Abstract

We successfully demonstrate new heavy metal-gallium-doped oxide glass media, which are capable of accommodating a significant level of Er3+ doping, while avoiding the deleterious effects of concentration quenching. We examine the effects of composition and microstructure of the glass networks on optical properties. Near-infrared and visible emission demonstrate the absence of concentration quenching and Er3+ clustering. Both Raman spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy confirm that gallium enters the glass as a tetrahedral network former. The incorporation of gallium into the glass modifies the energy landscape and creates two distinct crystal field environments, which promote Er3+ radiative transitions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  4. W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. S. Simon and V. Simon, “Thermal characterization of gallium-bismuthate oxide glasses,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3778–3781 (2004).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  23. Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
    [Crossref]
  24. W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Doweidar, “Optical properties and structure of R2O-Ga2O3-SiO2 and RO- Ga2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(11), 2899–2906 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  29. K. Lipinska and C. Segre, “Local order around Er3+ in Ga-doped oxide glasses probed by XAFS spectroscopy” – to be submitted.
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  31. F. L. Galeener and A. E. Geissberger, “Vibrational dynamics in 30Si-substituted vitreous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(10), 6199–6204 (1983).
    [Crossref]
  32. G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  33. M. Micoulaut, M. L. Cormier, and G. S. Henderson, “The structure of amorphous, crystalline and liquid GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(45), R753–R784 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  34. G. S. Henderson, “The structure of silicate melts: a glass perspective,” Can. Mineral. 43(1), 1921–1958 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  35. P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  37. K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “The Structure of Al, Fe, K silica-germanate glasses investigated by Raman and infrared-spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 1–9 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  38. K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “Vibrational Study of Mixed SiO2-GeO2 Glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 219, 107–110 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  39. C. I. Merzbacher and D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162(1–2), 81–100 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  40. L.-G. Hwa, J.-G. Shiau, and S.-P. Szu, “Polarized Raman scattering in lanthanum gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(1), 55–61 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  41. F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  42. S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  43. M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

2018 (1)

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (3)

W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (1)

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. Tang, J. Wang, X. Chen, Q. Qian, and Z. Yang, “Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate glass single-mode fibers for 2.0 μm laser,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7722–7731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

G. S. Henderson, F. M. F. de Groot, and B. J. A. Moulton, “X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 78(1), 75–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

R. F. de Morais, E. Oliveira Serqueira, and N. Oliveira Dantas, “Effect of thermal annealing on the spectroscopic parameters of Er3+-doped sodium silicate glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2122–2127 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

2010 (3)

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. B. Seddon, Z. Tang, D. Furniss, S. Sujecki, and T. M. Benson, “Progress in rare-earth-doped mid-infrared fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 18(25), 26704–26719 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Doweidar, “Optical properties and structure of R2O-Ga2O3-SiO2 and RO- Ga2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(11), 2899–2906 (2009).
[Crossref]

G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

M. Micoulaut, M. L. Cormier, and G. S. Henderson, “The structure of amorphous, crystalline and liquid GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(45), R753–R784 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Sen, R. Rakhmatullin, R. Gubaidullin, and A. Pöppl, “Direct spectroscopic observation of the atomic-scale mechanisms of clustering and homogenization of rare-earth dopant ions in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(10), 100201 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

G. S. Henderson, “The structure of silicate melts: a glass perspective,” Can. Mineral. 43(1), 1921–1958 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Simon and V. Simon, “Thermal characterization of gallium-bismuthate oxide glasses,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3778–3781 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Polman and F. C. J. M. van Veggel, “Broadband sensitizers for erbium-doped planar optical amplifiers: review,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 21(5), 871–892 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

R. Balda, A. Oleaga, J. Fernández, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 83–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

J. Lægsgaard, “Dissolution of rare-earth clusters in SiO2 by Al codoping: A microscopic model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(17), 1741141 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L.-G. Hwa, J.-G. Shiau, and S.-P. Szu, “Polarized Raman scattering in lanthanum gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(1), 55–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

C. I. Merzbacher and D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162(1–2), 81–100 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “The Structure of Al, Fe, K silica-germanate glasses investigated by Raman and infrared-spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 1–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “Vibrational Study of Mixed SiO2-GeO2 Glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 219, 107–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

G. S. Henderson, G. M. Bancroft, M. E. Fleet, and D. J. Rogers, “Raman spectra of gallium and germanium substituted silicate glasses: variation in intermediate order,” Am. Mineral. 70, 946–960 (1985).

