Abstract

In this work, we proposed a nanoporous glass phase-separation method to fabricate low photo-darkening Yb-doped fiber. Compared to a modified conventional vapor deposition method, equilibrium photo-darkening induced excess loss at 702, 810, and 1041 nm of the nanoporous glass fiber was reduced to 35.07, 12.49 and 1.69 dB/m, respectively, despite higher Yb3+ concentration. The excess loss mitigation percentage was above 20%, and about 1 dB/m self-bleaching was observed. Besides, slope efficiency of this fiber was measured to be as high as 72.8%. The mechanism of photo-darkening mitigation by the porous glass phase-separation technology was also discussed. The results strongly confirmed that the method is applicable to further develop high-power fiber lasers with low photo-darkening effect.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

Y. Sakaguchi, Y. Fujimoto, M. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and H. Nakano, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect in Yb-doped silica glass fiber by co-doping of group 2 element,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 85–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (2)

N. Zhao, Y. B. Xing, J. M. Li, L. Liao, Y. B. Wang, J. G. Peng, L. Y. Yang, N. L. Dai, H. Q. Li, and J. Y. Li, “793 nm pump induced photo-bleaching of photo-darkened Yb3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25272–25278 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Gu, M. Hu, L. Zhang, J. Fan, Y. Song, C. Wang, and D. T. Reid, “High average power, widely tunable femtosecond laser source from red to mid-infrared based on an Yb-fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Lett. 38(11), 1820–1822 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

T. Deschamps, N. Ollier, H. Vezin, and C. Gonnet, “Clusters dissolution of Yb3+ in codoped SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5 glass fiber and its relevance to photodarkening,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(1), 014503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

2009 (5)

2007 (4)

2004 (2)

Y. Jeong, J. Sahu, D. Payne, and J. Nilsson, “Ytterbium-doped large-core fiber laser with 1.36 kW continuous-wave output power,” Opt. Express 12(25), 6088–6092 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kravtsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, “Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3,” Quantum Electron. 34(9), 843–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, T. Clausnitzer, K. Zöllner, H. Fuchs, E. Kley, H. Zellmer, and A. Tünnermann, “High-power femtosecond Yb-doped fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express 10(14), 628–638 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

T. F. Soules, “A molecular dynamic calculation of the structure of sodium silicate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 71(11), 4570–4578 (1979).
[Crossref]

Åberg, D.

Abramov, M.

M. O’Connor, V. Gapontsev, V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “Power Scaling of SM Fiber Lasers toward 10kW,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper. CThA3.
[Crossref]

Akai, T.

Alexander, M. N.

P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
[Crossref]

Andrejco, M.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, “Effect of heat and H2 gas on the photo-darkening of Yb+3 fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper. CTuQ5.

Barber, P. R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Barmenkov, Y. O.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Basu, C.

Boyland, A. J.

Brand, T.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bufetov, I. A.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kravtsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, “Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3,” Quantum Electron. 34(9), 843–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

Burov, E.

Cadier, B.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Caplen, J. E.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cavani, O.

Cheng, X.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiussi, S.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, Y.

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Clausnitzer, T.

Dai, N.

N. Zhao, Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, H. Li, and J. Li, “Mitigation of photodarkening effect in Yb-doped fiber through Na+ ions doping,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18191–18196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dai, N. L.

Deschamps, T.

T. Deschamps, N. Ollier, H. Vezin, and C. Gonnet, “Clusters dissolution of Yb3+ in codoped SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5 glass fiber and its relevance to photodarkening,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(1), 014503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kravtsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, “Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3,” Quantum Electron. 34(9), 843–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, “Effect of heat and H2 gas on the photo-darkening of Yb+3 fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper. CTuQ5.

Dong, L.

Durrant, T.

Engholm, M.

Fan, J.

Ferin, A.

M. O’Connor, V. Gapontsev, V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “Power Scaling of SM Fiber Lasers toward 10kW,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper. CThA3.
[Crossref]

Fomin, V.

M. O’Connor, V. Gapontsev, V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “Power Scaling of SM Fiber Lasers toward 10kW,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper. CThA3.
[Crossref]

Fu, L.

Fu, S.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H.

Fujimoto, Y.

Y. Sakaguchi, Y. Fujimoto, M. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and H. Nakano, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect in Yb-doped silica glass fiber by co-doping of group 2 element,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 85–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gapontsev, V.

M. O’Connor, V. Gapontsev, V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “Power Scaling of SM Fiber Lasers toward 10kW,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper. CThA3.
[Crossref]

Gebavi, H.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gonnet, C.

T. Deschamps, N. Ollier, H. Vezin, and C. Gonnet, “Clusters dissolution of Yb3+ in codoped SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5 glass fiber and its relevance to photodarkening,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(1), 014503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Peretti, A. M. Jurdyc, B. Jacquier, C. Gonnet, A. Pastouret, E. Burov, and O. Cavani, “How do traces of thulium explain photodarkening in Yb doped fibers?” Opt. Express 18(19), 20455–20460 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

González, P.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grimm, S.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gu, C.

