Abstract

CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite material has demonstrated great promise in high-performance solar cells and light-emitting devices (LEDs). In this work, we investigated the impact of the coexistence of PbI2 and CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite on photoluminescence (PL) properties. In absorbance and PL measurements performed at room temperature, we observed an emission peak at 780 nm, which is consistent with the band-edge absorption of CH3NH3PbI3. On the top surface, we observed dissolved PbI2, which could serve as a passivation species for improving PL stability upon exposure to ambient conditions. Specifically, dual-peak PL spectra were observed at room temperature. The peak at 780 nm originates from the free-carrier transition of CH3NH3PbI3 and the peak at 796 nm originates from the PbI2-related recombination. Based on time-resolved PL and X-ray diffraction measurements, we can conclude that unconverted and dissolved PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 forms a type-II band alignment at the CH3NH3PbI3/PbI2 interface. This type II hetero-structure indeed influences the quality and PL performance of perovskites. To check this structure or quality of perovskite, x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) are common ways. Here, we demonstrated a cheaper, faster and more convenience method, PL measurement, to check the quality of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films. It should be a useful way to check the quality perovskite-based LEDs and solar cells merely by observing whether the dual peaks exist or not in the PL spectra.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2018 (1)

H. Masaki, H. Yoichi, N. Ryota, M. Tomoya, A. Ulugbek, O. Hiromi, N. Takeshi, Y. Yoshifumi, and H. Yasuhiko, “In-situ X-ray diffraction reveals the degradation of crystalline CH3NH3PbI3 by water-molecule collisions at room temperature,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 57(2), 028001 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (5)

Y. Fang, H. Wei, Q. Dong, and J. Huang, “Quantification of re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in perovskite single crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14417 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. S. Yang, B. W. Park, E. H. Jung, N. J. Jeon, Y. C. Kim, D. U. Lee, S. S. Shin, J. Seo, E. K. Kim, J. H. Noh, and S. I. Seok, “Iodide management in formamidinium-lead-halide-based perovskite layers for efficient solar cells,” Science 356(6345), 1376–1379 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Shen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, J. Xing, S. T. Ha, Q. Y. Shang, W. G. Xu, Q. H. Xiong, X. F. Liu, and Q. Zhang, “Thermal conductivity of suspended single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 platelets at room temperature,” Nanoscale 9(24), 8281–8287 (2017).
[Crossref]

T. Yamada, Y. Yamada, Y. Nakaike, A. Wakamiya, and Y. Kanemitsu, “Photon Emission and Reabsorption Processes in CH3NH3PbBr3 Single Crystals Revealed by Time-Resolved Two-Photon-Excitation Photoluminescence Microscopy,” Phys. Rev. Appl. 7(1), 014001 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (5)

X. Fang, K. Zhang, Y. P. Li, L. Yao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. L. Wang, W. H. Zhai, L. Tao, H. L. Du, and G. Z. Ran, “Effect of excess PbBr2 on photoluminescence spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite particles at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Zhang, M. G. Ju, and W. Z. Liang, “The effect of moisture on the structures and properties of lead halide perovskites: a first-principles theoretical investigation,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 18(33), 23174–23183 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. K. Ono, M. R. Leyden, S. Wang, and Y. Qi, “Organometal halide perovskite thin films and solar cells by vapor deposition,” J. Mater. Chem. A 4(18), 6693–6713 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. He, Q. Yu, H. Li, J. Li, J. Si, Y. Jin, N. Wang, J. Wang, J. He, X. Wang, Y. Zhang, and Z. Ye, “Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 7(1), 10896 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (14)

