Abstract

We numerically investigate plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) featuring anisotropic high-Q resonance in monolayer black phosphorus (BP) nanostrip trimer. Transparent windows can be observed in both armchair and zigzag directions due to the coupling between the constituent nanostrip elements. By dynamically adjusting the Fermi level (EF) of BP, we show that the anisotropic and wide-range tuned PIT can be achieved. The strong polarization dependence of BP nanostrip trimer has also been studied. Furthermore, we explore the number of induced transparent windows through varying the EF of left nanostrip in the two parallel strips. The results can be applied to optical filters as well as photonic devices for sensing and communication at mid-infrared region.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (7)

A. Akhavan, H. Ghafoorifard, S. Abdolhosseini, and H. Habibiyan, “Metal–insulator–metal waveguide-coupled asymmetric resonators for sensing and slow light applications,” IET Optoelectron. 12(5), 220–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, J. Yang, X. He, Y. Han, J. Zhang, J. Huang, D. Chen, and S. Xu, “Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials,” Materials (Basel) 11(6), 941 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Hong, F. Xiong, W. Xu, Z. Zhu, K. Liu, X. Yuan, J. Zhang, and S. Qin, “Towards high performance hybrid two-dimensional material plasmonic devices: strong and highly anisotropic plasmonic resonances in nanostructured graphene-black phosphorus bilayer,” Opt. Express 26(17), 22528–22535 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Active Tuning of Midinfrared Surface Plasmon Resonance and Its Hybridization in Black Phosphorus Sheet Array,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Tang, Q. Niu, B.-X. Wang, and W.-Q. Huang, “Design of Dual-Band Plasmon-Induced Transparent Effect Based on Composite Structure of Closed-Ring and Square Patch,” Plasmonics 2018, 1–6 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Habib, A. R. Rashed, E. Ozbay, and H. Caglayan, “Graphene-based tunable plasmon induced transparency in gold strips,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(4), 1069–1074 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Nong, W. Wei, W. Wang, G. Lan, Z. Shang, J. Yi, and L. Tang, “Strong coherent coupling between graphene surface plasmons and anisotropic black phosphorus localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1633–1644 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (4)

Y. Shahamat and M. Vahedi, “Plasmon-induced transparency in a rectangle cavity and an H-shaped structure for sensing and switching applications,” J. Nanophotonics 11(4), 046012 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, L. Wang, J. Zhu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Surface plasmons in a nanostructured black phosphorus flake,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2659–2662 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Zhang, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Based on Cascaded π-Shaped Graphene Nanostructure,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1833–1839 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Monolayer Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhan, Y. Peng, Z. He, B. Li, Z. Chen, H. Xu, and H. Li, “Tunable nanoplasmonic sensor based on the asymmetric degree of Fano resonance in MDM waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22428 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (4)

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4475 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (2)

H. Ian, Y. Liu, and F. Nori, “Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption with dressed superconducting qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 81(6), 063823 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Zhang, S. Xiao, C. Jeppesen, A. Kristensen, and N. A. Mortensen, “Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency,” Opt. Express 18(16), 17187–17192 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

N. Verellen, Y. Sonnefraud, H. Sobhani, F. Hao, V. V. Moshchalkov, P. Van Dorpe, P. Nordlander, and S. A. Maier, “Fano resonances in individual coherent plasmonic nanocavities,” Nano Lett. 9(4), 1663–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Mingaleev, A. E. Miroshnichenko, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Coupled-resonator-induced reflection in photonic-crystal waveguide structures,” Opt. Express 16(15), 11647–11659 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

K. Totsuka, N. Kobayashi, and M. Tomita, “Slow light in coupled-resonator-induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(21), 213904 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

S. A. Mikhailov and N. A. Savostianova, “Microwave response of a two-dimensional electron stripe,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 71(3), 035320 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

2001 (1)

M. D. Lukin and A. Imamoğlu, “Controlling photons using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Nature 413(6853), 273–276 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

K. Boller, A. Imamğllu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoğlu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: Interference of lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62(9), 1033–1036 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

O. A. Kocharovskaya and Y. I. Khanin, “Coherent amplification of an ultrashort pulse in a three-level medium without a population inversion,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 48, 630 (1988).