Guzman Chávez, A. D.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
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Hu, M.

Hupa, M.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
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A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
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Jasapara, J.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, “Effect of heat and H2 gas on the photo-darkening of Yb+3 fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper. CTuQ5.

Jelger, P.

Jeong, Y.

Jetschke, S.

Jurdyc, A. M.

Kir’yanov, A. V.

A. D. Guzman Chávez, A. V. Kir’yanov, Y. O. Barmenkov, and N. N. Il’ichev, “Reversible photo-darkening and resonant photo-bleaching of Ytterbium-doped silica fiber at in-core 977-nm and 543-nm irradiation,” Laser Phys. Lett. 4(10), 734–739 (2007).
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S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013).
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S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
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Kley, E.

Koplow, J. P.

Kravtsov, K. S.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kravtsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, “Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3,” Quantum Electron. 34(9), 843–848 (2004).
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R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
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R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
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S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
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Laurell, F.

Le Goffic, O.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
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S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
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J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
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N. Zhao, Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, H. Li, and J. Li, “Mitigation of photodarkening effect in Yb-doped fiber through Na+ ions doping,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18191–18196 (2017).
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Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
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Li, H. Q.

Li, J.

N. Zhao, Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, H. Li, and J. Li, “Mitigation of photodarkening effect in Yb-doped fiber through Na+ ions doping,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18191–18196 (2017).
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N. Zhao, Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, H. Li, and J. Li, “Mitigation of photodarkening effect in Yb-doped fiber through Na+ ions doping,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18191–18196 (2017).
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Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
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Li, J. M.

Li, J. Y.

Li, M.

Liao, L.

N. Zhao, Y. B. Xing, J. M. Li, L. Liao, Y. B. Wang, J. G. Peng, L. Y. Yang, N. L. Dai, H. Q. Li, and J. Y. Li, “793 nm pump induced photo-bleaching of photo-darkened Yb3+-doped fibers,” Opt. Express 23(19), 25272–25278 (2015).
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Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
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Limpert, J.

Liste, S.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
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Liu, Y.

Liu, Z.

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
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Masuda, M.

Y. Sakaguchi, Y. Fujimoto, M. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and H. Nakano, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect in Yb-doped silica glass fiber by co-doping of group 2 element,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 85–89 (2016).
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McKay, H. A.

Mechin, D.

Méchin, D.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
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M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kravtsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, “Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3,” Quantum Electron. 34(9), 843–848 (2004).
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R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
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Miyanaga, N.

Y. Sakaguchi, Y. Fujimoto, M. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and H. Nakano, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect in Yb-doped silica glass fiber by co-doping of group 2 element,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 85–89 (2016).
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Monteville, A.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Montiel i Ponsoda, J. J.

Murakami, M.

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
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Nakano, H.

Y. Sakaguchi, Y. Fujimoto, M. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and H. Nakano, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect in Yb-doped silica glass fiber by co-doping of group 2 element,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 85–89 (2016).
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S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
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Norin, L.

O’Connor, M.

M. O’Connor, V. Gapontsev, V. Fomin, M. Abramov, and A. Ferin, “Power Scaling of SM Fiber Lasers toward 10kW,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper. CThA3.
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Ollier, N.

T. Deschamps, N. Ollier, H. Vezin, and C. Gonnet, “Clusters dissolution of Yb3+ in codoped SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5 glass fiber and its relevance to photodarkening,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(1), 014503 (2012).
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P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
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Ouyang, C.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pastouret, A.

Payne, D.

Peng, J.

N. Zhao, Y. Liu, M. Li, J. Li, J. Peng, L. Yang, N. Dai, H. Li, and J. Li, “Mitigation of photodarkening effect in Yb-doped fiber through Na+ ions doping,” Opt. Express 25(15), 18191–18196 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peng, J. G.

Peng, X.

Peretti, R.

Pérez-Amor, M.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Piccoli, R.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

Reid, D. T.

Robin, T.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Röpke, U.

Sahu, J.

Sahu, J. K.

Sakaguchi, Y.

Y. Sakaguchi, Y. Fujimoto, M. Masuda, N. Miyanaga, and H. Nakano, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect in Yb-doped silica glass fiber by co-doping of group 2 element,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 440, 85–89 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scheffel, A.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schreiber, T.

Schwuchow, A.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013).
[Crossref]

Serra, J.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shiraga, H.

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shubin, A. V.

M. A. Mel’kumov, I. A. Bufetov, K. S. Kravtsov, A. V. Shubin, and E. M. Dianov, “Lasing parameters of ytterbium-doped fibres doped with P2O5 and Al2O3,” Quantum Electron. 34(9), 843–848 (2004).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
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Sones, C.

Song, Y.