1983 (1)

F. L. Galeener and A. E. Geissberger, “Vibrational dynamics in 30Si-substituted vitreous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(10), 6199–6204 (1983).
[Crossref]

Alombert-Goget, G.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Arai, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Balda, R.

R. Balda, A. Oleaga, J. Fernández, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 83–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bancroft, G. M.

G. S. Henderson, G. M. Bancroft, M. E. Fleet, and D. J. Rogers, “Raman spectra of gallium and germanium substituted silicate glasses: variation in intermediate order,” Am. Mineral. 70, 946–960 (1985).

Barnes, A. C.

P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastard, L.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Benson, T. M.

Bigot, L.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boetti, N. G.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bouazaoui, M.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bouwmans, G.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Broquin, J.-E.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bruce, A.

M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Calas, G.

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Caldiño, U.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Camarillo, I.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Capoen, B.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cardinal, T.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cecil, J.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

Cernosek, Z.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[Crossref]

Cernoskova, E.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chaussedent, S.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chavara, M.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

Chen, H.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y.

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chiaser, A.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cochain, B.

G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cockroft, N. J.

M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cormier, L.

G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cormier, M. L.

M. Micoulaut, M. L. Cormier, and G. S. Henderson, “The structure of amorphous, crystalline and liquid GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(45), R753–R784 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cuello, G. J.

P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dai, S.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Groot, F. M. F.

G. S. Henderson, F. M. F. de Groot, and B. J. A. Moulton, “X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 78(1), 75–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

de Morais, R. F.

R. F. de Morais, E. Oliveira Serqueira, and N. Oliveira Dantas, “Effect of thermal annealing on the spectroscopic parameters of Er3+-doped sodium silicate glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2122–2127 (2013).
[Crossref]

Doweidar, H.

H. Doweidar, “Optical properties and structure of R2O-Ga2O3-SiO2 and RO- Ga2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(11), 2899–2906 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dussauze, M.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

El Hamzaoui, H.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Elliott, S. R.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, H.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fan, S.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fang, D.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fargin, E.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Fdez-Navarro, J. M.

R. Balda, A. Oleaga, J. Fernández, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 83–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fernández, J.

R. Balda, A. Oleaga, J. Fernández, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 83–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Fleet, M. E.

G. S. Henderson, G. M. Bancroft, M. E. Fleet, and D. J. Rogers, “Raman spectra of gallium and germanium substituted silicate glasses: variation in intermediate order,” Am. Mineral. 70, 946–960 (1985).

Fsaifes, I.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fukumi, K.

S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

Galeener, F. L.

F. L. Galeener and A. E. Geissberger, “Vibrational dynamics in 30Si-substituted vitreous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(10), 6199–6204 (1983).
[Crossref]

Galoisy, L.

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, G.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Garcia-Solé, J.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaumer, N.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Geissberger, A. E.

F. L. Galeener and A. E. Geissberger, “Vibrational dynamics in 30Si-substituted vitreous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(10), 6199–6204 (1983).
[Crossref]

Gosnell, T.

M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gubaidullin, R.

S. Sen, R. Rakhmatullin, R. Gubaidullin, and A. Pöppl, “Direct spectroscopic observation of the atomic-scale mechanisms of clustering and homogenization of rare-earth dopant ions in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(10), 100201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Handa, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hee, P.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Hegedus, J.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hehlen, M. P.

M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Henderson, G. S.

G. S. Henderson, F. M. F. de Groot, and B. J. A. Moulton, “X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 78(1), 75–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Micoulaut, M. L. Cormier, and G. S. Henderson, “The structure of amorphous, crystalline and liquid GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(45), R753–R784 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. S. Henderson, “The structure of silicate melts: a glass perspective,” Can. Mineral. 43(1), 1921–1958 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. S. Henderson, G. M. Bancroft, M. E. Fleet, and D. J. Rogers, “Raman spectra of gallium and germanium substituted silicate glasses: variation in intermediate order,” Am. Mineral. 70, 946–960 (1985).

Heo, J.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

Honda, T.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hu, L.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hwa, L.-G.

L.-G. Hwa, J.-G. Shiau, and S.-P. Szu, “Polarized Raman scattering in lanthanum gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(1), 55–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ishii, Y.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ivanova, Z. G.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jiao, Q.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kalita, P. E.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

Kozuka, H.

