C7 (2018).
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Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S.-C. Wen, and W.-C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
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Xu, X.

X. Guan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Self-Q-switched and wavelength-tunable tungsten disulfide-based passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 830–836 (2018).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Y. Meng, C. Zhu, Y. Li, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, Y. Shi, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Three-dimensional Dirac semimetal thin-film absorber for broadband pulse generation in the near-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1503–1506 (2018).
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S. Yamashita, “Nonlinear optics in carbon nanotube, graphene, and related 2D materials,” APL Photonics 4(3), 034301 (2019).
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P. Yan, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Lai, J. Wang, T. He, and J. Yang, “α-In2Se3 wideband optical modulator for pulsed fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4417–4420 (2018).
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Yan, X.

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Yang, J.

Yang, X.

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G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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B. Yao, G. Soavi, T. Ma, X. Zhang, B. Fu, D. Yoon, S. A. Hussain, A. Lombardo, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Gate controllable ultrafast fiber lasers based on graphene,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), SF3K.6.

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Yin, J.

P. Yan, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Yin, J. Lai, J. Wang, T. He, and J. Yang, “α-In2Se3 wideband optical modulator for pulsed fiber lasers,” Opt. Lett. 43(18), 4417–4420 (2018).
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J. Wang, Z. Jiang, H. Chen, J. Li, J. Yin, J. Wang, T. He, P. Yan, and S. Ruan, “High energy soliton pulse generation by a magnetron-sputtering-deposition-grown MoTe2 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(6), 535–541 (2018).
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B. Yao, G. Soavi, T. Ma, X. Zhang, B. Fu, D. Yoon, S. A. Hussain, A. Lombardo, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Gate controllable ultrafast fiber lasers based on graphene,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), SF3K.6.

Yoon, J. U.

Yu, L.

Yu, S.

Yu, X.

X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25266 (2016).
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X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25266 (2016).
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Yuan, L.

Yuan, P.

Yuan, X.

Y. Meng, C. Zhu, Y. Li, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, Y. Shi, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Three-dimensional Dirac semimetal thin-film absorber for broadband pulse generation in the near-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1503–1506 (2018).
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C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Yuan, Y.

Zapata, J. D.

Zaugg, C. A.

Zhai, B.

J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14111 (2017).
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Zhang, F.

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
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M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
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Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Liu, W. Liang, S. Luo, Z. He, Y. Ge, H. Wang, R. Cao, F. Zhang, Q. Wen, J. Li, Q. Bao, D. Fan, and H. Zhang, “Broadband Nonlinear Photonics in Few-Layer MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH),” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(2), 1700229 (2018).
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J. Li, H. Luo, B. Zhai, R. Lu, Z. Guo, H. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Black phosphorus: a two-dimension saturable absorption material for mid-infrared Q-switched and mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 30361 (2016).
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H. Zhang, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “Generation of a widely tunable linearly chirped microwave waveform based on spectral filtering and unbalanced dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 40(6), 1085–1088 (2015).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X.-W. Zheng, A.-P. Luo, C.-J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S.-C. Wen, and W.-C. Xu, “2 GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38(24), 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

X. Guan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Self-Q-switched and wavelength-tunable tungsten disulfide-based passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 830–836 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, Z. Kong, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Compact 517 MHz soliton mode-locked Er-doped fiber ring laser,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 27–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
[Crossref]

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
[Crossref]

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, R.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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Zhang, W.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-Switched and Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on an ReS2 Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–6 (2018).
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D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7965 (2015).
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G. Wang, G. Liang, A. A. Baker-Murray, K. Wang, J. J. Wang, X. Zhang, D. Bennett, J.-T. Luo, J. Wang, P. Fan, and W. J. Blau, “Nonlinear optical performance of few-layer molybdenum diselenide as a slow-saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(7), 674–680 (2018).
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K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
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K. Wu, C. Guo, H. Wang, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “All-optical phase shifter and switch near 1550 nm using tungsten disulfide (WS2) deposited tapered fiber,” Opt. Express 25(15), 17639–17649 (2017).
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K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “463-MHz fundamental mode-locked fiber laser based on few-layer MoS2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40(7), 1374–1377 (2015).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Yao, G. Soavi, T. Ma, X. Zhang, B. Fu, D. Yoon, S. A. Hussain, A. Lombardo, D. Popa, and A. C. Ferrari, “Gate controllable ultrafast fiber lasers based on graphene,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2018), SF3K.6.

