Abstract

Ge core fibers fixed on a SiO2 rod were annealed by a 360° axially symmetric distribution CO2 laser of the different power, respectively. The residual stress distribution, crystalline properties, and optical loss of the Ge cores were investigated. The non-uniform distribution of Raman frequencies at the Ge core cross-section were found after the fiber was annealed, which means that CO2 laser irradiation is one of the key factors determining the uniformity of the Ge core annealed by a CO2 laser. The bonding state between the Ge core and SiO2 cladding was analyzed according to the Raman mapping. Compared with the Si core fiber, there are fewer covalence bonds between the core and the SiO2 cladding in the Ge core fiber. For the Ge core fiber annealed at relatively high CO2 laser power, the tensile stresses transformed to compressive stresses in some areas of the Ge core cross-section, and the splitting of (111) plane X-ray diffraction peak appeared in the X-ray diffraction spectrum. The optical loss measured using a quantum cascade laser with the wavelength range from 4.7 μm to 4.9 μm shows the lowest optical loss of 2.05 dB/cm has been achieved in all samples.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2018 (1)

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (4)

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

M. Fokine, A. Theodosiou, S. Song, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, K. Kalli, and U. J. Gibson, “Laser structuring, stress modification and Bragg grating inscription in silicon-core glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(5), 1589–1597 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Ordu, J. Guo, B. Tai, J. Bird, S. Ramachandran, and S. Basu, “Mid-infrared transmission through germanium-core borosilicate glass-clad semiconductor fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(9), 3107–3115 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

2014 (1)

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, R. Camacho-Aguilera, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Ge-on-Si laser operating at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Characterization and Modeling of Atomically Sharp Perfect Si:Ge/SiO2 Interfaces,” ECS Trans. 3(7), 539–549 (2006).

2004 (1)

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Investigation of Nanostructured Germanium/Silicon Dioxide Interfaces,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(3), 286–295 (2004).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, “Laser‐heated miniature pedestal growth apparatus for single‐crystal optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55(11), 1791–1796 (1984).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[Crossref]

Amezcua-Correa, A.

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, M.

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[Crossref]

Badding, J.

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

Badding, J. V.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baer, T. M.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ballato, J.

M. Fokine, A. Theodosiou, S. Song, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, K. Kalli, and U. J. Gibson, “Laser structuring, stress modification and Bragg grating inscription in silicon-core glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(5), 1589–1597 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bando, Y.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baril, N. F.

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Basu, S.

Bird, J.

Brambill, G.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

Broderick, N.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bulgakova, N. M.

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burka, L.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, “Laser‐heated miniature pedestal growth apparatus for single‐crystal optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55(11), 1791–1796 (1984).
[Crossref]

Camacho-Aguilera, R.

Chaudhuri, S.

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

Chen, N.

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, P. Y.

Cheng, H. Y.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

Chrastina, D.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Dabo, I.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

Day, T. D.

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Duscher, G.

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Characterization and Modeling of Atomically Sharp Perfect Si:Ge/SiO2 Interfaces,” ECS Trans. 3(7), 539–549 (2006).

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Investigation of Nanostructured Germanium/Silicon Dioxide Interfaces,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(3), 286–295 (2004).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, “Laser‐heated miniature pedestal growth apparatus for single‐crystal optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55(11), 1791–1796 (1984).
[Crossref]

Feldman, D.

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[Crossref]

Finlayson, C. E.

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fokine, M.

M. Fokine, A. Theodosiou, S. Song, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, K. Kalli, and U. J. Gibson, “Laser structuring, stress modification and Bragg grating inscription in silicon-core glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(5), 1589–1597 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Foy, P.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franz, Y.

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Frigerio, J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fukata, N.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geiger, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Gibson, U. J.

M. Fokine, A. Theodosiou, S. Song, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, K. Kalli, and U. J. Gibson, “Laser structuring, stress modification and Bragg grating inscription in silicon-core glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(5), 1589–1597 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Gopalan, V.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

Guo, J.

Hawkins, T.

M. Fokine, A. Theodosiou, S. Song, T. Hawkins, J. Ballato, K. Kalli, and U. J. Gibson, “Laser structuring, stress modification and Bragg grating inscription in silicon-core glass fibers,” Opt. Mater. Express 7(5), 1589–1597 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, T.

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

Healy, N.

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

Hon, N. K.

Hong, J. I.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howe, R. T.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hryciw, A.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hsu, K. Y.

Huang, K. Y.

Huang, S. L.

Isella, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jain, J. R.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jalali, B.

Jheng, D. Y.

Ji, X.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

Jones, M.

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Kalli, K.

Kimerling, L. C.

Kirkham, M.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koukharenko, E.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krishnamurthi, M.

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

Lei, S.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

Li, S.

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

Liang, T.

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Characterization and Modeling of Atomically Sharp Perfect Si:Ge/SiO2 Interfaces,” ECS Trans. 3(7), 539–549 (2006).

