Abstract

The photosensitivity of various cerium-doped fibers has been experimentally investigated for both excimer- and femtosecond-laser illumination. The results of single-pulse, few-pulse and multi-pulse inscription of fiber-Bragg-gratings with both laser systems and the thermal aging of those gratings demonstrated the restrictions of the conventional color center model for cerium-doped fibers. To explain the short-term stability of single-pulse gratings against long-term stability of multi-pulse gratings, an extension into a two-step-model was deduced.

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2017 (1)

2016 (1)

2015 (1)

B. Poumellec and M. Lancry, “Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media,” Fibers 3(4), 206–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

X. Fu, L. Song, and J. Li, “Radiation induced color centers in cerium-doped and cerium-free multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Rare Earths 32(11), 1037–1042 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

M. Lancry and B. Poumellec, “UV laser processing and multiphoton absorption processes in optical telecommunication fiber materials,” Phys. Rep. 523(4), 207–229 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Specific absorption spectra of cerium in multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2337–2343 (2010).
[Crossref]

P. Dekker, M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, D. J. Little, and M. J. Withford, “Annealing dynamics of waveguide Bragg gratings : evidence of femtosecond laser induced colour centres,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3274–3283 (2010).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, and K. Schuster, “High-reflectivity draw-tower fiber Bragg gratings — arrays and single gratings of type II,” Opt. Eng. 44(6), 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (3)

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Canning, “Photosensitization and Photostabilization of Laser-Induced Index Changes in Optical Fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(3), 275–289 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, and G. E. Kohnke, “Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing,” Phys. Today 53(5), 61–62 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

1998 (2)

B. Poumellec, “Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 108–115 (1998).
[Crossref]

I. Riant and B. Poumellec, “Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 34(16), 1603 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (4)

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(12), 4309–4341 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

N. F. Borrelli, C. Smith, D. C. Allan, and T. P. S. Iii, “Densification of fused silica under 193-nm excitation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(7), 1606–1615 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (3)

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. J. F. Digonnet, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of the absorption change in fiber gratings,” Proc. SPIE 2841, 109–120 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Dong, J. Pinkstone, P. S. J. Russell, and D. N. Payne, “Ultraviolet absorption in modified chemical vapor deposition preforms,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11(10), 2106 (1994).
[Crossref]

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (5)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

L. Griscom David, “Optical Properties and Structure of Defects in Silica Glass,” Ceram. Soc. Japan 99(1154), 923–942 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

1987 (2)

T. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

1962 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[Crossref]

1961 (1)

J. S. Stroud, “Photoionization of Ce3+ in Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 35(3), 844–850 (1961).
[Crossref]

Abe, M.

Albert, J.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Allan, D. C.

Ams, M.

Arai, K.

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Archambault, J. L.

Askins, C. G.

Åslund, M.

Bartelt, H.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bashkansky, M.

Bayon, J. F.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Becker, M.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bernage, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bilodeau, F.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Borrelli, N. F.

Brandily-Anne, M. L.

M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Specific absorption spectra of cerium in multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2337–2343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Brückner, S.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Canning, J.

J. Canning, “Photosensitization and Photostabilization of Laser-Induced Index Changes in Optical Fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 6(3), 275–289 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Åslund, J. Canning, and G. Yoffe, “Locking in photosensitivity within optical fiber and planar waveguides by ultraviolet preexposure,” Opt. Lett. 24(24), 1826 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chojetzki, C.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, and K. Schuster, “High-reflectivity draw-tower fiber Bragg gratings — arrays and single gratings of type II,” Opt. Eng. 44(6), 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cordier, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

Dekker, P.

Delevaque, E.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

Digonnet, M. J. F.

M. J. F. Digonnet, “Kramers-Kronig analysis of the absorption change in fiber gratings,” Proc. SPIE 2841, 109–120 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dong, L.

Douay, M.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

Ebendorff-Heidepriem, H.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ehrt, D.

H. Ebendorff-Heidepriem and D. Ehrt, “Formation and UV absorption of cerium, europium and terbium ions in different valencies in glasses,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 15(1), 7–25 (2000).
[Crossref]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Fiebrandt, J.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fleming, J. W.

T. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Friebele, E. J.

T. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fu, X.

X. Fu, L. Song, and J. Li, “Radiation induced color centers in cerium-doped and cerium-free multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Rare Earths 32(11), 1037–1042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fukumi, K.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

Glebov, L. B.

M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Specific absorption spectra of cerium in multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2337–2343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Glebova, L.

M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Specific absorption spectra of cerium in multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2337–2343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grimm, S.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Optical Components and Materials X (2013) 8621, 862116.

Griscom, D. L.

T. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Griscom David, L.

L. Griscom David, “Optical Properties and Structure of Defects in Silica Glass,” Ceram. Soc. Japan 99(1154), 923–942 (1991).
[Crossref]

Guénot, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Gujrathi, S.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Guo, Q.

Hand, D. P.

Handa, T.

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Hattori, K.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hibino, Y.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hill, K. O.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hosono, H.

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

Iii, T. P. S.

Ishii, Y.

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Jäger, M.

