Abstract

Heterostructures (HSs) of two-dimensional (2D) transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offer a plethora of opportunities in materials science, condensed-matter physics, and device engineering. The out-of-plane van der Waals interaction of 2D TMDs with surrounding environments enables the synthesis of HSs on virtually any substrate. This unmatched quality gives TMD HSs a superior edge in applications such as flexible optoelectronics in which III-V HSs are still struggling with lattice-mismatch issues. 2D TMDs can be vertically stacked or lateral stitched to form vertical (i.e., out-of-plane) or lateral (i.e., in-plane) heterojunctions, respectively. Motivated by the critical impact of synthesis methods on the progress of this field, in this article, we have reviewed the state-of-the-art synthesis techniques employed for the creation of lateral and vertical junctions between heterogenous TMD films. At the end of this article, we have also briefly reviewed the spectroscopic characterization of TMD heterojunctions.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (10)

H. Taghinejad, D. A. Rehn, C. Muccianti, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Tian, T. Fan, X. Zhang, Y. Meng, Y. Chen, T. V. Nguyen, S. F. Shi, P. M. Ajayan, J. Schaibley, E. J. Reed, and A. Adibi, “Defect-mediated alloying of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12795–12804 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bogaert, S. Liu, T. Liu, N. Guo, C. Zhang, S. Gradečak, and S. Garaj, “Two-dimensional MoxW1-xS2 graded alloys: growth and optical properties,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12889 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. M. Campbell, B. Beatty, M. Taghinejad, Y. Zhou, C. J. Perini, H. Moradinejad, W. E. Henderson, E. V. Woods, X. Zhang, P. Ajayan, E. J. Reed, E. M. Vogel, and A. Adibi, “Strain relaxation via formation of cracks in compositionally modulated two-dimensional semiconductor alloys,” Npj 2d Mater Appl 2, 1 (2018).

V. Rahneshin, D. A. Ziolkowska, A. McClelland, J. Cromwell, J. B. Jasinski, and B. Panchapakesan, “The coupled straintronic-photothermic effect,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 64 (2018).
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P. K. Sahoo, S. Memaran, Y. Xin, L. Balicas, and H. R. Gutiérrez, “One-pot growth of two-dimensional lateral heterostructures via sequential edge-epitaxy,” Nature 553(7686), 63–67 (2018).
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C. Lee, S. Rathi, M. A. Khan, D. Lim, Y. Kim, S. J. Yun, D. H. Youn, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and G. H. Kim, “Comparison of trapped charges and hysteresis behavior in hBN encapsulated single MoS2 flake based field effect transistors on SiO2 and hBN substrates,” Nanotechnology 29(33), 335202 (2018).
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E. V. Calman, M. M. Fogler, L. V. Butov, S. Hu, A. Mishchenko, and A. K. Geim, “Indirect excitons in van der Waals heterostructures at room temperature,” Nat. Commun. 9(1), 1895 (2018).
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R. Frisenda, E. Navarro-Moratalla, P. Gant, D. Pérez De Lara, P. Jarillo-Herrero, R. V. Gorbachev, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “Recent progress in the assembly of nanodevices and van der Waals heterostructures by deterministic placement of 2D materials,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 47(1), 53–68 (2018).
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N. Zhang, A. Surrente, M. Baranowski, D. K. Maude, P. Gant, A. Castellanos-Gomez, and P. Plochocka, “Moire intralayer excitons in a MoSe2/MoS2 heterostructure,” Nano Lett. 18(12), 7651–7657 (2018).
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A. T. Hanbicki, H. J. Chuang, M. R. Rosenberger, C. S. Hellberg, S. V. Sivaram, K. M. McCreary, I. I. Mazin, and B. T. Jonker, “bib,” ACS Nano 12(5), 4719–4726 (2018).
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2017 (7)