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. G. Ju, G. X. Sun, Y. Zhao, and W. Z. Liang, “A computational view of the change in the geometric and electronic properties of perovskites caused by the partial substitution of Pb by Sn,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 17(27), 17679–17687 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Yang, G. Gregori, N. Pellet, M. Gratzel, and J. Maier, “The Significance of Ion Conduction in a Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Lead-Iodide-Based Perovskite Photosensitizer,” Angew. Chem., Int. Ed. 54(27), 7905–7910 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. A. Christians, P. A. M. Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the Excited State and Photovoltaic Efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite upon Controlled Exposure to Humidified Air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. L. Yang, B. D. Siempelkamp, D. Y. Liu, and T. L. Kelly, “Investigation of CH3NH3PbI3 Degradation Rates and Mechanisms in Controlled Humidity Environments Using in Situ Techniques,” ACS Nano 9(2), 1955–1963 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, H. J. Snaith, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Temperature-Dependent Charge-Carrier Dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(39), 6218–6227 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xing, X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, Y. W. Yuan, C. Shen, T. C. Sum, and Q. Xiong, “Vapor Phase Synthesis of Organometal Halide Perovskite Nanowires for Tunable Room-Temperature Nanolasers,” Nano Lett. 15(7), 4571–4577 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. N. Song, S. C. Watthage, A. B. Phillips, B. L. Tompkins, R. J. Ellingson, and M. J. Heben, “Impact of Processing Temperature and Composition on the Formation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4612–4619 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Sessolo, C. Momblona, L. Gil-Escrig, and H. J. Bolink, “Photovoltaic devices employing vacuum-deposited perovskite layers,” MRS Bull. 40(08), 660–666 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. S. Ko, J. W. Lee, and N. G. Park, “15.76% efficiency perovskite solar cells prepared under high relative humidity: importance of PbI2 morphology in two-step deposition of CH3NH3PbI3,” J. Mater. Chem. A 3(16), 8808–8815 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Niu, X. F. Liu, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, D. Wu, T. R. Chang, H. Wang, Q. S. Zeng, J. D. Zhou, X. L. Wang, W. Fu, P. Yu, Q. D. Fu, S. Najmaei, Z. H. Zhang, B. I. Yakobson, B. K. Tay, W. Zhou, H. T. Jeng, H. Lin, T. C. Sum, C. Jin, H. Y. He, T. Yu, and Z. Liu, “Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van der Waals Solid for Tunable Light-Matter Interactions,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7800–7808 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (12)

Q. Chen, H. P. Zhou, T. B. Song, S. Luo, Z. R. Hong, H. S. Duan, L. T. Dou, Y. S. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Controllable Self-Induced Passivation of Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskites toward High Performance Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4158–4163 (2014).
[Crossref]

O. Malinkiewicz, A. Yella, Y. H. Lee, G. M. Espallargas, M. Graetzel, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and H. J. Bolink, “Perovskite solar cells employing organic charge-transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 128–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. G. Xiao, Q. F. Dong, C. Bi, Y. C. Shao, Y. B. Yuan, and J. S. Huang, “Solvent Annealing of Perovskite-Induced Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic-Device Efficiency Enhancement,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6503–6509 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. T. Ha, X. F. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Giovanni, T. C. Sum, and Q. H. Xiong, “Synthesis of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets: Towards High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 2(9), 838–844 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Amat, E. Mosconi, E. Ronca, C. Quarti, P. Umari, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and F. De Angelis, “Cation-Induced Band-Gap Tuning in Organohalide Perovskites: Interplay of Spin–Orbit Coupling and Octahedra Tilting,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3608–3616 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. D’Innocenzo, G. Grancini, M. J. P. Alcocer, A. R. S. Kandada, S. D. Stranks, M. M. Lee, G. Lanzani, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3586 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. N. Habisreutinger, T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, R. J. Nicholas, and H. J. Snaith, “Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites as a Highly Stable Hole Collection Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5561–5568 (2014).
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G. Xing, N. Mathews, S. S. Lim, N. Yantara, X. Liu, D. Sabba, M. Grätzel, S. Mhaisalkar, and T. C. Sum, “Low-temperature solution-processed wavelength-tunable perovskites for lasing,” Nat. Mater. 13(5), 476–480 (2014).
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Q. Zhang, S. T. Ha, X. F. Liu, T. C. Sum, and Q. H. Xiong, “Room-Temperature Near-Infrared High-Q Perovskite Whispering-Gallery Planar Nano lasers,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5995–6001 (2014).
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J. You, Y. Yang, Z. Hong, T.-B. Song, L. Meng, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, H. Zhou, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Moisture assisted perovskite film growth for high performance solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 183902 (2014).
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W. J. Yin, T. T. Shi, and Y. F. Yan, “Unique Properties of Halide Perovskites as Possible Origins of the Superior Solar Cell Performance,” Adv. Mater. 26(27), 4653–4658 (2014).
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2013 (3)