1981 (1)

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic Structure of Black Phosphorus in Tight Binding Approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abdolhosseini, S.

A. Akhavan, H. Ghafoorifard, S. Abdolhosseini, and H. Habibiyan, “Metal–insulator–metal waveguide-coupled asymmetric resonators for sensing and slow light applications,” IET Optoelectron. 12(5), 220–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Akhavan, A.

A. Akhavan, H. Ghafoorifard, S. Abdolhosseini, and H. Habibiyan, “Metal–insulator–metal waveguide-coupled asymmetric resonators for sensing and slow light applications,” IET Optoelectron. 12(5), 220–227 (2018).
[Crossref]

Altug, H.

Artar, A.

Asahina, H.

Y. Takao, H. Asahina, and A. Morita, “Electronic Structure of Black Phosphorus in Tight Binding Approach,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 50(10), 3362–3369 (1981).
[Crossref]

Avouris, P.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Low, R. Roldán, H. Wang, F. Xia, P. Avouris, L. M. Moreno, and F. Guinea, “Plasmons and screening in monolayer and multilayer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 113(10), 106802 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aydin, K.

Z. Liu and K. Aydin, “Localized Surface Plasmons in Nanostructured Monolayer Black Phosphorus,” Nano Lett. 16(6), 3457–3462 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azad, A. K.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Behroozi, C. H.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

Boller, K.

K. Boller, A. Imamğllu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(20), 2593–2596 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brown, A. W.

Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caglayan, H.

Caldwell, J. D.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

H. Zhang, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Based on Cascaded π-Shaped Graphene Nanostructure,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1833–1839 (2017).
[Crossref]

Carvalho, A.

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castro Neto, A. H.

T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 90(7), 075434 (2014).
[Crossref]

Çetin, A. E.

Chaves, A.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

Z. Zhang, J. Yang, X. He, Y. Han, J. Zhang, J. Huang, D. Chen, and S. Xu, “Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials,” Materials (Basel) 11(6), 941 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H.

Chen, H.-T.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Active Tuning of Midinfrared Surface Plasmon Resonance and Its Hybridization in Black Phosphorus Sheet Array,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3828–3837 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Ni, L. Wang, J. Zhu, X. Chen, and W. Lu, “Surface plasmons in a nanostructured black phosphorus flake,” Opt. Lett. 42(13), 2659–2662 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X. H.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

S. Zhan, Y. Peng, Z. He, B. Li, Z. Chen, H. Xu, and H. Li, “Tunable nanoplasmonic sensor based on the asymmetric degree of Fano resonance in MDM waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22428 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, Y.

Dutton, Z.

L. V. Hau, S. E. Harris, Z. Dutton, and C. H. Behroozi, “Light speed reduction to 17 metres per second in an ultracold atomic gas,” Nature 397(6720), 594–598 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fang, N. X.

T. Low, A. Chaves, J. D. Caldwell, A. Kumar, N. X. Fang, P. Avouris, T. F. Heinz, F. Guinea, L. Martin-Moreno, and F. Koppens, “Polaritons in layered two-dimensional materials,” Nat. Mater. 16(2), 182–194 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fedotov, V. A.

N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, D.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Field, J. E.

S. E. Harris, J. E. Field, and A. Imamoğlu, “Nonlinear optical processes using electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64(10), 1107–1110 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ge, Q.

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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Yuan, X.

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S. Zhan, Y. Peng, Z. He, B. Li, Z. Chen, H. Xu, and H. Li, “Tunable nanoplasmonic sensor based on the asymmetric degree of Fano resonance in MDM waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22428 (2016).
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Zhang, H.

H. Zhang, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Based on Cascaded π-Shaped Graphene Nanostructure,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1833–1839 (2017).
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Zhang, J.

Zhang, S.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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Zhang, X.