S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
[Crossref]

Kroeker, S.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Kumata, K.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lægsgaard, J.

J. Lægsgaard, “Dissolution of rare-earth clusters in SiO2 by Al codoping: A microscopic model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(17), 1741141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ledemi, Y.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Lee, T. H.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, K.

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lipinska, K.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

K. Lipinska and C. Segre, “Local order around Er3+ in Ga-doped oxide glasses probed by XAFS spectroscopy” – to be submitted.

Lipinska, K. E.

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “The Structure of Al, Fe, K silica-germanate glasses investigated by Raman and infrared-spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 1–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “Vibrational Study of Mixed SiO2-GeO2 Glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 219, 107–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

Lira, A. C.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lisiecki, R.

W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lousteau, J.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Machewirth, D. P.

Majerus, O.

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Martin, R. A.

P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez-Martínez, R.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martín-Rodríguez, E.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mckeown, D. A.

C. I. Merzbacher and D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162(1–2), 81–100 (1993).
[Crossref]

Merzbacher, C. I.

C. I. Merzbacher and D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162(1–2), 81–100 (1993).
[Crossref]

Messaddeq, Y.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Micoulaut, M.

M. Micoulaut, M. L. Cormier, and G. S. Henderson, “The structure of amorphous, crystalline and liquid GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(45), R753–R784 (2006).
[Crossref]

Milanese, D.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Miniscalco, W. J.

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

Miyaji, F.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
[Crossref]

Monteil, A.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moulton, B. J. A.

G. S. Henderson, F. M. F. de Groot, and B. J. A. Moulton, “X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 78(1), 75–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

Mowbray, D. J.

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “Vibrational Study of Mixed SiO2-GeO2 Glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 219, 107–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “The Structure of Al, Fe, K silica-germanate glasses investigated by Raman and infrared-spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 1–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

Muñoz, G. H.

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

Namikawa, H.

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

Neuville, D. R.

G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

Obriot, J.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ohki, Y.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

Oleaga, A.

R. Balda, A. Oleaga, J. Fernández, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 83–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

Oliveira Dantas, N.

R. F. de Morais, E. Oliveira Serqueira, and N. Oliveira Dantas, “Effect of thermal annealing on the spectroscopic parameters of Er3+-doped sodium silicate glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2122–2127 (2013).
[Crossref]

Oliveira Serqueira, E.

R. F. de Morais, E. Oliveira Serqueira, and N. Oliveira Dantas, “Effect of thermal annealing on the spectroscopic parameters of Er3+-doped sodium silicate glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2122–2127 (2013).
[Crossref]

Otten, M.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

Pan, H.

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

Pisarska, J.

W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Pisarski, W. A.

W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Polman, A.

Pöppl, A.

S. Sen, R. Rakhmatullin, R. Gubaidullin, and A. Pöppl, “Direct spectroscopic observation of the atomic-scale mechanisms of clustering and homogenization of rare-earth dopant ions in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(10), 100201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pugliese, D.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Qian, Q.

Rakhmatullin, R.

S. Sen, R. Rakhmatullin, R. Gubaidullin, and A. Pöppl, “Direct spectroscopic observation of the atomic-scale mechanisms of clustering and homogenization of rare-earth dopant ions in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(10), 100201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ribeiro, S. J. L.

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rogers, D. J.

G. S. Henderson, G. M. Bancroft, M. E. Fleet, and D. J. Rogers, “Raman spectra of gallium and germanium substituted silicate glasses: variation in intermediate order,” Am. Mineral. 70, 946–960 (1985).

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Sakka, S.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
[Crossref]

Salmon, P. S.

P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Savelii, I.

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Scarpignato, G. C.

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

Segre, C.

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

K. Lipinska and C. Segre, “Local order around Er3+ in Ga-doped oxide glasses probed by XAFS spectroscopy” – to be submitted.

Sen, S.

S. Sen, R. Rakhmatullin, R. Gubaidullin, and A. Pöppl, “Direct spectroscopic observation of the atomic-scale mechanisms of clustering and homogenization of rare-earth dopant ions in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(10), 100201 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, X.

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

Shiau, J.-G.

L.-G. Hwa, J.-G. Shiau, and S.-P. Szu, “Polarized Raman scattering in lanthanum gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(1), 55–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sigel, G. H.

Simdyankin, S. I.

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

Simon, S.