Zhang, Y.

X. Yang, Q. Long, Z. Liu, Y. Zhang, J. Yang, D. Kong, L. Yuan, and K. Oh, “Microfiber interferometer integrated with Au nanorods for an all-fiber phase shifter and switch,” Opt. Lett. 44(5), 1092–1095 (2019).
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X. Guan, J. Wang, Y. Zhang, B. Xu, Z. Luo, H. Xu, Z. Cai, X. Xu, J. Zhang, and J. Xu, “Self-Q-switched and wavelength-tunable tungsten disulfide-based passively Q-switched Er:Y2O3 ceramic lasers,” Photonics Res. 6(9), 830–836 (2018).
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X. Li, K. Wu, Z. Sun, B. Meng, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, X. Yu, X. Yu, Y. Zhang, P. P. Shum, and Q. J. Wang, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene oxide-based saturable absorbers for low phase noise mode-locked fiber lasers,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25266 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Y. Z.

Z. H. Hui, W. Xu, X. L. Li, P. Guo, Y. Z. Zhang, and J. Liu, “Cu2S nanosheets for ultrashort pulse generation in the near-infrared region,” Nanoscale 11(13), 6045–6051 (2019).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

J. Zhang, Z. Kong, Y. Liu, A. Wang, and Z. Zhang, “Compact 517 MHz soliton mode-locked Er-doped fiber ring laser,” Photonics Res. 4(1), 27–29 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

Zhao, C.-J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, X. Cui, X. Gan, M. Li, W. Zhang, H. Lu, and J. Zhao, “Passively Q-Switched and Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Based on an ReS2 Saturable Absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24(3), 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 7965 (2015).
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X. Gan, C. Zhao, Y. Wang, D. Mao, L. Fang, L. Han, and J. Zhao, “Graphene-assisted all-fiber phase shifter and switching,” Optica 2(5), 468–471 (2015).
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Zhao, L.

Zhao, Q.

K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
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Zheng, X.-W.

Zheng, Z.

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
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Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
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Zhong, Y.

Zhou, G.-R.

Zhou, L.

K. Wu, B. Chen, X. Zhang, S. Zhang, C. Guo, C. Li, P. Xiao, J. Wang, L. Zhou, W. Zou, and J. Chen, “High-performance mode-locked and Q-switched fiber lasers based on novel 2D materials of topological insulators, transition metal dichalcogenides and black phosphorus: review and perspective (invited),” Opt. Commun. 406, 214–229 (2018).
[Crossref]

Zhu, C.

Y. Meng, C. Zhu, Y. Li, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, Y. Shi, Y. Xu, and F. Wang, “Three-dimensional Dirac semimetal thin-film absorber for broadband pulse generation in the near-infrared,” Opt. Lett. 43(7), 1503–1506 (2018).
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C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

C. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Meng, X. Yuan, F. Xiu, H. Luo, Y. Wang, J. Li, X. Lv, L. He, Y. Xu, J. Liu, C. Zhang, Y. Shi, R. Zhang, and S. Zhu, “A robust and tuneable mid-infrared optical switch enabled by bulk Dirac fermions,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 14111 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhu, X.

