Abstract

We report on the synthesis and features of copper (Cu) nanoparticles (NPs) embedded into LiNbO3 crystal. A linear optical absorption that peaked at 613 nm is observed, which correlates to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect. In addition, the Cu NPs embedded LiNbO3 (CuNP:LN) possesses ultrafast saturable absorption properties at a wavelength of 1µm. Based on these enhanced nonlinear optical properties, CuNP:LN is applied as a saturable absorber (SA) for pulsed laser generation in a waveguide laser system. Under an optical pump, the 8.6 GHz fundamentally Q-switched mode-locked laser operation has been efficiently implemented based on a Nd:YAG cladding waveguide fabricated by femtosecond laser writing. The measured pulse duration is as short as 55 ps and the slope efficiency is up to ∼22.7%. This work suggests the promising application of LiNbO3 crystal embedded Cu NPs for ultrashort pulse generation.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (6)

Y. Jia and F. Chen, “Compact solid-state waveguide lasers operating in the pulsed regime: a review [Invited],” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(1), 012302 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Li, C. Pang, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Monolithic waveguide laser mode-locked by embedded Ag nanoparticles operating at 1 µm,” Nanophotonics 8(5), 859–868 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Li, C. Pang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “WSe2 as a saturable absorber for multi-gigahertz Q- switched mode-locked waveguide lasers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(2), 020013 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Li, C. Pang, N. Dong, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “8.8 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by PtSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 27(6), 8727–8737 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium tantalate crystal for ultrafast laser generation,” Nanotechnology 30(33), 334001 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Y. Niu, G. Wang, Y. Sun, and C. Liu, “Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of LiNbO3 crystal embedded with CuZn alloy nanoparticles by ion implantation,” J. Alloys Compd. 778, 691–698 (2019).
[Crossref]

2018 (11)

W. Nie, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Li, R. He, N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Grivas, R. Ismaeel, C. Corbari, C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, P. Lagoudakis, and G. Brambilla, “Generation of Multi-Gigahertz Trains of Phase-Coherent Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Ti:Sapphire Waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800167 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium Niobate Crystal with Embedded Au Nanoparticles: A New Saturable Absorber for Efficient Mode-Locking of Ultrafast Laser Pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(6), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Y. X. Zhang, Z. Li, N. Dong, L. Wu, H. Yu, J. Wang, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Tailoring optical nonlinearities of LiNbO3 crystals by plasmonic silver nanoparticles for broadband saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31276–31289 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Cheng, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “6.5 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional materials as saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11321–11330 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, L. Xu, M. Chen, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of graphene by silver-based nanoparticle modification for pulsed lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1368–1377 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited Article: Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photonics 3(8), 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Choi, T. Calmano, F. Rotermund, and C. Kränkel, “2-GHz carbon nanotube mode-locked Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5140–5145 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, A. Ródenas, S. Y. Choi, J. E. Bae, F. Rotermund, V. Zakharov, A. Veniaminov, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched femtosecond-laser-written thulium waveguide laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Photonics Res. 6(10), 971–980 (2018).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Gross, M. J. Withford, H. Zhang, D. Yeom, F. Rotermund, and A. Fuerbach, “Low-dimensional nanomaterial saturable absorbers for ultrashort-pulsed waveguide lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(10), 3055–3071 (2018).
[Crossref]

G. Y. Chen, F. Piantedosi, D. Otten, Y. Q. Kang, W. Q. Zhang, X. Zhou, T. M. Monro, and D. G. Lancaster, “Femtosecond-laser-written Microstructured Waveguides in BK7 Glass,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10377 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (7)

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Khurmi, S. Thoday, T. M. Monro, G. Chen, and D. G. Lancaster, “Visible laser emission from a praseodymium-doped fluorozirconate guided-wave chip,” Opt. Lett. 42(17), 3339–3342 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Q. Guo, and J. Qiu, “Emerging Low-Dimensional Materials for Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Photonics,” Adv. Mater. 29(14), 1605886 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Koo, J. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Integrated Fiber-Optic Device Based on a Combination of a Piezoelectric Transducer and a Bulk-Structured Bi2Te3 Topological Insulator for Q-Switched Mode-Locking of a Fiber Laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 35(11), 2175–2182 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Cheng, N. Dong, C. Romero, Q. Lu, J. Wang, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Q-switching of waveguide lasers based on graphene/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 406–410 (2017).
[Crossref]