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Investigation of Nanostructured Germanium/Silicon Dioxide Interfaces,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(3), 286–295 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

Liu, W.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

Lopatin, S.

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Characterization and Modeling of Atomically Sharp Perfect Si:Ge/SiO2 Interfaces,” ECS Trans. 3(7), 539–549 (2006).

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Investigation of Nanostructured Germanium/Silicon Dioxide Interfaces,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(3), 286–295 (2004).
[Crossref]

Magel, G. A.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, “Laser‐heated miniature pedestal growth apparatus for single‐crystal optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55(11), 1791–1796 (1984).
[Crossref]

Mailis, S.

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mao, Y.

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

McMillen, C.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mehta, P.

Michel, J.

Miller, D. A. B.

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

Minamisawa, R. A.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mitome, M.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mohney, S. E.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

Morris, S.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nightingale, J. L.

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, “Laser‐heated miniature pedestal growth apparatus for single‐crystal optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55(11), 1791–1796 (1984).
[Crossref]

Ordu, M.

Page, R. L.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

Parker, J.

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[Crossref]

Peacock, A.

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

Peacock, A. C.

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

Poilvert, N.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ramachandran, S.

Rice, R.

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, S. Morris, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Silica-clad crystalline germanium core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 687–688 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sazio, P. J. A.

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schiefler, G.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sekiguchi, T.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, L.

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

Sigg, H.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Snyder, R. L.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Song, S.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sparks, J. R.

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Mehta, M. Krishnamurthi, N. Healy, N. F. Baril, J. R. Sparks, P. J. A. Sazio, V. Gopalan, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Mid-infrared transmission properties of amorphous germanium optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 35(5), 679–681 (2010).
[PubMed]

Spolenak, R.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stolen, R.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Süess, M. J.

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Tai, B.

Theodosiou, A.

Wang, T.

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

Wang, Z. L.

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Windl, W.

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Characterization and Modeling of Atomically Sharp Perfect Si:Ge/SiO2 Interfaces,” ECS Trans. 3(7), 539–549 (2006).

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Investigation of Nanostructured Germanium/Silicon Dioxide Interfaces,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(3), 286–295 (2004).
[Crossref]

Xiong, Y.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xue, F.

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

Yazgan-Kokuoz, B.

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, R. Stolen, C. McMillen, N. K. Hon, B. Jalali, and R. Rice, “Glass-clad single-crystal germanium optical fiber,” Opt. Express 17(10), 8029–8035 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, P. S.

Yu, S.

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

Yu, S.-Y.

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Z.

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

Zhuo, W. J.

ACS Nano (1)

N. Fukata, M. Mitome, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Bando, M. Kirkham, J. I. Hong, Z. L. Wang, and R. L. Snyder, “Characterization of impurity doping and stress in Si/Ge and Ge/Si core-shell nanowires,” ACS Nano 6(10), 8887–8895 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Photonics (2)

X. Ji, S. Lei, S.-Y. Yu, H. Y. Cheng, W. Liu, N. Poilvert, Y. Xiong, I. Dabo, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-crystal silicon optical fiber by direct laser crystallization,” ACS Photonics 4(1), 85–92 (2017).
[Crossref]

S. Chaudhuri, J. R. Sparks, X. Ji, M. Krishnamurthi, L. Shen, N. Healy, A. C. Peacock, V. Gopalan, and J. V. Badding, “Crystalline Silicon Optical Fibers with Low Optical Loss,” ACS Photonics 3(3), 378–384 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (2)

X. Ji, R. L. Page, S. Chaudhuri, W. Liu, S. Yu, S. E. Mohney, J. V. Badding, and V. Gopalan, “Single-Crystal Germanium Core Optoelectronic Fibers,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 5(1), 100592 (2016).

N. Healy, M. Fokine, Y. Franz, T. Hawkins, M. Jones, J. Ballato, A. C. Peacock, and U. J. Gibson, “CO2 laser-induced directional recrystallization to produce single crystal silicon-core optical fibers with low loss,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 4(7), 1004–1008 (2016).
[Crossref]

Adv. Photonics (1)

S. Chaudhuri, S. Li, N. Healy, A. Peacock, and J. Badding, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Germanium Optical Fiber,” Adv. Photonics 10(9), 189–191 (2015).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. E. Finlayson, A. Amezcua-Correa, P. J. A. Sazio, N. F. Baril, and J. V. Badding, “Electrical and Raman characterization of silicon and germanium-filled microstructured optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 132100 (2007).
[Crossref]

ECS Trans. (1)

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Characterization and Modeling of Atomically Sharp Perfect Si:Ge/SiO2 Interfaces,” ECS Trans. 3(7), 539–549 (2006).

J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. (1)

W. Windl, T. Liang, S. Lopatin, and G. Duscher, “Investigation of Nanostructured Germanium/Silicon Dioxide Interfaces,” J. Comput. Theor. Nanosci. 1(3), 286–295 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Z. Zhao, X. Cheng, F. Xue, T. He, and T. Wang, “Effect of Annealing Temperature on the Stress and Structural Properties of Germanium Core Fibre,” J. Cryst. Growth 473(1), 1–5 (2017).