G. Hu, T. Albrow-Owen, X. Jin, A. Ali, Y. Hu, R. C. T. Howe, K. Shehzad, Z. Yang, X. Zhu, R. I. Woodward, T.-C. Wu, H. Jussila, J.-B. Wu, P. Peng, P.-H. Tan, Z. Sun, E. J. R. Kelleher, M. Zhang, Y. Xu, and T. Hasan, “Black phosphorus ink formulation for inkjet printing of optoelectronics and photonics,” Nat. Commun. 8(1), 278 (2017).
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Zhu, Y.-N.

W. Liu, Y.-N. Zhu, M. Liu, B. Wen, S. Fang, H. Teng, M. Lei, L.-M. Liu, and Z. Wei, “Optical properties and applications for MoS2-Sb2Te3-MoS2 heterostructure materials,” Photonics Res. 6(3), 220–227 (2018).
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Zou, J.

W. Li, J. Zou, Y. Huang, K. Wang, T. Du, S. Jiang, and Z. Luo, “212-kHz-linewidth, transform-limited pulses from a single-frequency Q-switched fiber laser based on a few-layer Bi2Se3 saturable absorber,” Photonics Res. 6(10), C29–C35 (2018).
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Zou, W.

ACS Nano (2)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4(2), 803–810 (2010).
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K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O’Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “Ultrafast Saturable Absorption of Two-Dimensional MoS2 Nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7(10), 9260–9267 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-Layer Graphene as a Saturable Absorber for Ultrafast Pulsed Lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19(19), 3077–3083 (2009).
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Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. I. Jhon, J. Koo, B. Anasori, M. Seo, J. H. Lee, Y. Gogotsi, and Y. M. Jhon, “Metallic MXene Saturable Absorber for Femtosecond Mode-Locked Lasers,” Adv. Mater. 29(40), 1702496 (2017).
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Adv. Mater. Technol. (1)

Q. Wu, S. Chen, Y. Wang, L. Wu, X. Jiang, F. Zhang, X. Jin, Q. Jiang, Z. Zheng, J. Li, M. Zhang, and H. Zhang, “MZI-Based All-Optical Modulator Using MXene Ti3C2Tx (T = F, O, or OH) Deposited Microfiber,” Adv. Mater. Technol. 4(4), 1800532 (2019).
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Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

M. Zhang, Q. Wu, F. Zhang, L. Chen, X. Jin, Y. Hu, Z. Zheng, and H. Zhang, “2D Black Phosphorus Saturable Absorbers for Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 7(1), 1800224 (2019).
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APL Photonics (1)

S. Yamashita, “Nonlinear optics in carbon nanotube, graphene, and related 2D materials,” APL Photonics 4(3), 034301 (2019).
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Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) TEM image of WS2 nanosheets. (b) Photo of WS2-PVA thin film. (c) Photo of WS2-PVA SA transferred on fiber end. (d) Raman spectrum. (e) Saturable absorption.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Laser design. (b) Detailed structure of the left end of the cavity. (c) Detailed structure of the right end of the cavity with WS2-PVA SA. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; EDF: Erbium-doped fiber; PC: polarization controller; SA: saturable absorber.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Optical spectrum. (b) Output power with respect to the injected pump power.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Oscilloscope trace. (b) Autocorrelation trace and fit.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) RF spectrum near 523 MHz with 10 MHz span and 100 Hz RBW. Inset: RF spectrum near 523 MHz with 10 kHz span and 10 Hz RBW. (b) RF spectrum up to 5 GHz.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Phase noise spectrum and timing jitter of the laser.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. (a) Experimental setup for microwave generation with 532-MHz mode-locked laser. (b) Principle of microwave generation
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Typical generated microwave frequencies from 0.52 to 10.46 GHz.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) Phase noise spectra and (b) timing jitters of the microwave frequencies.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Extinction ratio values for the generated microwave frequencies

Equations (3)

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f c Δ t 2 π | β 2 | L
( f ) exp ( 2 π 2 ( β 2 L ) 2 ( f f c ) 2 τ 0 2 )
S p h , m ( Δ f ) = k 2 S p h , l ( Δ f )

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