F. Brivio, A. B. Walker, and A. Walsh, “Structural and electronic properties of hybrid perovskites for high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaics from first-principles,” APL Mater. 1(4), 042111 (2013).
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M. Antonietta Loi and J. C. Hummelen, “Perovskites under the Sun,” Nat. Mater. 12(12), 1087–1089 (2013).
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J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Gratzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
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2011 (1)

Y. Takahashi, R. Obara, Z. Z. Lin, Y. Takahashi, T. Naito, T. Inabe, S. Ishibashi, and K. Terakura, “Charge-transport in tin-iodide perovskite CH3NH3SnI3: origin of high conductivity,” Dalton Trans. 40(20), 5563–5568 (2011).
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2009 (1)

A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, “Organometal Halide Perovskites as Visible-Light Sensitizers for Photovoltaic Cells,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131(17), 6050–6051 (2009).
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1999 (1)

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials as Semiconducting Channels in Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
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1992 (1)

T. Schmidt, K. Lischka, and W. Zulehner, “Excitation-power dependence of the near-band-edge photoluminescence of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 45(16), 8989–8994 (1992).
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Abate, A.

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
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Abdi-Jalebi, M.

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
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Alam, M. A.

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522–525 (2015).
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Alcocer, M. J. P.

V. D’Innocenzo, G. Grancini, M. J. P. Alcocer, A. R. S. Kandada, S. D. Stranks, M. M. Lee, G. Lanzani, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3586 (2014).
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Alonso, M. I.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
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Alsari, M.

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
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Amat, A.

A. Amat, E. Mosconi, E. Ronca, C. Quarti, P. Umari, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and F. De Angelis, “Cation-Induced Band-Gap Tuning in Organohalide Perovskites: Interplay of Spin–Orbit Coupling and Octahedra Tilting,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3608–3616 (2014).
[Crossref]

Antonietta Loi, M.

M. Antonietta Loi and J. C. Hummelen, “Perovskites under the Sun,” Nat. Mater. 12(12), 1087–1089 (2013).
[Crossref]

Asadpour, R.

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Azarhoosh, P.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
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Barnes, P. R. F.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
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Beeson, H. J.

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bein, T.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Berti, G.

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
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Bi, C.

Z. G. Xiao, Q. F. Dong, C. Bi, Y. C. Shao, Y. B. Yuan, and J. S. Huang, “Solvent Annealing of Perovskite-Induced Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic-Device Efficiency Enhancement,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6503–6509 (2014).
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Blancon, J.-C.

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522–525 (2015).
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Bolink, H. J.

M. Sessolo, C. Momblona, L. Gil-Escrig, and H. J. Bolink, “Photovoltaic devices employing vacuum-deposited perovskite layers,” MRS Bull. 40(08), 660–666 (2015).
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O. Malinkiewicz, A. Yella, Y. H. Lee, G. M. Espallargas, M. Graetzel, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and H. J. Bolink, “Perovskite solar cells employing organic charge-transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 128–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brivio, F.