Nat. Mater. (1)

N. Healy, S. Mailis, N. M. Bulgakova, P. J. A. Sazio, T. D. Day, J. R. Sparks, H. Y. Cheng, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Extreme electronic bandgap modification in laser-crystallized silicon optical fibres,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1122–1127 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (3)

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared photonics in silicon and germanium,” Nat. Photonics 4(8), 495–497 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. R. Jain, A. Hryciw, T. M. Baer, D. A. B. Miller, M. L. Brongersma, and R. T. Howe, “A micromachining-based technology for enhancing germanium light emission via tensile strain,” Nat. Photonics 6(6), 398–405 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. J. Süess, R. Geiger, R. A. Minamisawa, G. Schiefler, J. Frigerio, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, R. Spolenak, J. Faist, and H. Sigg, “Analysis of enhanced light emission from highly strained germanium microbridges,” Nat. Photonics 7(6), 466–472 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Fiber Technol. (2)

J. Ballato, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, B. Yazgan-Kokuoz, C. McMillen, L. Burka, S. Morris, R. Stolen, and R. Rice, “Advancements in semiconductor core optical fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 16(6), 399–408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhao, F. Xue, Y. Mao, N. Chen, and T. Wang, “Effects of annealing on the residual stresses distribution and the structural properties of Si core fiber,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 41, 193–199 (2018).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Mater. (1)

C. McMillen, G. Brambill, S. Morris, T. Hawkins, P. Foy, N. Broderick, E. Koukharenko, R. Rice, and J. Ballato, “On crystallographic orientation in crystal core optical fibers II: Effects of tapering,” Opt. Mater. 35(2), 93–96 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. Parker, D. Feldman, and M. Ashkin, “Raman scattering by silicon and germanium,” Phys. Rev. 155(3), 712–714 (1967).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

M. M. Fejer, J. L. Nightingale, G. A. Magel, and R. L. Byer, “Laser‐heated miniature pedestal growth apparatus for single‐crystal optical fibers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 55(11), 1791–1796 (1984).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

N. Healy, S. Mailis, T. D. Day, P. J. Sazio, J. V. Badding, and A. C. Peacock, “Laser annealing of amorphous silicon core optical fibers,” in Advanced Photonics Congress (2012), Paper STu1D.1 (Optical Society of America, 2012), p. STu1D.1.
[Crossref]

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) The schematic diagram of the fiber annealing apparatus, (b) the schematic diagram of the laser irradiating on rod, the arrow refers to the 3D illustration of bronze mirrors, (c) photographs of various parts of the bronze mirrors, (d) optical paths of CO2 laser in a cross-sectional diagram, (e) the fiber attached longitudinally to the side of the quartz rod, both ends of the fiber are fixed with heat-resistant tape.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The measured values of the annealing laser powers.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The diagram of the laser distribution.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The estimated laser powers irradiated on the Ge core fiber.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) The schematic diagrams of the fiber optical loss measurement, (b) the detail of the device for placing fiber in the measurement, (c) the spectrum of the light source (from spec sheet of THORLABS QF4800CM1).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Raman spectrum of a point at Ge core cross-sections of as-drawn fiber, the arrow indicates the fitted peak position and fitted FWHM data. The inserted graph is an unfitted spectrum. (b) Raman frequency maps of the as-drawn Ge core fiber, (c) Raman frequency maps of the fiber annealed at the laser power of 10%, (d) Raman frequency maps of the fiber annealed at the laser power of 15%, (e) Raman frequency maps of the fiber annealed at the laser power of 20%, (f) Raman frequency maps of the fiber annealed at the laser power of 25%.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The box diagram of the Raman frequency distribution.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Raman spectra of 3 different positions of Ge core side. (a) The schematic diagram of the Raman measurement performed on the side of Ge core, (b) Raman spectra taken from position 1, (c) Raman spectra taken from position 2, (d) Raman spectra taken from position 3.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Raman FWHM value maps of the Ge core fibers annealed at the different power of laser, (a) as-drawn, (b) annealed at the laser power of 10%, (c) annealed at the laser power of 15%, (d) annealed at the laser power of 20%, (e) annealed at the laser power of 25%.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 The box diagram of the Raman FWHM value distribution.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 XRD spectra of the Ge core fibers.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 The cross-section image and the elemental analysis of the Ge core fiber annealed at the laser power of 20%.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Optical losses of Ge core fibers.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The statistical values of Raman frequencies at the Ge core cross-sections

Tables Icon

Table 2 Raman frequencies at the interface of Ge core side

Tables Icon

Table 3 The statistical values of Raman peak FWHM at Ge core cross-sections

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

P fiber = sin 1 ( R fiber R fiber + R rod ) π × P total
E[ ev ]=2.71 n SiSi 2.23 n GeGe 2.47 n SiGe 7.07 n GeOGe 8.94 n SiOSi 8.05 n SiOGe

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