Jetschke, S.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and M. Jäger, “Role of Ce in Yb/Al laser fibers: prevention of photodarkening and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13009 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Optical Components and Materials X (2013) 8621, 862116.

Johnson, D. C.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Kalli, K.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, and G. E. Kohnke, “Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing,” Phys. Today 53(5), 61–62 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Artech House Optoelectronics Library (Artech House, 1999).

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, “Chapter 2 – Photosensitivity and Photosensitization of Optical Fibers,” in Fiber Bragg Gratings (Academic Press, 1999), pp. 13–54.

Kawachi, M.

Kawamura, K. I.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kawazoe, H.

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kirchhof, J.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Optical Components and Materials X (2013) 8621, 862116.

Kitagawa, T.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kohnke, G. E.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, and G. E. Kohnke, “Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing,” Phys. Today 53(5), 61–62 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lancry, M.

B. Poumellec and M. Lancry, “Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media,” Fibers 3(4), 206–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry and B. Poumellec, “UV laser processing and multiphoton absorption processes in optical telecommunication fiber materials,” Phys. Rep. 523(4), 207–229 (2013).
[Crossref]

Leconte, B.

Leich, M.

Lemaire, P. J.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

X. Fu, L. Song, and J. Li, “Radiation induced color centers in cerium-doped and cerium-free multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Rare Earths 32(11), 1037–1042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lindner, E.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

Little, D. J.

Lumeau, J.

M. L. Brandily-Anne, J. Lumeau, L. Glebova, and L. B. Glebov, “Specific absorption spectra of cerium in multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 356(44-49), 2337–2343 (2010).
[Crossref]

Luo, Y.

Malo, B.

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

F. Bilodeau, Y. Hibino, M. Abe, B. Malo, J. Albert, M. Kawachi, D. C. Johnson, and K. O. Hill, “Photosensitization of optical fiber and silica-on-silicon/silica waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 18(12), 953 (1993).
[Crossref]

Marshall, G. D.

Mizrahi, V.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Mizuguchi, M.

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

Monroe, D.

T. Erdogan, V. Mizrahi, P. J. Lemaire, and D. Monroe, “Decay of ultraviolet-induced fiber Bragg gratings,” J. Appl. Phys. 76(1), 73–80 (1994).
[Crossref]

Namikawa, H.

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Negishi, A.

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Niay, P.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Nishii, J.

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Hosono, M. Mizuguchi, H. Kawazoe, and J. Nishii, “Correlation between GeE′ Centers and Optical Absorption Bands in SiO2:GeO2 Glasses,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 35(Part 2), L234–L236 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ommer, J.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, and K. Schuster, “High-reflectivity draw-tower fiber Bragg gratings — arrays and single gratings of type II,” Opt. Eng. 44(6), 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Othonos, A.

A. Othonos, K. Kalli, and G. E. Kohnke, “Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing,” Phys. Today 53(5), 61–62 (2000).
[Crossref]

A. Othonos, “Fiber Bragg gratings,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 68(12), 4309–4341 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Othonos and K. Kalli, Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fundamentals and Applications in Telecommunications and Sensing, Artech House Optoelectronics Library (Artech House, 1999).

Pang, F.

Payne, D. N.

Peng, G.

Pinkstone, J.

Poignant, H.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

Poumellec, B.

B. Poumellec and M. Lancry, “Kinetics of Thermally Activated Physical Processes in Disordered Media,” Fibers 3(4), 206–252 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Lancry and B. Poumellec, “UV laser processing and multiphoton absorption processes in optical telecommunication fiber materials,” Phys. Rep. 523(4), 207–229 (2013).
[Crossref]

I. Riant and B. Poumellec, “Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 34(16), 1603 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, “Links between writing and erasure (or stability) of Bragg gratings in disordered media,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239(1-3), 108–115 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Putnam, M. A.

Reekie, L.

Riant, I.

I. Riant and B. Poumellec, “Thermal decay of gratings written in hydrogen-loaded germanosilicate fibres,” Electron. Lett. 34(16), 1603 (1998).
[Crossref]

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rothhardt, M.

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, and K. Schuster, “High-reflectivity draw-tower fiber Bragg gratings — arrays and single gratings of type II,” Opt. Eng. 44(6), 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. S. J.

Sansonetti, P.

B. Poumellec, P. Guénot, I. Riant, P. Sansonetti, P. Niay, P. Bernage, and J. F. Bayon, “UV induced densification during Bragg grating inscription in Ge:SiO2 preforms,” Opt. Mater. (Amsterdam, Neth.) 4(4), 441–449 (1995).
[Crossref]

Scheffel, A.

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Optical Components and Materials X (2013) 8621, 862116.

Schuster, K.

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, and K. Schuster, “High-reflectivity draw-tower fiber Bragg gratings — arrays and single gratings of type II,” Opt. Eng. 44(6), 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Schwuchow, A.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and M. Jäger, “Role of Ce in Yb/Al laser fibers: prevention of photodarkening and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13009 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Fiebrandt, E. Lindner, S. Brückner, M. Becker, A. Schwuchow, M. Rothhardt, and H. Bartelt, “Growth characterization of fiber Bragg gratings inscribed in different rare-earth-doped fibers by UV and VIS femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5157–5162 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Optical Components and Materials X (2013) 8621, 862116.

