Abstract

In this work, high performance subwavelength grating metalens is demonstrated with high-refractive-index silicon-rich silicon nitride material compatible with CMOS fabrication processes. Conventional metalens materials namely TiO2 and GaN require expensive and time-consuming deposition processes such as atomic layer deposition (ALD) and metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). In order to improve the cost efficiency of metalens and its performance, the trade-offs between refractive index, fabrication difficulty and metalens performance is studied. We propose a feasible approach that is silicon-rich nitride (SiNx) as metalens material, which balance the trade-offs between refractive index and fabrication difficulty to large extent. With the advantage of ultra-high refractive index SiNx (n = 2.74) at 685 nm incidence, we are able to shrink the pitch size to unprecedented 220 nm. A propagation-phase-based grating metalens is fabricated and characterized for proof of concept. In addition, the optical parameters (n & k) can easily be adjusted through the deposition process. Our work has also promised a new degree of freedom for future optimization of metalens.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (7)

M. Ye, X. Guo, and Y. Yi, “Transmission enhancement of subwavelength grating microlens by tapered nanostructure,” MRS Commun. 8(2), 509–513 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ye, V. Ray, and Y. Yi, “Achromatic Flat Subwavelength Grating Lens Over Whole Visible Bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(10), 955–958 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2017 (2)

M. Ye and Y. S. Yi, “Subwavelength grating microlens with taper-resistant characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1031–1034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2016 (2)

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Ye and Y. Yi, “Influence of grating thickness in low-contrast subwavelength grating concentrating lenses,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 075102 (2016).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

2006 (1)

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Arbabi, E.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Bauters, J. F.

Beausoleil, R. G.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Bowers, J. E.

Capasso, F.

A. She, S. Zhang, S. Shian, D. R. Clarke, and F. Capasso, “Large area metalenses: design, characterization, and mass manufacturing,” Opt. Express 26(2), 1573–1585 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Cappello, A.

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

Chase, C.

Chen, B. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, J. W.

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, M. K.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, W. T.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Chen, Y. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chu, C. H.

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clarke, D. R.

Dell, J. M.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Devlin, R. C.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dimaio, D.

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dong, J.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Fan, Z.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Faraon, A.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Faraone, L.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

M. Ye, X. Guo, and Y. Yi, “Transmission enhancement of subwavelength grating microlens by tapered nanostructure,” MRS Commun. 8(2), 509–513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Heck, M. J.

Hu, X. Z.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Huang, T. T.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamali, S. M.

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Karagodsky, V.

Khorasaninejad, M.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kuan, C. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kuo, H. Y.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lai, Y. C.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lan, Y. C.

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lawn, B. R.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, E.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, I. C.

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, T.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, R. M.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lu, F.

Mishra, I.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Pang, X.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Peng, Z.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ray, V.

M. Ye, V. Ray, and Y. Yi, “Achromatic Flat Subwavelength Grating Lens Over Whole Visible Bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(10), 955–958 (2018).
[Crossref]

Rizzo, A.

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Roques-Carmes, C.

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ruan, W.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Sanjeev, V.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sedgwick, F. G.

Shao, Z.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

She, A.

Shi, Z.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shian, S.

Signore, M. A.

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Su, V. C.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suvorova, A.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sytchkova, A.

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tien, M. C.

Tsai, D. P.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J. H.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Winchester, K. J.

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wu, P. C.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, M.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Ye, M.

M. Ye, X. Guo, and Y. Yi, “Transmission enhancement of subwavelength grating microlens by tapered nanostructure,” MRS Commun. 8(2), 509–513 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ye, V. Ray, and Y. Yi, “Achromatic Flat Subwavelength Grating Lens Over Whole Visible Bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(10), 955–958 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ye and Y. S. Yi, “Subwavelength grating microlens with taper-resistant characteristics,” Opt. Lett. 42(6), 1031–1034 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Ye and Y. Yi, “Influence of grating thickness in low-contrast subwavelength grating concentrating lenses,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 075102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yi, Y.

M. Ye, X. Guo, and Y. Yi, “Transmission enhancement of subwavelength grating microlens by tapered nanostructure,” MRS Commun. 8(2), 509–513 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ye, V. Ray, and Y. Yi, “Achromatic Flat Subwavelength Grating Lens Over Whole Visible Bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(10), 955–958 (2018).
[Crossref]

M. Ye and Y. Yi, “Influence of grating thickness in low-contrast subwavelength grating concentrating lenses,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 075102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Yi, Y. S.