S. Simon and V. Simon, “Thermal characterization of gallium-bismuthate oxide glasses,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3778–3781 (2004).
[Crossref]

Simon, V.

S. Simon and V. Simon, “Thermal characterization of gallium-bismuthate oxide glasses,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3778–3781 (2004).
[Crossref]

Skopak, T.

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

Snitzer, J. E.

Sujecki, S.

Szu, S.-P.

L.-G. Hwa, J.-G. Shiau, and S.-P. Szu, “Polarized Raman scattering in lanthanum gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(1), 55–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tadanaga, K.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[Crossref]

Tang, G.

Tang, Z.

van Veggel, F. C. J. M.

Vassilev, V. S.

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wan, R.

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

Wang, G.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, X.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wei, K.

Wen, X.

Wenzel, J.

Xu, S.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xu, T.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z.

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Wen, G. Tang, J. Wang, X. Chen, Q. Qian, and Z. Yang, “Tm3+ doped barium gallo-germanate glass single-mode fibers for 2.0 μm laser,” Opt. Express 23(6), 7722–7731 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoko, T.

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q.

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, S.

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

Am. Mineral. (1)

G. S. Henderson, G. M. Bancroft, M. E. Fleet, and D. J. Rogers, “Raman spectra of gallium and germanium substituted silicate glasses: variation in intermediate order,” Am. Mineral. 70, 946–960 (1985).

Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. (1)

M. Otten, C. Segre, J. Cecil, M. Chavara, K. Lipinska, Y. Ohki, and P. E. Kalita, “Luminescence and local structure correlation of Er-doped glasses and composites,” Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 2013, M2300006 (2013).

Can. Mineral. (1)

G. S. Henderson, “The structure of silicate melts: a glass perspective,” Can. Mineral. 43(1), 1921–1958 (2005).
[Crossref]

Infrared Phys. Technol. (1)

Z. Yang, H. Pan, Y. Chen, R. Wan, and X. Shen, “Emission properties of Er3+-doped Ge20Ga5Sb10Se65 glasses in near- and mid-infrared,” Infrared Phys. Technol. 89, 277–281 (2018).
[Crossref]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

S. Zhao, X. Wang, D. Fang, S. Xu, and L. Hu, “Spectroscopic properties and thermal stability of Er3+-doped tungsten-tellurite glass for waveguide amplifier application,” J. Alloys Compd. 424(1–2), 243–246 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Arai, H. Namikawa, K. Kumata, T. Honda, Y. Ishii, and T. Handa, “Aluminum or phosphorus co‐doping effects on the fluorescence and structural properties of neodymium‐doped silica glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 59(10), 3430–3436 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. J. Miniscalco, “Erbium-doped glasses for fiber amplifiers at 1500 nm,” J. Lightwave Technol. 9(2), 234–250 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

H. Doweidar, “Optical properties and structure of R2O-Ga2O3-SiO2 and RO- Ga2O3-SiO2 glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. 44(11), 2899–2906 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “Vibrational Study of Mixed SiO2-GeO2 Glasses,” J. Mol. Struct. 219, 107–110 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (9)

C. I. Merzbacher and D. A. Mckeown, “X-ray absorption studies of Ge and Ga environments in BaO-Ga2O3-GeO2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 162(1–2), 81–100 (1993).
[Crossref]

L.-G. Hwa, J.-G. Shiau, and S.-P. Szu, “Polarized Raman scattering in lanthanum gallogermanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 249(1), 55–61 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Miyaji, K. Tadanaga, T. Yoko, and S. Sakka, “Coordination of Ga3+ ions in PbO-Ga2O3 glasses as determined by 71Ga NMR,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 139, 268–270 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Sakka, H. Kozuka, K. Fukumi, and F. Miyaji, “Structures of gallate, aluminate and titanate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123(1–3), 176–181 (1990).
[Crossref]

O. Majerus, L. Cormier, D. R. Neuville, L. Galoisy, and G. Calas, “The structure of SiO2–GeO2 glasses: A spectroscopic study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 354(18), 2004–2009 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. E. Lipinska and D. J. Mowbray, “The Structure of Al, Fe, K silica-germanate glasses investigated by Raman and infrared-spectroscopy,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 122(1), 1–9 (1990).
[Crossref]