B. Miller, A. Steinhoff, B. Pano, J. Klein, F. Jahnke, A. Holleitner, and U. Wurstbauer, “Long-lived direct and indirect interlayer excitons in van der Waals heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 17(9), 5229–5237 (2017).
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C. X. Zhang, C. Gong, Y. F. Nie, K. A. Min, C. P. Liang, Y. J. Oh, H. J. Zhang, W. H. Wang, S. Hong, L. Colombo, R. M. Wallace, and K. Cho, “Systematic study of electronic structure and band alignment of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides in Van der Waals heterostructures,” 2D Mater 4(1), 015026 (2017).
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S. Latini, K. T. Winther, T. Olsen, and K. S. Thygesen, “Interlayer excitons and band alignment in MoS2/hBN/WSe2 van der Waals heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 17(2), 938–945 (2017).
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N. Lu, H. Guo, Z. Zhuo, L. Wang, X. Wu, and X. C. Zeng, “Twisted MX2/MoS2 heterobilayers: effect of van der Waals interaction on the electronic structure,” Nanoscale 9(48), 19131–19138 (2017).
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S. Umrao, J. Jeon, S. M. Jeon, Y. J. Choi, and S. Lee, “A homogeneous atomic layer MoS2(1-x)Se2x alloy prepared by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition, and its properties,” Nanoscale 9(2), 594–603 (2017).
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R. Zhou, V. Ostwal, and J. Appenzeller, “Vertical versus lateral two-dimensional heterostructures: on the topic of atomically abrupt p/n-junctions,” Nano Lett. 17(8), 4787–4792 (2017).
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H. Taghinejad, S. H. Shams-Mousavi, Y. J. Gong, M. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Ajayan, and A. Adibi, “Lattice plasmon induced large enhancement of excitonic emission in monolayer metal dichalcogenides,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1975–1981 (2017).
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2016 (11)

H. Taghinejad, M. Taghinejad, A. Tarasov, M. Y. Tsai, A. H. Hosseinnia, H. Moradinejad, P. M. Campbell, A. A. Eftekhar, E. M. Vogel, and A. Adibi, “Resonant light-induced heating in hybrid cavity-coupled 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 700–707 (2016).
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X. Duan, C. Wang, Z. Fan, G. Hao, L. Kou, U. Halim, H. Li, X. Wu, Y. Wang, J. Jiang, A. Pan, Y. Huang, R. Yu, and X. Duan, “Synthesis of WS2xSe2-2x alloy nanosheets with composition-tunable electronic properties,” Nano Lett. 16(1), 264–269 (2016).
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W. Wei, Y. Dai, and B. Huang, “Straintronics in two-dimensional in-plane heterostructures of transition-metal dichalcogenides,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19(1), 663–672 (2016).
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K. Bogaert, S. Liu, J. Chesin, D. Titow, S. Gradečak, and S. Garaj, “Diffusion-mediated synthesis of MoS2/WS2 lateral heterostructures,” Nano Lett. 16(8), 5129–5134 (2016).
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Y. Li, K. A. N. Duerloo, K. Wauson, and E. J. Reed, “Structural semiconductor-to-semimetal phase transition in two-dimensional materials induced by electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10671 (2016).
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X. Ling, Y. Lin, Q. Ma, Z. Wang, Y. Song, L. Yu, S. Huang, W. Fang, X. Zhang, A. L. Hsu, Y. Bie, Y. H. Lee, Y. Zhu, L. Wu, J. Li, P. Jarillo-Herrero, M. Dresselhaus, T. Palacios, and J. Kong, “parallel stitching of 2D materials,” Adv. Mater. 28(12), 2322–2329 (2016).
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M. H. D. Guimarães, H. Gao, Y. Han, K. Kang, S. Xie, C. J. Kim, D. A. Muller, D. C. Ralph, and J. Park, “atomically thin ohmic edge contacts between two-dimensional materials,” ACS Nano 10(6), 6392–6399 (2016).
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X. Liu, I. Balla, H. Bergeron, G. P. Campbell, M. J. Bedzyk, and M. C. Hersam, “Rotationally commensurate growth of MoS2 on epitaxial graphene,” ACS Nano 10(1), 1067–1075 (2016).
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N. Choudhary, J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. S. Chung, K. H. Dumas, S. I. Khondaker, W. Choi, and Y. Jung, “Centimeter scale patterned growth of vertically stacked few layer only 2D MoS2/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25456 (2016).
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Z. Wang, P. Liu, Y. Ito, S. Ning, Y. Tan, T. Fujita, A. Hirata, and M. Chen, “Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer Mo1-xWxS2 crystals with tunable band gaps,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21536 (2016).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
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2015 (15)