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T. F. Soules, “A molecular dynamic calculation of the structure of sodium silicate glasses,” J. Chem. Phys. 71(11), 4570–4578 (1979).
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P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, S.

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, S.

Taccheo, S.

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Taccheo, H. Gebavi, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Mechin, D. Tregoat, B. Cadier, T. Robin, D. Milanese, and T. Durrant, “Concentration dependence and self-similarity of photodarkening losses induced in Yb-doped fibers by comparable excitation,” Opt. Express 19(20), 19340–19345 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tasker, G. W.

P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
[Crossref]

Tian, X.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Tregoat, D.

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136(5–6), 375–378 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

Uhlmann, D. R.

P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
[Crossref]

Unger, S.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Proc. SPIE 8621, 862116 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, U. Röpke, and J. Kirchhof, “Photodarkening in Yb doped fibers: experimental evidence of equilibrium states depending on the pump power,” Opt. Express 15(22), 14838–14843 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vezin, H.

T. Deschamps, N. Ollier, H. Vezin, and C. Gonnet, “Clusters dissolution of Yb3+ in codoped SiO2-Al2O3-P2O5 glass fiber and its relevance to photodarkening,” J. Chem. Phys. 136(1), 014503 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, H.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. B.

Windeler, R.

J. Jasapara, M. Andrejco, D. DiGiovanni, and R. Windeler, “Effect of heat and H2 gas on the photo-darkening of Yb+3 fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper. CTuQ5.

Wong, J. H.

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xing, Y. B.

Yamashita, M.

Yang, L.

Yang, L. Y.

Yang, Y.

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ylänen, H. O.

J. Serra, P. González, S. Liste, S. Chiussi, B. León, M. Pérez-Amor, H. O. Ylänen, and M. Hupa, “Influence of the non-bridging oxygen groups on the bioactivity of silicate glasses,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 13(12), 1221–1225 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoo, S.

Zellmer, H.

Zhang, L.

Zhao, N.

Zöllner, K.

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

Y. Chu, Y. Yang, Z. Liu, L. Liao, Y. Wang, J. Li, H. Li, J. Peng, N. Dai, J. Li, and L. Yang, “Enhanced green upconversion luminescence in Yb–Tb co-doped sintered silica nanoporous glass,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 118(4), 1429–1435 (2015).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Sugiyama, Y. Fujimoto, M. Murakami, H. Nakano, T. Sato, and H. Shiraga, “Suppression of photo-darkening effect by Ca additive in Yb-doped silica glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 49(2), 148–149 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J Quantum Elect (1)

C. Ouyang, P. Shum, H. Wang, S. Fu, X. Cheng, J. H. Wong, and X. Tian, “Wavelength-Tunable High-Energy All-Normal-Dispersion Yb-Doped Mode-Locked All-Fiber Laser With a HiBi Fiber Sagnac Loop Filter,” IEEE J Quantum Elect 47(2), 198–203 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. (1)

R. Piccoli, H. Gebavi, L. Lablonde, B. Cadier, T. Robin, A. Monteville, O. Le Goffic, D. Landais, D. Méchin, D. Milanese, T. Brand, and S. Taccheo, “Evidence of photodarkening mitigation in Yb-doped fiber lasers by low power 405 nm radiation,” IEEE Photonic. Tech. L. 26(1), 50–53 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

P. I. K. Onorato, M. N. Alexander, C. W. Struck, G. W. Tasker, and D. R. Uhlmann, “Bridging and Nonbridging Oxygen Atoms in Alkali Aluminosilicate Glasses,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 68(6), 148–150 (1985).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the experimental setup for PD loss measurement.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Nitrogen adsorption cumulative pore size distribution and the FESEM image of the porous glass rod (inset).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Refractive index difference of (a) MCVD fiber preform; (b) NPGPS fiber preform.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electron microprobe analysis of Yb3+ and Al3+ in the active core and the cross section (inset) of (a) MCVD fiber; (b) NPGPS fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spectra of an Yb-doped fiber for three measurements.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Absorption loss spectra of Yb-doped fibers during 915 nm LD pumping (a) MCVD fiber; (b) NPGPS fiber.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 PD excess loss and fitting curve at 702 nm, 810 nm, and 1041 nm (a) MCVD fiber; (b) NPGPS fiber.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The subtraction value of loss spectrum between the photo-darkened fiber and the same fiber after 16 hours (Black scatters and line: MCVD fiber; Red scatters and line: NPGPS fiber).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental setup for laser efficiency measurement. HR: high reflectivity, HT: high transmission, DM: dichroic mirror.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Laser output power dependence on absorbed pump power.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Fiber Samples Parameters

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Table 2 Fitting parameters of fiber samples fabricated by MCVD.

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Table 3 Fitting parameters of fiber samples fabricated by porous glass phase-separation method.

Equations (1)

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α( t )= α eq [ 1exp( ( t τ ) β ) ],

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