J. Gu, R. Singh, X. Liu, X. Zhang, Y. Ma, S. Zhang, S. A. Maier, Z. Tian, A. K. Azad, H.-T. Chen, A. J. Taylor, J. Han, and W. Zhang, “Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Commun. 3(1), 1151 (2012).
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S. Zhang, D. A. Genov, Y. Wang, M. Liu, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon-induced transparency in metamaterials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(4), 047401 (2008).
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H. Zhang, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Based on Cascaded π-Shaped Graphene Nanostructure,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1833–1839 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Li, Y. Yu, G. J. Ye, Q. Ge, X. Ou, H. Wu, D. Feng, X. H. Chen, and Y. Zhang, “Black phosphorus field-effect transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 372–377 (2014).
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Y. Zhang, A. W. Brown, and M. Xiao, “Opening four-wave mixing and six-wave mixing channels via dual electromagnetically induced transparency windows,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123603 (2007).
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Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, J. Yang, X. He, Y. Han, J. Zhang, J. Huang, D. Chen, and S. Xu, “Active Enhancement of Slow Light Based on Plasmon-Induced Transparency with Gain Materials,” Materials (Basel) 11(6), 941 (2018).
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N. Papasimakis, V. A. Fedotov, N. I. Zheludev, and S. L. Prosvirnin, “Metamaterial analog of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(25), 253903 (2008).
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Zhu, J.

Zhu, Z.

Zi, J.

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L. Han, L. Wang, H. Xing, and X. Chen, “Active Tuning of Midinfrared Surface Plasmon Resonance and Its Hybridization in Black Phosphorus Sheet Array,” ACS Photonics 5(9), 3828–3837 (2018).
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Plasmonics (2)

H. Zhang, Y. Cao, Y. Liu, Y. Li, and Y. Zhang, “Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Based on Cascaded π-Shaped Graphene Nanostructure,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1833–1839 (2017).
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S. Zhan, Y. Peng, Z. He, B. Li, Z. Chen, H. Xu, and H. Li, “Tunable nanoplasmonic sensor based on the asymmetric degree of Fano resonance in MDM waveguide,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 22428 (2016).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of monolayer BP, where different crystal structures along the armchair (x) and zigzag (y) directions. (b) Schematic of the BP nanostrip trimer. The plane wave is incident perpendicularly on the structure. (c) Top view of BP nanostrip trimer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The dependence of the permittivity of BP in both directions on Fermi level. (a, c) Spectra of the real part of permittivity ɛxx and ɛyy of BP at EF = 0.10 eV, 0.15 eV and 0.20 eV. (b, d) Spectra of the imaginary part of permittivity ɛxx and ɛyy of BP at EF = 0.10 eV, 0.15 eV and 0.20 eV.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a, b) Absorption and transmission spectra of individual BP nanostrip corresponding to the plasmon along the armchair and zigzag directions. The insets show the electric field distributions at transmission dips. (c, d) Absorption and transmission spectra of BP nanostrip trimer, and the corresponding lattice directions are shown in the inset, E is the direction of incident electric field, (c) is related with the incident electric polarized along the x crystal axis (armchair direction), (d) is related with the incident electric field polarized along the y crystal axis (zigzag direction). (e, f) Corresponding electric field and charge distributions at A (5.32 μm), B (5.56 μm), C (5.78 μm), D (13.93 μm), E (14.78 μm) and F (15.61 μm) in Figs. 2(c) and 2(d).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a, b) Transmission spectra of the BP-PIT structure when EF is 0.10 eV, 0.15 eV, and 0.20 eV of two directions. (c, d) Numerical transmission map as a function of EF along x and y directions. The change in the induced transparent point with EF is indicated by the black dash line.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a, b) Transmission spectra of the BP-PIT structure when polarization angle (θ) is 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of two directions.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a, b) Transmission spectra of two directions with fixed EF (0.10 eV) of radiative element and various EF of dark element. (c, d) Theoretical and emulational dispersion relationships for the hybridization between bright element and dark element in both directions.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Transmission spectra when the EF in one of the nanostrips (i. e. the dark element) changes, (a) corresponding to the incident electric field parallel with the armchair direction of bright element, and (b) corresponding to the incident field parallel with the zigzag direction of bright element, respectively. (c) The charge and electric field intensity distribution at A, B, C, D and E.

Equations (2)

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ε jj ( ω )= ε ω pj 2 ω 2 +i ω cj ω
ω ± = ω radiaj + ω darkj 2 ± 1 2 ( ω radiaj ω darkj ) 2 + Ω j 2

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