F. Brivio, A. B. Walker, and A. Walsh, “Structural and electronic properties of hybrid perovskites for high-efficiency thin-film photovoltaics from first-principles,” APL Mater. 1(4), 042111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Burschka, J.

J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S. J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Gratzel, “Sequential deposition as a route to high-performance perovskite-sensitized solar cells,” Nature 499(7458), 316–319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bussetti, G.

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
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Calloni, A.

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
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Campoy-Quiles, M.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chan, T. S.

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chan, Y. T.

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
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Chang, T. R.

L. Niu, X. F. Liu, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, D. Wu, T. R. Chang, H. Wang, Q. S. Zeng, J. D. Zhou, X. L. Wang, W. Fu, P. Yu, Q. D. Fu, S. Najmaei, Z. H. Zhang, B. I. Yakobson, B. K. Tay, W. Zhou, H. T. Jeng, H. Lin, T. C. Sum, C. Jin, H. Y. He, T. Yu, and Z. Liu, “Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van der Waals Solid for Tunable Light-Matter Interactions,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7800–7808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, W.-H.

J. You, Y. Yang, Z. Hong, T.-B. Song, L. Meng, Y. Liu, C. Jiang, H. Zhou, W.-H. Chang, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Moisture assisted perovskite film growth for high performance solar cells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 105(18), 183902 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. A.

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, H. M.

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref]

Q. Chen, H. P. Zhou, T. B. Song, S. Luo, Z. R. Hong, H. S. Duan, L. T. Dou, Y. S. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Controllable Self-Induced Passivation of Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskites toward High Performance Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4158–4163 (2014).
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Chhowalla, M.

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiu, C. W.

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
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Christians, J. A.

J. A. Christians, P. A. M. Herrera, and P. V. Kamat, “Transformation of the Excited State and Photovoltaic Efficiency of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite upon Controlled Exposure to Humidified Air,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 137(4), 1530–1538 (2015).
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Chu, T. C.

B. A. Chen, J. T. Lin, N. T. Suen, C. W. Tsao, T. C. Chu, Y. Y. Hsu, T. S. Chan, Y. T. Chan, J. S. Yang, C. W. Chiu, and H. M. Chen, “In Situ Identification of Photo- and Moisture-Dependent Phase Evolution of Perovskite Solar Cells,” ACS Energy Lett. 2(2), 342–348 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ciccacci, F.

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
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Cong, C. X.

L. Niu, X. F. Liu, C. X. Cong, C. Y. Wu, D. Wu, T. R. Chang, H. Wang, Q. S. Zeng, J. D. Zhou, X. L. Wang, W. Fu, P. Yu, Q. D. Fu, S. Najmaei, Z. H. Zhang, B. I. Yakobson, B. K. Tay, W. Zhou, H. T. Jeng, H. Lin, T. C. Sum, C. Jin, H. Y. He, T. Yu, and Z. Liu, “Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van der Waals Solid for Tunable Light-Matter Interactions,” Adv. Mater. 27(47), 7800–7808 (2015).
[Crossref]

Crespo-Quesada, M.

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
[Crossref]

Crochet, J. J.

W. Nie, H. Tsai, R. Asadpour, J.-C. Blancon, A. J. Neukirch, G. Gupta, J. J. Crochet, M. Chhowalla, S. Tretiak, M. A. Alam, H.-L. Wang, and A. D. Mohite, “High-efficiency solution-processed perovskite solar cells with millimeter-scale grains,” Science 347(6221), 522–525 (2015).
[Crossref]

D’Innocenzo, V.

V. D’Innocenzo, G. Grancini, M. J. P. Alcocer, A. R. S. Kandada, S. D. Stranks, M. M. Lee, G. Lanzani, H. J. Snaith, and A. Petrozza, “Excitons versus free charges in organo-lead tri-halide perovskites,” Nat. Commun. 5(1), 3586 (2014).
[Crossref]

De Angelis, F.