F. Thorburn, A. Lancaster, S. McDaniel, G. Cook, and A. K. Kar, “5.9 GHz graphene based q-switched mode locked mid-infrared monolithic waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 25(21), 26166–26174 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li and F. Chen, “Ion beam modification of two-dimensional materials: Characterization, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(1), 011103 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (10)

M. B. Gawande, A. Goswami, F. X. Felpin, T. Asefa, X. Huang, R. Silva, X. Zou, R. Zboril, and R. S. Varma, “Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis,” Chem. Rev. 116(6), 3722–3811 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. B. Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobite,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, K. Yumashev, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “MoS2 saturable absorber for passive Q-switching of Yb and Tm microchip lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3262–3273 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, H. Liu, Z. Shang, W. Nie, Y. Tan, B. R. Rabes, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser written waveguides with MoS2 as saturable absorber for passively Q-switched lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Jiang, S. Gross, H. Zhang, Z. Guo, M. J. Withford, and A. Fuerbach, “Bismuth telluride topological insulator nanosheet saturable absorbers for q-switched mode-locked Tm:ZBLAN waveguide lasers,” Ann. Phys. 528(7-8), 543–550 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Khurmi, N. B. Hébert, W. Q. Zhang, S. V. Afshar, G. Chen, J. Genest, T. M. Monro, and D. G. Lancaster, “Ultrafast pulse generation in a mode-locked Erbium chip waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 24(24), 27177–27183 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. P. Shepherd, A. Choudhary, and A. A. Lagatsky, “Ultrafast high-repetition-rate waveguide lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22(2), 16–24 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Fan, T. Li, S. Zhao, G. Li, H. Ma, X. Gao, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Watt-level passively Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.84  µm using MoS2,” Opt. Lett. 41(3), 540–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Grivas, “Optically pumped planar waveguide lasers: Part II: Gain media, laser systems, and applications,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 45-46, 3–160 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (5)

D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24071–24076 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-µm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. G. Okhrimchuk and P. A. Obraztsov, “11-GHz waveguide Nd:YAG laser CW mode-locked with single-layer graphene,” Sci. Rep. 5(1), 11172 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Bazzan and C. Sada, “Optical waveguides in lithium niobite: Recent developments and applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(4), 040603 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Imlau, H. Badorreck, and C. Merschjann, “Optical nonlinearities of small polarons in lithium niobite,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(4), 040606 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

S. Chandra, A. Kumar, and P. K. Tomar, “Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by reducing agent,” J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 18(2), 149–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

2003 (1)

C. D. Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite Materials Formed by Ion Implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

M. Sheikbahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Vanstryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Afra, B.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. B. Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobite,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Afshar, S. V.

Aguiló, M.

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, A. Ródenas, S. Y. Choi, J. E. Bae, F. Rotermund, V. Zakharov, A. Veniaminov, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched femtosecond-laser-written thulium waveguide laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Photonics Res. 6(10), 971–980 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, K. Yumashev, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “MoS2 saturable absorber for passive Q-switching of Yb and Tm microchip lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3262–3273 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 µm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[Crossref]

Akhmadaliev, S.

R. Li, C. Pang, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Monolithic waveguide laser mode-locked by embedded Ag nanoparticles operating at 1 µm,” Nanophotonics 8(5), 859–868 (2019).
[Crossref]

Amekura, H.

W. Nie, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Li, R. He, N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref]

Asefa, T.

M. B. Gawande, A. Goswami, F. X. Felpin, T. Asefa, X. Huang, R. Silva, X. Zou, R. Zboril, and R. S. Varma, “Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis,” Chem. Rev. 116(6), 3722–3811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Badorreck, H.

M. Imlau, H. Badorreck, and C. Merschjann, “Optical nonlinearities of small polarons in lithium niobite,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(4), 040606 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bae, J. E.

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, A. Ródenas, S. Y. Choi, J. E. Bae, F. Rotermund, V. Zakharov, A. Veniaminov, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched femtosecond-laser-written thulium waveguide laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Photonics Res. 6(10), 971–980 (2018).
[Crossref]

Bazzan, M.

M. Bazzan and C. Sada, “Optical waveguides in lithium niobite: Recent developments and applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 2(4), 040603 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beecher, S. J.

Bharuth-Ram, K.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. B. Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobite,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bierschenk, T.