A. T. Hanbicki, M. Currie, G. Kioseoglou, A. L. Friedman, and B. T. Jonker, “Measurement of high exciton binding energy in the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides WS2 and WSe2,” Solid State Commun. 203, 16–20 (2015).
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G. Wang, E. Palleau, T. Amand, S. Tongay, X. Marie, and B. Urbaszek, “Polarization and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of excitons in MoSe2 monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106(11), 112101 (2015).
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Z. L. Wang, Q. Chen, and J. L. Wang, “Electronic structure of twisted bilayers of graphene/MoS2 and MoS2/MoS2,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(9), 4752–4758 (2015).
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P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6242 (2015).
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S. Cho, S. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Zhao, J. Seok, D. H. Keum, J. Baik, D. H. Choe, K. J. Chang, K. Suenaga, S. W. Kim, Y. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Phase patterning for ohmic homojunction contact in MoTe2,” Science 349(6248), 625–628 (2015).
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W. Zhang, C. P. Chuu, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chen, M. L. Tsai, Y. H. Chang, C. T. Liang, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, J. H. He, M. Y. Chou, and L. J. Li, “Ultrahigh-gain photodetectors based on atomically thin graphene-MoS2 heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3826 (2015).
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Q. Feng, N. Mao, J. Wu, H. Xu, C. Wang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Growth of MoS2(1-x)Se2x (x=0.41-1.00) monolayer alloys with controlled morphology by physical vapor deposition,” ACS Nano 9(7), 7450–7455 (2015).
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M. Mahjouri-Samani, M. W. Lin, K. Wang, A. R. Lupini, J. Lee, L. Basile, A. Boulesbaa, C. M. Rouleau, A. A. Puretzky, I. N. Ivanov, K. Xiao, M. Yoon, and D. B. Geohegan, “Patterned arrays of lateral heterojunctions within monolayer two-dimensional semiconductors,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7749 (2015).
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W. Zhang, X. Li, T. Jiang, J. Song, Y. Lin, L. Zhu, and X. Xu, “CVD synthesis of Mo1-xWxS2 and MoS2(1-x)Se(2x) alloy monolayers aimed at tuning the bandgap of molybdenum disulfide,” Nanoscale 7(32), 13554–13560 (2015).
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S. Wu, S. Buckley, J. R. Schaibley, L. Feng, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, F. Hatami, W. Yao, J. Vučković, A. Majumdar, and X. Xu, “Monolayer semiconductor nanocavity lasers with ultralow thresholds,” Nature 520(7545), 69–72 (2015).
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M. Y. Tsai, A. Tarasov, Z. R. Hesabi, H. Taghinejad, P. M. Campbell, C. A. Joiner, A. Adibi, and E. M. Vogel, “Flexible MoS2 field-effect transistors for gate-tunable piezoresistive strain sensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(23), 12850–12855 (2015).
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B. Cho, M. G. Hahm, M. Choi, J. Yoon, A. R. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. G. Park, J. D. Kwon, C. S. Kim, M. Song, Y. Jeong, K. S. Nam, S. Lee, T. J. Yoo, C. G. Kang, B. H. Lee, H. C. Ko, P. M. Ajayan, and D. H. Kim, “Charge-transfer-based gas sensing using atomic-layer MoS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8052 (2015).
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W. Zhang, P. Zhang, Z. Su, and G. Wei, “Synthesis and sensor applications of MoS2-based nanocomposites,” Nanoscale 7(44), 18364–18378 (2015).
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Y. C. Lin, R. K. Ghosh, R. Addou, N. Lu, S. M. Eichfeld, H. Zhu, M. Y. Li, X. Peng, M. J. Kim, L. J. Li, R. M. Wallace, S. Datta, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin resonant tunnel diodes built from synthetic van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7311 (2015).
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M. Y. Li, Y. Shi, C. C. Cheng, L. S. Lu, Y. C. Lin, H. L. Tang, M. L. Tsai, C. W. Chu, K. H. Wei, J. H. He, W. H. Chang, K. Suenaga, and L. J. Li, “Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface,” Science 349(6247), 524–528 (2015).
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2014 (15)