G. S. Henderson, D. R. Neuville, B. Cochain, and L. Cormier, “The structure of GeO2–SiO2 glasses and melts: A Raman spectroscopy study,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 355(8), 468–474 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Monteil, S. Chaussedent, G. Alombert-Goget, N. Gaumer, J. Obriot, S. J. L. Ribeiro, Y. Messaddeq, A. Chiaser, and M. Ferrari, “Clustering of rare earth in glasses, aluminum effect: experiments and modeling,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 348, 44–50 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Skopak, P. Hee, Y. Ledemi, M. Dussauze, S. Kroeker, T. Cardinal, E. Fargin, and Y. Messaddeq, “Mixture experimental design applied to gallium-rich GaO3/2-GeO2-NaO1/2 glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 455, 83–89 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

N. G. Boetti, G. C. Scarpignato, J. Lousteau, D. Pugliese, L. Bastard, J.-E. Broquin, and D. Milanese, “High concentration Yb-Er co-doped phosphate glass for optical fiber amplification,” J. Opt. 17(6), 065705 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. Solids (1)

Z. G. Ivanova, V. S. Vassilev, E. Cernoskova, and Z. Cernosek, “Physicochemical, structural and fluorescence properties of Er-doped Ge–S–Ga glasses,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids 64(1), 107–110 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (2)

M. Micoulaut, M. L. Cormier, and G. S. Henderson, “The structure of amorphous, crystalline and liquid GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18(45), R753–R784 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. S. Salmon, A. C. Barnes, R. A. Martin, and G. J. Cuello, “Structure of glassy GeO2,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 19(41), 415110 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

I. Savelii, H. El Hamzaoui, L. Bigot, G. Bouwmans, I. Fsaifes, B. Capoen, and M. Bouazaoui, “Nanostructuring an erbium local environment inside sol–gel silica glasses: toward efficient erbium optical fiber lasers,” Laser Phys. Lett. 13(2), 025108 (2016).
[Crossref]

Mater. Lett. (1)

S. Simon and V. Simon, “Thermal characterization of gallium-bismuthate oxide glasses,” Mater. Lett. 58(29), 3778–3781 (2004).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (4)

R. Balda, A. Oleaga, J. Fernández, and J. M. Fdez-Navarro, “Spectroscopy and frequency upconversion of Er3+ ions in lead niobium germanate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 24(1–2), 83–90 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. F. de Morais, E. Oliveira Serqueira, and N. Oliveira Dantas, “Effect of thermal annealing on the spectroscopic parameters of Er3+-doped sodium silicate glass,” Opt. Mater. 35(12), 2122–2127 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. C. Lira, E. Martín-Rodríguez, R. Martínez-Martínez, I. Camarillo, G. H. Muñoz, J. Garcia-Solé, and U. Caldiño, “Spectroscopy of the Bi4Si3O12:Er3+ glass for optical amplification and laser application,” Opt. Mater. 32(9), 1266–1273 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Gao, L. Hu, H. Fan, G. Wang, K. Li, S. Feng, S. Fan, and H. Chen, “Effect of Bi2O3 on physical, optical and structural properties of boron silicon bismuthate glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 159–163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opto-Electron. Rev. (1)

W. A. Pisarski, J. Pisarska, R. Lisiecki, and W. Ryba-Romanowski, “Erbium-doped lead silicate glass for near-infrared emission and temperature-dependent up-conversion applications,” Opto-Electron. Rev. 25(3), 238–241 (2017).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

F. L. Galeener and A. E. Geissberger, “Vibrational dynamics in 30Si-substituted vitreous SiO2,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 27(10), 6199–6204 (1983).
[Crossref]

M. P. Hehlen, T. Gosnell, N. J. Cockroft, and A. Bruce, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Yb3+ doped soda-lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 56(15), 9302–9318 (1997).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. (3)

S. Sen, R. Rakhmatullin, R. Gubaidullin, and A. Pöppl, “Direct spectroscopic observation of the atomic-scale mechanisms of clustering and homogenization of rare-earth dopant ions in vitreous silica,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 74(10), 100201 (2006).
[Crossref]

T. H. Lee, S. I. Simdyankin, J. Hegedus, J. Heo, and S. R. Elliott, “Spatial distribution of rare-earth ions and GaS4 tetrahedra in chalcogenide glasses studied via laser spectroscopy and ab initio molecular dynamics simulation,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 81(10), 760–762 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lægsgaard, “Dissolution of rare-earth clusters in SiO2 by Al codoping: A microscopic model,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter Mater. Phys. 65(17), 1741141 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mineral. Geochem. (1)