S. Wolf, J. Rensberg, A. Johannes, R. Thomae, F. Smit, R. Neveling, M. Moodley, T. Bierschenk, M. Rodriguez, B. Afra, S. B. Hasan, C. Rockstuhl, M. Ridgway, K. Bharuth-Ram, and C. Ronning, “Shape manipulation of ion irradiated Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium niobite,” Nanotechnology 27(14), 145202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Boatner, L. A.

A. Meldrum, R. F. Haglund, L. A. Boatner, and C. W. White, “Nanocomposite Materials Formed by Ion Implantation,” Adv. Mater. 13(19), 1431–1444 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bolaños, W.

Böttger, R.

W. Nie, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Li, R. He, N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium Niobate Crystal with Embedded Au Nanoparticles: A New Saturable Absorber for Efficient Mode-Locking of Ultrafast Laser Pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(6), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brambilla, G.

C. Grivas, R. Ismaeel, C. Corbari, C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, P. Lagoudakis, and G. Brambilla, “Generation of Multi-Gigahertz Trains of Phase-Coherent Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Ti:Sapphire Waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800167 (2018).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

Brown, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-µm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, Z.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8(2), 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Wu, J. Peng, Z. Cai, J. Weng, Z. Luo, N. Chen, and H. Xu, “Gold nanoparticles as a saturable absorber for visible 635 nm Q-switched pulse generation,” Opt. Express 23(18), 24071–24076 (2015).
[Crossref]

Calmano, T.

Cantelar, E.

Carvajal, J. J.

Cerruti, C.

C. D. Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chandra, S.

S. Chandra, A. Kumar, and P. K. Tomar, “Synthesis and characterization of copper nanoparticles by reducing agent,” J. Saudi Chem. Soc. 18(2), 149–153 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, F.

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium tantalate crystal for ultrafast laser generation,” Nanotechnology 30(33), 334001 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Li, C. Pang, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Monolithic waveguide laser mode-locked by embedded Ag nanoparticles operating at 1 µm,” Nanophotonics 8(5), 859–868 (2019).
[Crossref]

Y. Jia and F. Chen, “Compact solid-state waveguide lasers operating in the pulsed regime: a review [Invited],” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(1), 012302 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Li, C. Pang, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “WSe2 as a saturable absorber for multi-gigahertz Q- switched mode-locked waveguide lasers,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 17(2), 020013 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Li, C. Pang, N. Dong, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “8.8 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by PtSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 27(6), 8727–8737 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Y. X. Zhang, Z. Li, N. Dong, L. Wu, H. Yu, J. Wang, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Tailoring optical nonlinearities of LiNbO3 crystals by plasmonic silver nanoparticles for broadband saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31276–31289 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, L. Xu, M. Chen, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of graphene by silver-based nanoparticle modification for pulsed lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1368–1377 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Cheng, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “6.5 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional materials as saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11321–11330 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited Article: Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photonics 3(8), 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium Niobate Crystal with Embedded Au Nanoparticles: A New Saturable Absorber for Efficient Mode-Locking of Ultrafast Laser Pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(6), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Li, R. He, N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li and F. Chen, “Ion beam modification of two-dimensional materials: Characterization, properties, and applications,” Appl. Phys. Rev. 4(1), 011103 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Cheng, N. Dong, C. Romero, Q. Lu, J. Wang, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Q-switching of waveguide lasers based on graphene/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 406–410 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, H. Liu, Z. Shang, W. Nie, Y. Tan, B. R. Rabes, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser written waveguides with MoS2 as saturable absorber for passively Q-switched lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-µm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

F. Chen and J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, “Optical waveguides in crystalline dielectric materials produced by femtosecond-laser micromachining,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 251–275 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, G.

Chen, G. Y.

G. Y. Chen, F. Piantedosi, D. Otten, Y. Q. Kang, W. Q. Zhang, X. Zhou, T. M. Monro, and D. G. Lancaster, “Femtosecond-laser-written Microstructured Waveguides in BK7 Glass,” Sci. Rep. 8(1), 10377 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chen, M.

Chen, N.

Chen, S.

Chen, Y.

Cheng, C.

