Abstract

Narrowband perfect absorbers based on surface plasmon polariton resonance have been mainly used in label free sensing due to large quality factors and high surface sensitivities. In this work, it is proposed and theoretically demonstrated that narrowband perfect absorbers combined with graphene are capable of broadband mid-IR light modulation. A large intensity modulation depth over 90% can be obtained in the wavelength range from 5µm to 6µm, which is 2.5-fold enhanced compared with that of a broadband perfect absorber. Phase modulation application has also been demonstrated, and a tuning range of 180° is achievable. The influences of structure parameters on modulation performance are discussed at last using coupled mode theory.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  36. D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
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    [Crossref]

2019 (6)

G. Wang, C. Chen, Z. Zhang, G. Ma, K. Zhang, and C. Qiu, “Dynamically tunable infrared grating based on graphene-enabled phase switching of a split ring resonator,” Opt. Mater. Express 9(1), 56–64 (2019).
[Crossref]

S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “High fabrication-tolerant narrowband perfect graphene absorber based on guided-mode resonance in distributed Bragg reflector,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 4294 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, C. Li, J. Y. Ou, and Q. H. Liu, “Perfect light absorption in graphene by two unpatterned dielectric layers and potential applications,” Carbon 142, 430–437 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Xie, N. Feng, and Q. H. Liu, “Smart inverse design of graphene-based photonic metamaterials by an adaptive artificial neural network,” Nanoscale 11(19), 9749–9755 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Chi, H. Liu, N. Huang, and Z. Wang, “A broadband enhanced plasmonic modulator based on double-layer graphene at mid-infrared wavelength,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(44), 445101 (2019).
[Crossref]

D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (1)

2017 (2)

C. Chen, G. Wang, L. Peng, and K. Zhang, “Highly improved, non-localized field enhancement enabled by hybrid plasmon of crescent resonator/graphene in infrared wavelength,” Opt. Express 25(19), 23302–23311 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. de Ceglia, M. A. Vincenti, M. Grande, G. V. Bianco, G. Bruno, A. D’Orazio, and M. Scalora, “Tuning infrared guided-mode resonances with graphene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33(3), 426–433 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Luo, J. Zhao, D. Zuo, and X. Wang, “Perfect narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 24(9), 9288–9294 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (6)

X. Lu, R. Wan, and T. Zhang, “Metal-dielectric-metal based narrow band absorber for sensing applications,” Opt. Express 23(23), 29842–29847 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Cheng, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Enhancing intensity and refractive index sensing capability with infrared plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3185–3188 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Meng, D. Zhao, Z. Ruan, Q. Li, Y. Yang, and M. Qiu, “Optimized grating as an ultra-narrow band absorber or plasmonic sensor,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1137–1140 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, K. Li, J. Huang, J. J. Martinez, D. R. Whippey, and N. Copner, “Coherent emission of light using stacked gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205121 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D. Aguanno, and A. Alu, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene induced spectral tuning of metamaterial absorbers at mid-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic green’s functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys. 103(6), 064302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adato, R.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aguanno, G. D.

C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D. Aguanno, and A. Alu, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alici, K. B.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alu, A.

C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D. Aguanno, and A. Alu, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Argyropoulos, C.

C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D. Aguanno, and A. Alu, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Arju, N.

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asano, T.

M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. A. Atwater and A. Polman, “Plasmonics for improved photovoltaic devices,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 205–213 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bianco, G. V.

Boltasseva, A.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brar, V. W.

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brown, L. V.

L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bruno, G.

Cai, Y.