Y. Gong, J. Lin, X. Wang, G. Shi, S. Lei, Z. Lin, X. Zou, G. Ye, R. Vajtai, B. I. Yakobson, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, B. K. Tay, J. Lou, S. T. Pantelides, Z. Liu, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Vertical and in-plane heterostructures from WS2/MoS2 monolayers,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1135–1142 (2014).
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X. Duan, C. Wang, J. C. Shaw, R. Cheng, Y. Chen, H. Li, X. Wu, Y. Tang, Q. Zhang, A. Pan, J. Jiang, R. Yu, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Lateral epitaxial growth of two-dimensional layered semiconductor heterojunctions,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(12), 1024–1030 (2014).
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Y. Gong, Z. Liu, A. R. Lupini, G. Shi, J. Lin, S. Najmaei, Z. Lin, A. L. Elías, A. Berkdemir, G. You, H. Terrones, M. Terrones, R. Vajtai, S. T. Pantelides, S. J. Pennycook, J. Lou, W. Zhou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Band gap engineering and layer-by-layer mapping of selenium-doped molybdenum disulfide,” Nano Lett. 14(2), 442–449 (2014).
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A. Castellanos-Gomez, M. Buscema, R. Molenaar, V. Singh, L. Janssen, H. S. J. van der Zant, and G. A. Steele, “Deterministic transfer of two-dimensional materials by all-dry viscoelastic stamping,” 2D Mater 1(1), 011002 (2014).
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M. Zhang, J. Wu, Y. Zhu, D. O. Dumcenco, J. Hong, N. Mao, S. Deng, Y. Chen, Y. Yang, C. Jin, S. H. Chaki, Y. S. Huang, J. Zhang, and L. Xie, “Two-dimensional molybdenum tungsten diselenide alloys: photoluminescence, Raman scattering, and electrical transport,” ACS Nano 8(7), 7130–7137 (2014).
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S. H. Su, W. T. Hsu, C. L. Hsu, C. H. Chen, M. H. Chiu, Y. C. Lin, W. H. Chang, K. Suenaga, J. H. He, and L. J. Li, “Controllable synthesis of band-gap-tunable and monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenide alloys,” Front. Energy Res. 2, 27 (2014).
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K. A. N. Duerloo, Y. Li, and E. J. Reed, “Structural phase transitions in two-dimensional Mo- and W-dichalcogenide monolayers,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 4214 (2014).
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L. Yu, Y. H. Lee, X. Ling, E. J. G. Santos, Y. C. Shin, Y. Lin, M. Dubey, E. Kaxiras, J. Kong, H. Wang, and T. Palacios, “Graphene/ MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3055–3063 (2014).
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R. Kappera, D. Voiry, S. E. Yalcin, B. Branch, G. Gupta, A. D. Mohite, and M. Chhowalla, “Phase-engineered low-resistance contacts for ultrathin MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1128–1134 (2014).
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Y. C. Lin, D. O. Dumcenco, Y. S. Huang, and K. Suenaga, “Atomic mechanism of the semiconducting-to-metallic phase transition in single-layered MoS2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 391–396 (2014).
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R. Cheng, D. Li, H. Zhou, C. Wang, A. Yin, S. Jiang, Y. Liu, Y. Chen, Y. Huang, and X. Duan, “Electroluminescence and photocurrent generation from atomically sharp WSe2/MoS2 heterojunction p-n diodes,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5590–5597 (2014).
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C. Huang, S. Wu, A. M. Sanchez, J. J. P. Peters, R. Beanland, J. S. Ross, P. Rivera, W. Yao, D. H. Cobden, and X. Xu, “Lateral heterojunctions within monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 13(12), 1096–1101 (2014).
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H. Sun, F. Ren, K. W. Ng, T. T. D. Tran, K. Li, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, “Nanopillar lasers Directly Grown on Silicon with Heterostructure Surface Passivation,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6833–6839 (2014).
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H. Li, J. Wu, X. Huang, Z. Yin, J. Liu, and H. Zhang, “A universal, rapid method for clean transfer of nanostructures onto various substrates,” ACS Nano 8(7), 6563–6570 (2014).
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H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
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2013 (2)

Y. Hori, Z. Yatabe, and T. Hashizume, “Characterization of interface states in Al2O3/AlGaN/GaN structures for improved performance of high-electron-mobility transistors,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(24), 244503 (2013).
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O. Lopez-Sanchez, D. Lembke, M. Kayci, A. Radenovic, and A. Kis, “Ultrasensitive photodetectors based on monolayer MoS2,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8(7), 497–501 (2013).
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2012 (5)