Yu, S.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Zhang, S.

Zhao, F.

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

Zhu, A. Y.

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

M. Ye, V. Ray, and Y. Yi, “Achromatic Flat Subwavelength Grating Lens Over Whole Visible Bandwidths,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 30(10), 955–958 (2018).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. A (1)

H. Huang, K. J. Winchester, A. Suvorova, B. R. Lawn, Y. Liu, X. Z. Hu, J. M. Dell, and L. Faraone, “Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical properties of low-temperature PECVD silicon nitride films,” Mater. Sci. Eng. A 435, 453–459 (2006).
[Crossref]

MRS Commun. (1)

M. Ye, X. Guo, and Y. Yi, “Transmission enhancement of subwavelength grating microlens by tapered nanostructure,” MRS Commun. 8(2), 509–513 (2018).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

M. Khorasaninejad, A. Y. Zhu, C. Roques-Carmes, W. T. Chen, J. Oh, I. Mishra, R. C. Devlin, and F. Capasso, “Polarization-intensive metalenses at visible wavelengths,” Nano Lett. 16(11), 7229–7234 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. H. Chen, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, C. H. Chu, I. C. Lee, J. W. Chen, Y. H. Chen, Y. C. Lan, C. H. Kuan, and D. P. Tsai, “GaN metalens for pixel-level full-color routing at visible light,” Nano Lett. 17(10), 6345–6352 (2017).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (1)

S. M. Kamali, E. Arbabi, A. Arbabi, and A. Faraon, “A review of dielectric optical metasurfaces for wavefront control,” Nanophotonics 7(6), 1041–1068 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (2)

S. Wang, P. C. Wu, V. C. Su, Y. C. Lai, M. K. Chen, H. Y. Kuo, B. H. Chen, Y. H. Chen, T. T. Huang, J. H. Wang, R. M. Lin, C. H. Kuan, T. Li, Z. Wang, S. Zhu, and D. P. Tsai, “A broadband achromatic metalens in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 227–232 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. T. Chen, A. Y. Zhu, V. Sanjeev, M. Khorasaninejad, Z. Shi, E. Lee, and F. Capasso, “A broadband achromatic metalens for focusing and imaging in the visible,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 13(3), 220–226 (2018), doi:.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Flat dielectric grating reflectors with focusing abilities,” Nat. Photonics 4(7), 466–470 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Ye and Y. Yi, “Influence of grating thickness in low-contrast subwavelength grating concentrating lenses,” Opt. Eng. 55(7), 075102 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

M. A. Signore, A. Sytchkova, D. Dimaio, A. Cappello, and A. Rizzo, “Deposition of silicon nitride thin films by RF magnetron sputtering: a material and growth process study,” Opt. Mater. 34(4), 632–638 (2012).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Z. Fan, Z. Shao, M. Xie, X. Pang, W. Ruan, F. Zhao, Y. Chen, S. Yu, and J. Dong, “Silicon Nitride Metalenses for Close-to-One Numerical Aperture and Wide-Angle Visible Imaging,” Phys. Rev. 10, 014005 (2018).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 n & k of silicon rich silicon nitride thin films deposited with different N2/Ar concentration (shown as percentage) through PVD. (a) Refractive index n. (b) Extinction coefficient k.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 n & k of silicon rich silicon nitride thin films deposited with different SiH4 and NH3 concentration through PECVD. (a) refractive index n. (b) Extinction coefficient k.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 schematic diagram for metalens (propagation phase based) cross-section. (a) Large pitch size. (b) Small pitch size.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Fabrication-limited phase coverage of 220 nm-pitch phase shifters. (b) Focus efficiency of simulated metalens (NA = 0.9) in 2-D with pitch size (period) ranging from 220 nm to 360 nm. (c) Field distribution of 2D metalens designed with 220 nm pitch size. (d) Field distribution of 2D metalens designed with 360 nm pitch size.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SEM picture at center of lens (5 × 5 µm).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic diagraph for characterization system. (b) Characterized field distribution at the plane of focus. (c) Focus profile of the SiNx based metalens.

Equations (2)

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ϕ ( x ) ϕ ( 0 ) = 2 π λ ( x 2 + f 2 f )
ϕ ( x , y ) ϕ ( 0 , 0 ) = 2 π λ ( x 2 + y 2 + f 2 f )

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