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, K.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Xie, N. Feng, and Q. H. Liu, “Smart inverse design of graphene-based photonic metamaterials by an adaptive artificial neural network,” Nanoscale 11(19), 9749–9755 (2019).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. P.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

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N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
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Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, K. Li, J. Huang, J. J. Martinez, D. R. Whippey, and N. Copner, “Coherent emission of light using stacked gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205121 (2013).
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N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
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N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
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N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
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N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
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N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, K. Li, J. Huang, J. J. Martinez, D. R. Whippey, and N. Copner, “Coherent emission of light using stacked gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205121 (2013).
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S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
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Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, K. Li, J. Huang, J. J. Martinez, D. R. Whippey, and N. Copner, “Coherent emission of light using stacked gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205121 (2013).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
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S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
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N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
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S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

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N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

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S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “High fabrication-tolerant narrowband perfect graphene absorber based on guided-mode resonance in distributed Bragg reflector,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 4294 (2019).
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T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

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N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
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C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D. Aguanno, and A. Alu, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205112 (2013).
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N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

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S. Lee, H. Heo, and S. Kim, “High fabrication-tolerant narrowband perfect graphene absorber based on guided-mode resonance in distributed Bragg reflector,” Sci. Rep. 9(1), 4294 (2019).
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D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
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J. Zhu, C. Li, J. Y. Ou, and Q. H. Liu, “Perfect light absorption in graphene by two unpatterned dielectric layers and potential applications,” Carbon 142, 430–437 (2019).
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Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, K. Li, J. Huang, J. J. Martinez, D. R. Whippey, and N. Copner, “Coherent emission of light using stacked gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205121 (2013).
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Li, Q.

Li, X.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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J. Chi, H. Liu, N. Huang, and Z. Wang, “A broadband enhanced plasmonic modulator based on double-layer graphene at mid-infrared wavelength,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(44), 445101 (2019).
[Crossref]

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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

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D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
[Crossref]

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Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Xie, N. Feng, and Q. H. Liu, “Smart inverse design of graphene-based photonic metamaterials by an adaptive artificial neural network,” Nanoscale 11(19), 9749–9755 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, C. Li, J. Y. Ou, and Q. H. Liu, “Perfect light absorption in graphene by two unpatterned dielectric layers and potential applications,” Carbon 142, 430–437 (2019).
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[Crossref]

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Luo, S.

Ma, G.

Ma, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

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N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Martinez, J. J.

Y. K. Gong, X. Liu, K. Li, J. Huang, J. J. Martinez, D. R. Whippey, and N. Copner, “Coherent emission of light using stacked gratings,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205121 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mattiucci, N.

C. Argyropoulos, K. Q. Le, N. Mattiucci, G. D. Aguanno, and A. Alu, “Broadband absorbers and selective emitters based on plasmonic brewster metasurfaces,” Phys. Rev. B 87(20), 205112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Meng, L.

Mesch, M.

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Miao, Z.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Mochizuki, K.

M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 535–539 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mousavi, S. H.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nabatame, T.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nagao, T.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
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Ni, X.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
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M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 535–539 (2012).
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L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
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Ohi, A.

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oskooi, A.

M. De Zoysa, T. Asano, K. Mochizuki, A. Oskooi, T. Inoue, and S. Noda, “Conversion of broadband to narrowband thermal emission through energy recycling,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 535–539 (2012).
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Ou, J. Y.

J. Zhu, C. Li, J. Y. Ou, and Q. H. Liu, “Perfect light absorption in graphene by two unpatterned dielectric layers and potential applications,” Carbon 142, 430–437 (2019).
[Crossref]

Ouyang, Z.

D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
[Crossref]

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X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
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S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
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Qiu, M.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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L. Meng, D. Zhao, Z. Ruan, Q. Li, Y. Yang, and M. Qiu, “Optimized grating as an ultra-narrow band absorber or plasmonic sensor,” Opt. Lett. 39(5), 1137–1140 (2014).
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C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
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J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
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Ren, Z.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
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Ruan, Z.

Ruoff, R. S.

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
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S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
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Shalaev, V. M.

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
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Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Shi, S.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shvets, G.

N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

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X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

Starr, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
[Crossref]

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S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sun, T.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
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Sun, Y.

D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
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M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tao, K.

D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
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N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Trendafilov, S.

N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tutuc, E.

N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tyler, T.

X. Liu, T. Tyler, T. Starr, A. F. Starr, N. M. Jokerst, and W. J. Padilla, “Taming the blackbody with infrared metamaterials as selective thermal emitters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107(4), 045901 (2011).
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B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene induced spectral tuning of metamaterial absorbers at mid-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
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Wan, R.