H. P. Komsa and A. V. Krasheninnikov, “Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide alloys: stability and electronic properties,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 3(23), 3652–3656 (2012).
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G. Eda, T. Fujita, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Coherent atomic and electronic heterostructures of single-layer MoS2,” ACS Nano 6(8), 7311–7317 (2012).
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M. P. Levendorf, C. J. Kim, L. Brown, P. Y. Huang, R. W. Havener, D. A. Muller, and J. Park, “Graphene and boron nitride lateral heterostructures for atomically thin circuitry,” Nature 488(7413), 627–632 (2012).
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S. J. Haigh, A. Gholinia, R. Jalil, S. Romani, L. Britnell, D. C. Elias, K. S. Novoselov, L. A. Ponomarenko, A. K. Geim, and R. Gorbachev, “Cross-sectional imaging of individual layers and buried interfaces of graphene-based heterostructures and superlattices,” Nat. Mater. 11(9), 764–767 (2012).
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K. H. Lee, H. J. Shin, J. Lee, I. Y. Lee, G. H. Kim, J. Y. Choi, and S. W. Kim, “Large-scale synthesis of high-quality hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets for large-area graphene electronics,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 714–718 (2012).
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2011 (4)

M. Son, H. Lim, M. Hong, and H. C. Choi, “Direct growth of graphene pad on exfoliated hexagonal boron nitride surface,” Nanoscale 3(8), 3089–3093 (2011).
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Z. Liu, L. Song, S. Zhao, J. Huang, L. Ma, J. Zhang, J. Lou, and P. M. Ajayan, “Direct growth of graphene/hexagonal boron nitride stacked layers,” Nano Lett. 11(5), 2032–2037 (2011).
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G. Eda, H. Yamaguchi, D. Voiry, T. Fujita, M. Chen, and M. Chhowalla, “Photoluminescence from chemically exfoliated MoS2,” Nano Lett. 11(12), 5111–5116 (2011).
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B. Radisavljevic, A. Radenovic, J. Brivio, V. Giacometti, and A. Kis, “Single-layer MoS2 transistors,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 6(3), 147–150 (2011).
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2008 (1)

A. Meftah, H. Ajlani, S. Aloulou, M. Oueslati, D. Scalbert, J. Allegre, and H. Maaref, “Time-resolved photoluminescence of delta-doped AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures,” J. Lumin. 128(8), 1317–1322 (2008).
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1992 (1)

A. T. Meney, “Exciton Binding-Energies and Absorption in Intermixed Gaas-Algaas Quantum-Wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 72(12), 5729–5734 (1992).
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Addou, R.

Y. C. Lin, R. K. Ghosh, R. Addou, N. Lu, S. M. Eichfeld, H. Zhu, M. Y. Li, X. Peng, M. J. Kim, L. J. Li, R. M. Wallace, S. Datta, and J. A. Robinson, “Atomically thin resonant tunnel diodes built from synthetic van der Waals heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 7311 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adibi, A.

H. Taghinejad, D. A. Rehn, C. Muccianti, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Tian, T. Fan, X. Zhang, Y. Meng, Y. Chen, T. V. Nguyen, S. F. Shi, P. M. Ajayan, J. Schaibley, E. J. Reed, and A. Adibi, “Defect-mediated alloying of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12795–12804 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. M. Campbell, B. Beatty, M. Taghinejad, Y. Zhou, C. J. Perini, H. Moradinejad, W. E. Henderson, E. V. Woods, X. Zhang, P. Ajayan, E. J. Reed, E. M. Vogel, and A. Adibi, “Strain relaxation via formation of cracks in compositionally modulated two-dimensional semiconductor alloys,” Npj 2d Mater Appl 2, 1 (2018).

H. Taghinejad, S. H. Shams-Mousavi, Y. J. Gong, M. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Ajayan, and A. Adibi, “Lattice plasmon induced large enhancement of excitonic emission in monolayer metal dichalcogenides,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1975–1981 (2017).
[Crossref]

H. Taghinejad, M. Taghinejad, A. Tarasov, M. Y. Tsai, A. H. Hosseinnia, H. Moradinejad, P. M. Campbell, A. A. Eftekhar, E. M. Vogel, and A. Adibi, “Resonant light-induced heating in hybrid cavity-coupled 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Photonics 3(4), 700–707 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Y. Tsai, A. Tarasov, Z. R. Hesabi, H. Taghinejad, P. M. Campbell, C. A. Joiner, A. Adibi, and E. M. Vogel, “Flexible MoS2 field-effect transistors for gate-tunable piezoresistive strain sensors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 7(23), 12850–12855 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aivazian, G.