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium Niobate Crystal with Embedded Au Nanoparticles: A New Saturable Absorber for Efficient Mode-Locking of Ultrafast Laser Pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(6), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, L. Xu, M. Chen, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of graphene by silver-based nanoparticle modification for pulsed lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1368–1377 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, Y. Zhang, C. Cheng, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “6.5 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers based on two-dimensional materials as saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(9), 11321–11330 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Cheng, N. Dong, C. Romero, Q. Lu, J. Wang, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Q-switching of waveguide lasers based on graphene/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 406–410 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Cheng, H. Liu, Z. Shang, W. Nie, Y. Tan, B. R. Rabes, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, D. Jaque, and F. Chen, “Femtosecond laser written waveguides with MoS2 as saturable absorber for passively Q-switched lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(2), 367–373 (2016).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. Y.

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, A. Ródenas, S. Y. Choi, J. E. Bae, F. Rotermund, V. Zakharov, A. Veniaminov, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched femtosecond-laser-written thulium waveguide laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Photonics Res. 6(10), 971–980 (2018).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Choi, T. Calmano, F. Rotermund, and C. Kränkel, “2-GHz carbon nanotube mode-locked Yb:YAG channel waveguide laser,” Opt. Express 26(5), 5140–5145 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref]

Choudhary, A.

Cook, G.

Corbari, C.

C. Grivas, R. Ismaeel, C. Corbari, C. C. Huang, D. W. Hewak, P. Lagoudakis, and G. Brambilla, “Generation of Multi-Gigahertz Trains of Phase-Coherent Femtosecond Laser Pulses in Ti:Sapphire Waveguides,” Laser Photonics Rev. 12(11), 1800167 (2018).
[Crossref]

Demetriou, G.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-µm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

Díaz, F.

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, A. Ródenas, S. Y. Choi, J. E. Bae, F. Rotermund, V. Zakharov, A. Veniaminov, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched femtosecond-laser-written thulium waveguide laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Photonics Res. 6(10), 971–980 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, K. Yumashev, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “MoS2 saturable absorber for passive Q-switching of Yb and Tm microchip lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3262–3273 (2016).
[Crossref]

W. Bolaños, J. J. Carvajal, X. Mateos, E. Cantelar, G. Lifante, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, V. L. Panyutin, G. S. Murugan, J. S. Wilkinson, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Continuous-wave and Q-switched Tm-doped KY(WO4)2 planar waveguide laser at 1.84 µm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1449–1454 (2011).
[Crossref]

Dong, N.

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic Ag nanoparticles embedded in lithium tantalate crystal for ultrafast laser generation,” Nanotechnology 30(33), 334001 (2019).
[Crossref]

R. Li, C. Pang, Z. Li, N. Dong, J. Wang, F. Ren, S. Akhmadaliev, S. Zhou, and F. Chen, “Monolithic waveguide laser mode-locked by embedded Ag nanoparticles operating at 1 µm,” Nanophotonics 8(5), 859–868 (2019).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, R. Li, C. Pang, N. Dong, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “8.8 GHz Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by PtSe2 saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 27(6), 8727–8737 (2019).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Y. X. Zhang, Z. Li, N. Dong, L. Wu, H. Yu, J. Wang, F. Ren, and F. Chen, “Tailoring optical nonlinearities of LiNbO3 crystals by plasmonic silver nanoparticles for broadband saturable absorbers,” Opt. Express 26(24), 31276–31289 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, L. Xu, M. Chen, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Enhanced nonlinear optical response of graphene by silver-based nanoparticle modification for pulsed lasing,” Opt. Mater. Express 8(5), 1368–1377 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, N. Dong, Y. Zhang, J. Wang, H. Yu, and F. Chen, “Invited Article: Mode-locked waveguide lasers modulated by rhenium diselenide as a new saturable absorber,” APL Photonics 3(8), 080802 (2018).
[Crossref]

C. Pang, R. Li, Z. Li, N. Dong, C. Cheng, W. Nie, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, J. Wang, and F. Chen, “Lithium Niobate Crystal with Embedded Au Nanoparticles: A New Saturable Absorber for Efficient Mode-Locking of Ultrafast Laser Pulses at 1 µm,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 6(6), 1800357 (2018).
[Crossref]

W. Nie, Y. Zhang, H. Yu, R. Li, R. He, N. Dong, J. Wang, R. Hübner, R. Böttger, S. Zhou, H. Amekura, and F. Chen, “Plasmonic nanoparticles embedded in single crystals synthesized by gold ion implantation for enhanced optical nonlinearity and efficient Q-switched lasing,” Nanoscale 10(9), 4228–4236 (2018).
[Crossref]

Z. Li, C. Cheng, N. Dong, C. Romero, Q. Lu, J. Wang, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, Y. Tan, and F. Chen, “Q-switching of waveguide lasers based on graphene/WS2 van der Waals heterostructure,” Photonics Res. 5(5), 406–410 (2017).
[Crossref]

Estournès, C.