Wang, F.

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Wang, X.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

J. Chi, H. Liu, N. Huang, and Z. Wang, “A broadband enhanced plasmonic modulator based on double-layer graphene at mid-infrared wavelength,” J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 52(44), 445101 (2019).
[Crossref]

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N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
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D. Xiao, Q. Liu, L. Lei, Y. Sun, Z. Ouyang, and K. Tao, “Coupled resonance enhanced modulation for a graphene-loaded metamaterial absorber,” Nanoscale Res. Lett. 14(1), 32 (2019).
[Crossref]

Xiao, S.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xie, Y.

Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Xie, N. Feng, and Q. H. Liu, “Smart inverse design of graphene-based photonic metamaterials by an adaptive artificial neural network,” Nanoscale 11(19), 9749–9755 (2019).
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L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
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F. Cheng, X. Yang, and J. Gao, “Enhancing intensity and refractive index sensing capability with infrared plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 39(11), 3185–3188 (2014).
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Yang, Y.

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, N.

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
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J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, K.

Zhang, T.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, D.

Zhao, J.

Zhao, K.

L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
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L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
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Zheng, B. Y.

L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhou, L.

C. Qu, S. Ma, J. Hao, M. Qiu, X. Li, S. Xiao, Z. Miao, N. Dai, Q. He, S. Sun, and L. Zhou, “Tailor the functionalities of metasurfaces based on a complete phase diagram,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 115(23), 235503 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

Y. Chen, J. Zhu, Y. Xie, N. Feng, and Q. H. Liu, “Smart inverse design of graphene-based photonic metamaterials by an adaptive artificial neural network,” Nanoscale 11(19), 9749–9755 (2019).
[Crossref]

J. Zhu, C. Li, J. Y. Ou, and Q. H. Liu, “Perfect light absorption in graphene by two unpatterned dielectric layers and potential applications,” Carbon 142, 430–437 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
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Zuo, D.

ACS Nano (1)

K. Chen, R. Adato, and H. Altug, “Dual-band perfect absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared spectroscopy,” ACS Nano 6(9), 7998–8006 (2012).
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ACS Photonics (2)

T. D. Dao, K. Chen, S. Ishii, A. Ohi, T. Nabatame, M. Kitajima, and T. Nagao, “Infrared perfect absorbers fabricated by colloidal mask etching of Al–Al2O3–Al trilayers,” ACS Photonics 2(7), 964–970 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. Dabidian, I. Kholmanov, A. B. Khanikaev, K. Tatar, S. Trendafilov, S. H. Mousavi, C. Magnuson, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Electrical switching of infrared light using graphene integration with plasmonic Fano resonant metasurfaces,” ACS Photonics 2(2), 216–227 (2015).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Zhaoyi and N. Yu, “Modulation of mid-infrared light using graphene-metal plasmonic antennas,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(13), 131108 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Vasić and R. Gajić, “Graphene induced spectral tuning of metamaterial absorbers at mid-infrared frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(26), 261111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Cai, J. Zhu, and Q. H. Liu, “Tunable enhanced optical absorption of graphene using plasmonic perfect absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(4), 043105 (2015).
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Carbon (1)

J. Zhu, C. Li, J. Y. Ou, and Q. H. Liu, “Perfect light absorption in graphene by two unpatterned dielectric layers and potential applications,” Carbon 142, 430–437 (2019).
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J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. (1)

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[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (12)