P. Rivera, J. R. Schaibley, A. M. Jones, J. S. Ross, S. Wu, G. Aivazian, P. Klement, K. Seyler, G. Clark, N. J. Ghimire, J. Yan, D. G. Mandrus, W. Yao, and X. Xu, “Observation of long-lived interlayer excitons in monolayer MoSe2-WSe2 heterostructures,” Nat. Commun. 6(1), 6242 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ajayan, P.

H. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. M. Campbell, B. Beatty, M. Taghinejad, Y. Zhou, C. J. Perini, H. Moradinejad, W. E. Henderson, E. V. Woods, X. Zhang, P. Ajayan, E. J. Reed, E. M. Vogel, and A. Adibi, “Strain relaxation via formation of cracks in compositionally modulated two-dimensional semiconductor alloys,” Npj 2d Mater Appl 2, 1 (2018).

H. Taghinejad, S. H. Shams-Mousavi, Y. J. Gong, M. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Ajayan, and A. Adibi, “Lattice plasmon induced large enhancement of excitonic emission in monolayer metal dichalcogenides,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1975–1981 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

H. Taghinejad, D. A. Rehn, C. Muccianti, A. A. Eftekhar, M. Tian, T. Fan, X. Zhang, Y. Meng, Y. Chen, T. V. Nguyen, S. F. Shi, P. M. Ajayan, J. Schaibley, E. J. Reed, and A. Adibi, “Defect-mediated alloying of monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides,” ACS Nano 12(12), 12795–12804 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cho, M. G. Hahm, M. Choi, J. Yoon, A. R. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. G. Park, J. D. Kwon, C. S. Kim, M. Song, Y. Jeong, K. S. Nam, S. Lee, T. J. Yoo, C. G. Kang, B. H. Lee, H. C. Ko, P. M. Ajayan, and D. H. Kim, “Charge-transfer-based gas sensing using atomic-layer MoS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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ACS Nano (9)

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H. Taghinejad, S. H. Shams-Mousavi, Y. J. Gong, M. Taghinejad, A. A. Eftekhar, P. Ajayan, and A. Adibi, “Lattice plasmon induced large enhancement of excitonic emission in monolayer metal dichalcogenides,” Plasmonics 12(6), 1975–1981 (2017).
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Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

H. Fang, C. Battaglia, C. Carraro, S. Nemsak, B. Ozdol, J. S. Kang, H. A. Bechtel, S. B. Desai, F. Kronast, A. A. Unal, G. Conti, C. Conlon, G. K. Palsson, M. C. Martin, A. M. Minor, C. S. Fadley, E. Yablonovitch, R. Maboudian, and A. Javey, “Strong interlayer coupling in van der Waals heterostructures built from single-layer chalcogenides,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 111(17), 6198–6202 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (6)

Z. Wang, P. Liu, Y. Ito, S. Ning, Y. Tan, T. Fujita, A. Hirata, and M. Chen, “Chemical vapor deposition of monolayer Mo1-xWxS2 crystals with tunable band gaps,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 21536 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Choudhary, J. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. S. Chung, K. H. Dumas, S. I. Khondaker, W. Choi, and Y. Jung, “Centimeter scale patterned growth of vertically stacked few layer only 2D MoS2/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Sci. Rep. 6(1), 25456 (2016).
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W. Zhang, C. P. Chuu, J. K. Huang, C. H. Chen, M. L. Tsai, Y. H. Chang, C. T. Liang, Y. Z. Chen, Y. L. Chueh, J. H. He, M. Y. Chou, and L. J. Li, “Ultrahigh-gain photodetectors based on atomically thin graphene-MoS2 heterostructures,” Sci. Rep. 4(1), 3826 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Cho, M. G. Hahm, M. Choi, J. Yoon, A. R. Kim, Y. J. Lee, S. G. Park, J. D. Kwon, C. S. Kim, M. Song, Y. Jeong, K. S. Nam, S. Lee, T. J. Yoo, C. G. Kang, B. H. Lee, H. C. Ko, P. M. Ajayan, and D. H. Kim, “Charge-transfer-based gas sensing using atomic-layer MoS2,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 8052 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Bogaert, S. Liu, T. Liu, N. Guo, C. Zhang, S. Gradečak, and S. Garaj, “Two-dimensional MoxW1-xS2 graded alloys: growth and optical properties,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 12889 (2018).
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V. Rahneshin, D. A. Ziolkowska, A. McClelland, J. Cromwell, J. B. Jasinski, and B. Panchapakesan, “The coupled straintronic-photothermic effect,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 64 (2018).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (3)