C. D. Orléans, J. P. Stoquert, C. Estournès, C. Cerruti, J. J. Grob, J. L. Guille, F. Haas, D. Muller, and M. Richard-Plouet, “Anisotropy of Co nanoparticles induced by swift heavy ions,” Phys. Rev. B 67(22), 220101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fan, M.

Felpin, F. X.

M. B. Gawande, A. Goswami, F. X. Felpin, T. Asefa, X. Huang, R. Silva, X. Zou, R. Zboril, and R. S. Varma, “Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis,” Chem. Rev. 116(6), 3722–3811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, A. C.

Y. Ren, G. Brown, R. Mary, G. Demetriou, D. Popa, F. Torrisi, A. C. Ferrari, F. Chen, and A. K. Kar, “7.8-GHz Graphene-Based 2-µm Monolithic Waveguide Laser,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21(1), 395–400 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21(7), 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref]

Fuerbach, A.

Gao, X.

Gawande, M. B.

M. B. Gawande, A. Goswami, F. X. Felpin, T. Asefa, X. Huang, R. Silva, X. Zou, R. Zboril, and R. S. Varma, “Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis,” Chem. Rev. 116(6), 3722–3811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Genest, J.

Goswami, A.

M. B. Gawande, A. Goswami, F. X. Felpin, T. Asefa, X. Huang, R. Silva, X. Zou, R. Zboril, and R. S. Varma, “Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles: synthesis and applications in catalysis,” Chem. Rev. 116(6), 3722–3811 (2016).
[Crossref]

Griebner, U.

E. Kifle, P. Loiko, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, C. Romero, A. Ródenas, S. Y. Choi, J. E. Bae, F. Rotermund, V. Zakharov, A. Veniaminov, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, and X. Mateos, “Passively Q-switched femtosecond-laser-written thulium waveguide laser based on evanescent field interaction with carbon nanotubes,” Photonics Res. 6(10), 971–980 (2018).
[Crossref]

E. Kifle, X. Mateos, J. R. Vázquez de Aldana, A. Ródenas, P. Loiko, S. Y. Choi, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “Femtosecond-laser-written Tm:KLu(WO4)2 waveguide lasers,” Opt. Express 42(6), 1169–1172 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. M. Serres, P. Loiko, X. Mateos, H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Chen, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, K. Yumashev, M. Aguiló, and F. Díaz, “MoS2 saturable absorber for passive Q-switching of Yb and Tm microchip lasers,” Opt. Mater. Express 6(10), 3262–3273 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The optical image of CuNP:LN. (b) Cu+ ion distribution simulated by the SRIM. (c) Measured linear absorption spectrum of CuNP:LN.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a) Image of XTEM. The insert is FFT image of measured range. (b) Image of HRTEM. The insert demonstrates interplanar space d of single Cu NP. (c) Diameter distributions of Cu NPs. (d)(e) SAED of single Cu NP. (f) Element Mapping of sample.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The schematic diagram of Z-scan experiment setup.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a–c) Measured and fitting results of open-aperture Z-scan at different energies. (d) The nonlinear absorber coefficients of CuNP:LN under different excitation pulse energies.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Schematic diagram of QML pulsed laser operation modulated by LiNbO3 crystal embedded Cu NPs in Nd:YAG cladding waveguide.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Performances of QML waveguide laser modulated by CuNP:LN. (a)The average output power as a function of lunched power. (b) Laser spectrum of the output pulsed laser at 1064 nm. (c) Q-switched envelope in the timescale of 100 ns/div, the insert is QML pulses in the microsecond timescale. (d) Mode-locked pulse trains. (e) Single pulse profile. (f) Radio frequency spectrum.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparisons of QML Waveguide Lasers at 1064 nm Based on Low-Dimensional Materials

Equations (3)

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d I ( z ) / d I ( z ) d z d z = α 0 I ( z ) β N L ( z )
T N or m ( z ) = ln [ 1 + q 0 ( z ) ] q 0 ( z )
d I / d z = α 0 I 1 + I / I s

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