G. S. Henderson, F. M. F. de Groot, and B. J. A. Moulton, “X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy,” Rev. Mineral. Geochem. 78(1), 75–138 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (1)

Q. Jiao, G. Li, L. Li, C. Lin, G. Wang, Z. Liu, S. Dai, T. Xu, and Q. Zhang, “Effect of gallium environment on infrared emission in Er3+-doped gallium- antimony- sulfur glasses,” Sci. Rep. 7(1), 41168 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

A. J. Kropf, J. Katsoudas, S. Chattopadhyay, T. Shibata, E. A. Lang, V. N. Zyryanov, B. Ravel, K. McIvor, K. M. Kemner, K. G. Scheckel, S. R. Bare, J. Terry, S. D. Kelly, B. A. Bunker, and C. U. Segre, “The new MRCAT (Sector 10) Bending Magnet Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 299–302 (2010).

C. U. Segre, N. E. Leyarovska, L. D. Chapman, W. M. Lavender, P. W. Plag, A. S. King, A. J. Kropf, B. A. Bunker, K. M. Kemner, P. Dutta, R. S. Duran, and J. Kaduk, “The MRCAT Insertion Device Beamline at the Advanced Photon Source”, CP521, Synch. Rad. Instr.: 11th U.S. National Conference, ed. P. Pianetta, 419–422, AIP, New York (2000).
[Crossref]

K. Lipinska and C. Segre, “Local order around Er3+ in Ga-doped oxide glasses probed by XAFS spectroscopy” – to be submitted.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Er3+ telecom emission at ~1.5 μm (4 I 13/24 I 15/2) as a function of Er2O3 concentration for 0.5 and 1.0 mol% for the: (a) ‘(Si)/Ga - series’ (b) the ‘(Si/Ge)/Ga - series’ and (c) the ‘(Ge)/Ga - series’; (d) emission vs. the full span of Er2O3 concentrations for the ‘(Si)/Ga - series’; (e) comparison of the telecom emission intensity vs Er2O3 concentration for all glass series. Excitation was at 645 nm. Dashed lines are guides for the eye. Error bars are smaller than symbols.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of Er3+ emission as a function of concentration for the 3 glass matrices with (a) 0.5 mol% of Er2O3 doping, (b) 1.0 mol% doping; (c) intensity of the green Er3+ emission at 547 nm (4S3/24I15/2) vs. Er2O3 concentration for all series; (d) Er3+ energy diagram. Excitation was at 442 nm. Error bars are smaller than symbols.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Example of quantitative analysis (Lorentzian and Gaussian convolutions) of ring statistics illustrating the diversity of tetrahedral structures, from 3-fold to >6-fold rings: (a) a reference SiO2 glass with (b) its ring structure distribution in the network, and (c) a glass from the ‘(Si)/Ga - series’ synthesized in this work with (d) its ring structure distribution in the network. (e) Schematic representation of different ring structures, where colors correspond to the x-fold tetrahedral rings.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Raman spectra of the heavy-metal doped (gallium) and erbium co-doped (a) ‘(Si)/Ga-series’, (b) ‘(Si/Ge)/Ga-series’ and (c) ‘(Ge)/Ga-series’ glasses synthesized in this work. The spectra illustrate the change of width of the main glass band (M) with increasing erbium concentration, indicating an increase in network disorder. For all glass series the D1 and D2 defect bands increase in intensity with erbium concentration, indicating an increase in the average number of smaller rings. Raman spectra of reference glasses are shown for comparison: (d) pure SiO2 glass, (e) 1:1 mix SiO2-GeO2, and (f) pure GeO2 glass.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Example of XANES of the Er L3 (2P3/2) edge for the ‘(Si)/Ga-series’ of glasses, where µ is the absorption coefficient. The ‘white line’ spectral shape illustrates the presence of isosbestic points. The incorporation of gallium into the network results in an alteration of the energy environment and creates 2 distinct erbium microstructural surroundings. The arrow marks the direction of increase (0.05 - 3.0 mol%) of Er2O3 concentration.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Optical Raman band assignments for the ‘(Si)/Ga-series’, the ‘(Ge)/Ga-series’, and the mixed ‘(Si/Ge)/Ga-series’ of glasses synthesized in this work as well as reference SiO2 and GeO2 glasses.

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Table 2 The results of fitting of the Er L3 white line edge for ‘(Si)/Ga-series’ of glasses, to an arctangent and a Gaussian white line peak.

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