S. Cho, S. Kim, J. H. Kim, J. Zhao, J. Seok, D. H. Keum, J. Baik, D. H. Choe, K. J. Chang, K. Suenaga, S. W. Kim, Y. H. Lee, and H. Yang, “Phase patterning for ohmic homojunction contact in MoTe2,” Science 349(6248), 625–628 (2015).
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M. Y. Li, Y. Shi, C. C. Cheng, L. S. Lu, Y. C. Lin, H. L. Tang, M. L. Tsai, C. W. Chu, K. H. Wei, J. H. He, W. H. Chang, K. Suenaga, and L. J. Li, “Epitaxial growth of a monolayer WSe2-MoS2 lateral p-n junction with an atomically sharp interface,” Science 349(6247), 524–528 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Novoselov, A. Mishchenko, A. Carvalho, and A. H. Castro Neto, “2D materials and van der Waals heterostructures,” Science 353(6298), aac9439 (2016).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Commun. (1)

A. T. Hanbicki, M. Currie, G. Kioseoglou, A. L. Friedman, and B. T. Jonker, “Measurement of high exciton binding energy in the monolayer transition-metal dichalcogenides WS2 and WSe2,” Solid State Commun. 203, 16–20 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Heterostructures of TMDs. (a) The electronic bandgap and the relative alignment of band edges for several group-VI TMDs. Energies are calculated with respect to the vacuum level (set to 0 eV). (b, c) The schematic illustrations of lateral and vertical HSs, respectively. Panel (a) is adopted from [63].
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Alloying of 2D TMDs. (a) The schematic illustration of a representative direct-alloying approach in which the simultaneous reaction of WCl6, MoO3, and S precursors yields metal-mixed WxMo1-xS2 alloys. (b) Elemental analysis using EDS spectroscopy confirms the uniform distribution of all elements (i.e., a random alloy). (c) An atomic-resolution STEM image (left) and the elemental mapping (right) of a chalcogen-mixed MoS2xSe2(1-x) alloy synthesized via the direct reaction of MoO3, S, and Se precursors. Similarly, a randomly mixed alloy is obtained. (d) The schematic representation of the post-growth alloying method. A binary TMD such as MoSe2 is first grown and then annealed under a sulfur ambient to partially replace Se atoms by S atoms, which yields a MoS2xSe2(1-x) alloy. A complete replacement will convert MoSe2 into MoS2. (e, f) PL and Raman spectra of MoSe2 films sulfurized at various temperatures. The gradual blueshift of the PL emission energy as well as the appearance of MoS2 Raman modes confirm the formation of alloys with 0 < x < 1 using the post-synthesis alloying approach. Panels (a, b) are reprinted with permission from [64]. Panel (c) is reprinted with permission from [19]. Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. Panels (d-f) are reprinted with permission from [18]. Copyright 2018 American Chemical Society.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Synthesis of Lateral HSs via the edge epitaxy method. (a) The schematic illustration of the edge epitaxy for the synthesis of a MX2-MX’2 lateral HS. (b) The STEM image of MoSe2-WSe2 HSs synthesized through a single-step edge epitaxy reaction. These HSs are synthesized via a single VPT step using the evaporation of MoSe2 and WSe2 powders, typically at 950 ºC. (c) STEM images obtained at the MoSe2-WSe2 junction, which shows formation of an alloyed interface. (d) A representative STEM image that illustrates formation of an atomically sharp interface obtained via a two-step epitaxy of MoS2 on the edge of a WSe2 monolayer. (e) The optical image of a multi-junction MoSe2-WSe2 Lateral HS synthesized via a sequential edge epitaxy technique. (f, g) PL maps obtained at 1.6 eV (WSe2) and 1.52 eV (MoSe2) emission energies, respectively, which clearly confirms formation of a multi-junction structure. All scale bars represent 10 µm. Panels (b, c), (d), and (e-g) are reprinted with permission from [65], [14], and [32], respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Fabrication of lateral HSs via lithographic patterning. (a) The schematic representation of the lithographic patterning method used for the fabrication of lateral MX2-MX’2 HSs. Red, green, and blue spheres represent X, X’, and M atoms, respectively. (b) The optical image of a MoSe2-MoS2 HS synthesized via the sulfurization of a patterned MoSe2 monolayer. Purple strips represent protecting masks made of a 50 nm-thick SiO2 layer. (c) Raman spectra obtained across the line shown on panel (b). Alternating appearance of MoSe2 Raman modes (in protected regions) and those of MoS2 (in exposed regions) confirms the formation of a lateral MoSe2-MoS2 junction. (d) Optical images and Raman maps of different HS geometries synthesized via the lithographic patterning approach. (e) STEM imaging of the MoSe2-MoS2 interface shows that this approach produces an alloyed junction instead of an atomically sharp one. The inset shows a Z-contrast image intensity obtained from the highlighted box. This analysis confirms that the composition gradually changes from MoS2 (lighter chalcogen, lower intensity) to MoSe2 (heavier chalcogen, higher intensity). The scale bar in panel (e) represents 5 nm. Panels (b, c) and (d, e) are reprinted with permission from [25] and [24], respectively.