A. Amat, E. Mosconi, E. Ronca, C. Quarti, P. Umari, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and F. De Angelis, “Cation-Induced Band-Gap Tuning in Organohalide Perovskites: Interplay of Spin–Orbit Coupling and Octahedra Tilting,” Nano Lett. 14(6), 3608–3616 (2014).
[Crossref]

Deschler, F.

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
[Crossref]

Dimitrakopoulos, C. D.

C. R. Kagan, D. B. Mitzi, and C. D. Dimitrakopoulos, “Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials as Semiconducting Channels in Thin-Film Field-Effect Transistors,” Science 286(5441), 945–947 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ding, Q.

H. Zhu, Y. Fu, F. Meng, X. Wu, Z. Gong, Q. Ding, M. V. Gustafsson, M. T. Trinh, S. Jin, and X. Y. Zhu, “Lead halide perovskite nanowire lasers with low lasing thresholds and high quality factors,” Nat. Mater. 14(6), 636–642 (2015).
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Docampo, P.

A. M. A. Leguy, Y. Hu, M. Campoy-Quiles, M. I. Alonso, O. J. Weber, P. Azarhoosh, M. van Schilfgaarde, M. T. Weller, T. Bein, J. Nelson, P. Docampo, and P. R. F. Barnes, “Reversible Hydration of CH3NH3PbI3 in Films, Single Crystals, and Solar Cells,” Chem. Mater. 27(9), 3397–3407 (2015).
[Crossref]

Dong, Q.

Y. Fang, H. Wei, Q. Dong, and J. Huang, “Quantification of re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in perovskite single crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14417 (2017).
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Dong, Q. F.

Z. G. Xiao, Q. F. Dong, C. Bi, Y. C. Shao, Y. B. Yuan, and J. S. Huang, “Solvent Annealing of Perovskite-Induced Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic-Device Efficiency Enhancement,” Adv. Mater. 26(37), 6503–6509 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dou, L. T.

Q. Chen, H. P. Zhou, T. B. Song, S. Luo, Z. R. Hong, H. S. Duan, L. T. Dou, Y. S. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Controllable Self-Induced Passivation of Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskites toward High Performance Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4158–4163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Du, H. L.

X. Fang, K. Zhang, Y. P. Li, L. Yao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. L. Wang, W. H. Zhai, L. Tao, H. L. Du, and G. Z. Ran, “Effect of excess PbBr2 on photoluminescence spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite particles at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 071109 (2016).
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Du, W. N.

C. Shen, W. N. Du, Z. Y. Wu, J. Xing, S. T. Ha, Q. Y. Shang, W. G. Xu, Q. H. Xiong, X. F. Liu, and Q. Zhang, “Thermal conductivity of suspended single crystal CH3NH3PbI3 platelets at room temperature,” Nanoscale 9(24), 8281–8287 (2017).
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Duan, H. S.

Q. Chen, H. P. Zhou, T. B. Song, S. Luo, Z. R. Hong, H. S. Duan, L. T. Dou, Y. S. Liu, and Y. Yang, “Controllable Self-Induced Passivation of Hybrid Lead Iodide Perovskites toward High Performance Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 14(7), 4158–4163 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duan, H.-S.

Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, “Planar Heterojunction Perovskite Solar Cells via Vapor-Assisted Solution Process,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136(2), 622–625 (2014).
[Crossref]

Duò, L.

A. Calloni, A. Abate, G. Bussetti, G. Berti, R. Yivlialin, F. Ciccacci, and L. Duò, “Stability of Organic Cations in Solution-Processed CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Formation of Modified Surface Layers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(37), 21329–21335 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ehrler, B.

L. M. Pazos-Outón, M. Szumilo, R. Lamboll, J. M. Richter, M. Crespo-Quesada, M. Abdi-Jalebi, H. J. Beeson, M. Vrućinić, M. Alsari, H. J. Snaith, B. Ehrler, R. H. Friend, and F. Deschler, “Photon recycling in lead iodide perovskite solar cells,” Science 351(6280), 1430–1433 (2016).
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Ellingson, R. J.