N. Dabidian, S. Duttagupta, I. Kholmanov, K. Lai, L. Feng, J. Lee, M. Jin, S. Trendafilov, A. Khanikaev, B. Fallahazad, E. Tutuc, M. A. Belkin, and G. Shvets, “Experimental demonstration of phase modulation and motion sensing using graphene-integrated metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3607–3615 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. C. Sherrott, P. W. C. Hon, K. T. Fountaine, J. C. Garcia, S. M. Ponti, V. W. Brar, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “Experimental demonstration of >230° phase modulation in gate-tunable graphene–gold reconfigurable mid-infrared metasurfaces,” Nano Lett. 17(5), 3027–3034 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. V. Brown, X. Yang, K. Zhao, B. Y. Zheng, P. Nordlander, and N. J. Halas, “Fan-shaped gold nanoantennas above reflective substrates for surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA),” Nano Lett. 15(2), 1272–1280 (2015).
[Crossref]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, X. Ni, A. V. Kildishev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrically tunable damping of plasmonic resonances with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(10), 5202–5206 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. K. Emani, T. F. Chung, A. V. Kildishev, V. M. Shalaev, Y. P. Chen, and A. Boltasseva, “Electrical modulation of Fano resonance in plasmonic nanostructures using graphene,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 78–82 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Kim, H. Son, D. J. Cho, B. Geng, W. Regan, S. Shi, K. Kim, A. Zettl, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Electrical control of optical plasmon resonance with graphene,” Nano Lett. 12(11), 5598–5602 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. H. Mousavi, I. Kholmanov, K. B. Alici, D. Purtseladze, N. Arju, K. Tatar, D. Y. Fozdar, J. W. Suk, Y. Hao, A. B. Khanikaev, R. S. Ruoff, and G. Shvets, “Inductive tuning of Fano-resonant metasurfaces using plasmonic response of graphene in the mid-infrared,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1111–1117 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, T. Sun, T. Paudel, Y. Zhang, Z. Ren, and K. Kempa, “Metamaterial-plasmonic absorber structure for high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cells,” Nano Lett. 12(1), 440–445 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Liu, M. Mesch, T. Weiss, M. Hentschel, and H. Giessen, “Infrared perfect absorber and its application as plasmonic sensor,” Nano Lett. 10(7), 2342–2348 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, P. Genevet, N. Yu, Y. Song, J. Kong, and F. Capasso, “Broad electrical tuning of graphene-loaded plasmonic antennas,” Nano Lett. 13(3), 1257–1264 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, M. A. Kats, R. Shankar, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Wide wavelength tuning of optical antennas on graphene with nanosecond response time,” Nano Lett. 14(1), 214–219 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, R. Shankar, M. A. Kats, Y. Song, J. Kong, M. Loncar, and F. Capasso, “Electrically tunable metasurface perfect absorbers for ultrathin mid-infrared optical modulators,” Nano Lett. 14(11), 6526–6532 (2014).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Schematic illustration of metal grating – graphene hybrid structure, and x-polarized light is normally incident on the structure. (b) Reflectivity and reflection phase of the hybrid structure with graphene chemical potential of 0.2eV. (c) Cross view (at middle of the disk) and (d) top view (50nm above grating surface) of the electric field distribution at resonance.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The resonance wavelength of the hybrid structure blue shifts with increasing graphene chemical potential (the step of chemical potential is 0.1eV). (b) imaginary part and (c) real part of graphene surface impendence. (d) The modulation depth and insertion loss of this grating – graphene hybrid infrared light modulator.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Electric field distribution of LSP resonance with gold disk array in metal-insulator-metal configuration, and the inset shows the structure schematically. (b) Dynamic tuning of LSP resonance by increasing the graphene chemical potential. (c) The SPP resonance spectra with different incident angles. (d) Broadband working and high modulation depth achieved with SPP resonance by varying the incident angle, and the black dot line shows the modulation depth of LSP resonance for comparison.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Dependency of reflection phase on graphene chemical potential with incident angle of (a) 0° and (c) 30°. The reflection phase tuning range at (b) 5.99µm with incident angle of 0° and (d) 5.2µm with incident angle of 30°.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Dependency of hybrid structure reflectivity on (a) ts and (c) D. Dependency of hybrid structure reflection phase on (b) ts and (d) D. The chemical potential of graphene in the hybrid structure is set as 0.9eV.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Dependency of radiative and absorptive quality factors on (a) D with fixed P = 6 µm and ts=0.45 µm and (b) ts with fixed P = D = 6 µm (Qr in black and Qa in red).

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