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Synthesis of lateral heterophase structures. (a) The schematic representation of three crystalline phases of a monolayer MX2 film (red: X and blue: M) from the c-axis (upper row) and the side view (bottom row). The arrows on the H lattice displays the gliding direction of the top X plane, which induces a H-to-T phase transformation. As highlighted by dashed lines in the side-view schematics, the out-of-plane alignment of chalcogens in top and bottom planes of the H phase is absent in the T phase. H, T, and T’ phases demonstrate semiconducting, metallic, and semi-metallic behaviors, respectively. (b) The DFT calculation of the ground-state energy for six monolayers of group-VI TMDs. For all TMDs (except WTe2), the semiconducting H phase is the most stable phase, followed by the T’ phase as the second most stable phase. The noticeable energy difference between T’ and T phases may drive a T-to-T’ phase transition. (c) The optical image of a lateral H-T heterophase structure realized via treating a lithographically patterned MoS2 monolayer by the n-butyllithium (LiC4H9) solution. (d) A STEM image of an atomically sharp interface made between H and T phases of a MoS2 monolayer. (e) XPS spectra showing the co-presence of H and T phases in a chemically treated MoS2 sample. The bottom spectrum is obtained from a sample composed of 100% H phase. Panel (a) is adopted from [36]. Panels (b) and (c-e) are reprinted with permission from [35] and [37], respectively.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Direct growth of vertical TMD HSs. (a) The schematic representation of a furnace used for the CVD growth of WS2/MoS2 heterostructures using solid-phase metal precursors and S powders. (b, c) The schematic illustration and optical image of a WS2/MoS2 bilayer. (d) The STEM image of a WS2/MoS2 HS. The two triangles indicate the orientation of the MoS2 (top part of image) and WS2 (bottom part) layers. Inset: fast Fourier transform of the Z-contrast image showing only one set of diffraction patterns, which confirms the perfect rotational alignment between top and bottom layers. (e, f) Cross-sectional TEM images of MoS2/WSe2/graphene and WSe2/ MoS2/graphene, respectively, on a SiC substrate. (g) The schematic illustration of MoS2/WS2 HSs synthesized via the sulfurization of a Mo/W stack. Panels (a-d), (e, f), and (g) are reprinted with permission from [12], [11], and [58], respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Characterization of vertical HS interfaces. (a) The schematic representation of a MoS2/WSe2 HS from a side view. (b) The schematic illustration of the rotational misalignment between stacked layers. (c) The formation of Moiré pattern in the STEM image of the HS confirms the misalignment between layers. (d) The diffraction pattern obtained from the MoS2/WSe2 HS. Two sets of angularly rotated hexagonal spots can be identified. The rotation offset between these two sets reflects the rotational misalignment between the two layers. (e) PL and absorption spectroscopies of the MoS2/WSe2 HS, which reveals interlayer excitonic emission (the red spectrum). (f) The schematic illustration of the interfacial charge transfer mechanism that leads to the interlayer excitonic emission observed in (e). (g) Reducing the interlayer coupling via the insertion of hBN layers in the van der Waals gap between the MoS2 and WSe2 layers. (h) The intensity of the interlayer excitonic emission drops as the number of hBN layers (i.e., N) increases. (i, j) The optical image and PL map of a WS2-MoS2 HS, showing that PL is confined at the junction. (k, l) PL and Raman spectra of a MoS2-WSe2 junction. The inset in (k) displays the map of PL peak energy. Panels (a-h), (i, j), and (k, l) are reprinted with permission from [60], [12], and [14], respectively.

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