Z. N. Song, S. C. Watthage, A. B. Phillips, B. L. Tompkins, R. J. Ellingson, and M. J. Heben, “Impact of Processing Temperature and Composition on the Formation of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskites,” Chem. Mater. 27(13), 4612–4619 (2015).
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Eperon, G. E.

R. L. Milot, G. E. Eperon, H. J. Snaith, M. B. Johnston, and L. M. Herz, “Temperature-Dependent Charge-Carrier Dynamics in CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite Thin Films,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25(39), 6218–6227 (2015).
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S. N. Habisreutinger, T. Leijtens, G. E. Eperon, S. D. Stranks, R. J. Nicholas, and H. J. Snaith, “Carbon Nanotube/Polymer Composites as a Highly Stable Hole Collection Layer in Perovskite Solar Cells,” Nano Lett. 14(10), 5561–5568 (2014).
[Crossref]

Espallargas, G. M.

O. Malinkiewicz, A. Yella, Y. H. Lee, G. M. Espallargas, M. Graetzel, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and H. J. Bolink, “Perovskite solar cells employing organic charge-transport layers,” Nat. Photonics 8(2), 128–132 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fang, X.

X. Fang, K. Zhang, Y. P. Li, L. Yao, Y. F. Zhang, Y. L. Wang, W. H. Zhai, L. Tao, H. L. Du, and G. Z. Ran, “Effect of excess PbBr2 on photoluminescence spectra of CH3NH3PbBr3 perovskite particles at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 071109 (2016).
[Crossref]

Fang, Y.

Y. Fang, H. Wei, Q. Dong, and J. Huang, “Quantification of re-absorption and re-emission processes to determine photon recycling efficiency in perovskite single crystals,” Nat. Commun. 8, 14417 (2017).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. SEM images of (a) PbI2 and (b) CH3NH3PbI3 crystals synthesized via vapor deposition method.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) The absorbance spectra of PbI2 (black line) and CH3NH3PbI3 (red line) films by vapor deposition. (b) PL spectra of CH3NH3PbI3.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) PL spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 films via vapor deposition evaporation route while rising excitation power. (b) The logarithm plot of the integrated PL intensity versus excitation density. (c) PL spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 films fabricated by vapor deposition measured at 50% relative humidity week by week. (d) Normalized PL intensities of perovskite films by vapor deposition way excited by 532 nm CW laser perform at room temperature at 50% relative humidity.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) PL spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 films fabricated by spin-coating measured at 50% relative humidity day by day. (b) normalized PL intensities of perovskite films by spin-coating excited by 532 nm CW laser perform at room temperature at 50% relative humidity.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. PL spectra with laser focusing on different areas in CH3NH3PbI3 film via vapor deposition method from (a) black region and (b) yellow region.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. PL spectra of laser focusing on different depths of yellow region in CH3NH3PbI3 film via vapor deposition method (top to bottom of the film).
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The XRD pattern of fresh CH3NH3PbI3 film (red line) and CH3NH3PbI3 film absorbing moisture (black line). The XRD standard reference of PbI2 (blue line) is listed in the bottom of figure. Symbols indicate the diffraction peaks of di-hydrate (▪), PbI2 (●), CH3NH3PbI3 (★), CH3NH3I (▴).
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Scheme of the CH3NH3PbI3 film absorbing moisture. The yellow part is PbI2, brown one is CH3NH3PbI3 and black lines imply grain boundaries.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. (a) TR-PL decay measured at 780 nm (blue line) and 796 nm (red line) respectively. The black lines are fitting lines, and the inset shows the fitted result of TR-PL. (b) the band diagram of CH3NH3PbI3/PbI2 hetero-structure (CBM is conduction band minimum, and VBM is valence band minimum).

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