Smith, C.

Smith, C. M.

Song, L.

X. Fu, L. Song, and J. Li, “Radiation induced color centers in cerium-doped and cerium-free multicomponent silicate glasses,” J. Rare Earths 32(11), 1037–1042 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stroud, J. S.

J. S. Stroud, “Color centers in a cerium-containing silicate glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(4), 836–841 (1962).
[Crossref]

J. S. Stroud, “Photoionization of Ce3+ in Glass,” J. Chem. Phys. 35(3), 844–850 (1961).
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Sun, X.

Tanaka, M.

Y. Ishii, K. Arai, H. Namikawa, M. Tanaka, A. Negishi, and T. Handa, “Preparation of Cerium-Activated Silica Glasses: Phosphorus and Aluminum Codoping Effects on Absorption and Fluorescence Properties,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 70(2), 72–77 (1987).
[Crossref]

Taunay, T.

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.

C. G. Askins, T. Tsai, G. M. Williams, M. A. Putnam, and M. Bashkansky, “Fiber Bragg reflectors prepared by a single excimer pulse,” Opt. Lett. 17(11), 833–835 (1992).
[Crossref]

T. Tsai, D. L. Griscom, E. J. Friebele, and J. W. Fleming, “Radiation-induced defect centers in high-purity GeO2 glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(6), 2264–2268 (1987).
[Crossref]

Unger, S.

S. Jetschke, S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, M. Leich, and M. Jäger, “Role of Ce in Yb/Al laser fibers: prevention of photodarkening and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 24(12), 13009 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Chojetzki, M. Rothhardt, J. Ommer, S. Unger, and K. Schuster, “High-reflectivity draw-tower fiber Bragg gratings — arrays and single gratings of type II,” Opt. Eng. 44(6), 060503 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. Unger, A. Schwuchow, S. Jetschke, S. Grimm, A. Scheffel, and J. Kirchhof, “Optical properties of cerium-codoped high power laser fibers,” Optical Components and Materials X (2013) 8621, 862116.

Wang, T.

Wells, P. J.

Wen, J.

Williams, G. M.

Withford, M. J.

Xie, W. X.

B. Leconte, W. X. Xie, M. Douay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, J. F. Bayon, E. Delevaque, and H. Poignant, “Analysis of color-center-related contribution to Bragg grating formation in Ge:SiO2 fiber based on a local Kramers -Kronig transformation of excess loss spectra,” Appl. Opt. 36(24), 5923–5930 (1997).
[Crossref]

M. Douay, W. X. Xie, T. Taunay, P. Bernage, P. Niay, P. Cordier, B. Poumellec, L. Dong, J. F. Bayon, H. Poignant, and E. Delevaque, “Densification Involved in the UV-Based Photosensitivity of Silica Glasses and Optical Fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(8), 1329–1342 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yamanaka, H.

J. Nishii, K. Fukumi, H. Yamanaka, K. I. Kawamura, H. Hosono, and H. Kawazoe, “Photochemical reactions in GeO2-SiO2 glasses induced by ultraviolet irradiation: Comparison between Hg lamp and excimer laser,” Phys. Rev. B 52(3), 1661–1665 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yoffe, G.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Malo, J. Albert, F. Bilodeau, T. Kitagawa, D. C. Johnson, K. O. Hill, K. Hattori, Y. Hibino, and S. Gujrathi, “Photosensitivity in phosphorus-doped silica glass and optical waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65(4), 394–396 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ceram. Soc. Japan (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. FBG inscription and measurement setup
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Normalized fluorescence spectra of the fibers under UV-exposure. The light is measured through the core of the fibers.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Power dependency of ICC for femtosecond single-pulse gratings in different fibers. The error bars are similar for all fibers and are therefore indicated for one sample.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Thermal decay of femtosecond laser inscribed gratings at room temperature. The grating strength – normalized to its initial value – drops down immediately after the inscription (left side), which is the result of an almost linear decrease of ICC against the logarithmic time scale analogous to demarcation energy (right side).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Accumulation of reflectivity for illumination with 4000 pulses (left side) and the zoom-in for the first 120 pulses (right side). The femtosecond laser was used in a continuous and a burst mode, whereas the Excimer-laser was used only in a continuous mode.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. a.) Thermal decay of grating (4000 pulses of fs-laser) in cerium- and germanium-doped fiber under thermal treatment. b.) Corresponding spectral width of the FBGs (4000 pulses of fs-laser) under thermal treatment. The dashed line indicates the aimed temperature profile.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Diagram of the proposed defect structure of the cerium-doped fiber.

Tables (1)

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Table 1. Data sheet of the cerium-doped fiber.

Equations (4)

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R = tanh 2 ( π Δ n l η / λ ) = tanh 2 ( I C C )
E d = k B T ln ( ν t )
C e 3 + + h υ C e 3 + + + e
C e 3 + + + e + h υ C e 3 + + + d e f e c t I I

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