Abstract

Coupled electron-hole-photon systems in semiconductor microcavities have been a platform for studies of laser dynamics and nonequilibrium cooperative phenomena in solid states. Here, we report the observation of multiple-pulse lasing in optically induced confinement in a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity at room temperature. The spatially photomodulated refractive index changes enable an additional lateral photonic confinement, and discrete transverse modes result. Temporally and spectrally resolved measurements of the radiation reveal multiple sub-10-ps pulsed radiation commencing in order from high- to low-energy modes. Under a circularly polarized optical pumping, the high-energy mode emerges within 10 ps after the pulsed excitation and has a near-unity circular polarization. We attribute the observed cooperative effects to light-induced correlated e-h pairs in a high-density plasma and their effective coupling to discrete transverse modes in the spatially photomodulated optical confinement.

© 2016 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2016 (1)

2015 (4)

K. Cong, Y. Wang, J.-H. H. Kim, G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Superfluorescence from photoexcited semiconductor quantum wells: magnetic field, temperature, and excitation power dependence,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 235448 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-K. Hsu, W. Xie, Y.-S. Lee, S.-D. Lin, and C. W. Lai, “Ultrafast spin-polarized lasing in a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195312 (2015).
[Crossref]

F.-K. Hsu, W. Xie, Y.-S. Lee, S.-D. Lin, and C. W. Lai, “Transient dual-energy lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15347 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Yamaguchi, R. Nii, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generating functional approach for spontaneous coherence in semiconductor electron-hole-photon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115129 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

S. Smolka, W. Wuester, F. Haupt, S. Faelt, W. Wegscheider, and A. Imamoglu, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Science 346, 332–335 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

T. Grundl, P. Debernardi, M. Muller, C. Grasse, P. Ebert, K. Geiger, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “Record single-mode, high-power VCSELs by inhibition of spatial hole burning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1700913 (2013).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

M. Yamaguchi, K. Kamide, R. Nii, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Second thresholds in BEC-BCS-laser crossover of exciton-polariton systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026404 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

K. Kamide, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ogawa, “Fano-resonance gain by dephasing electron-hole cooper pairs in semiconductors,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093706 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Sarzala, T. Czyszanowski, M. Wasiak, M. Dems, L. Piskorski, W. Nakwaski, and K. Panajotov, “Numerical self-consistent analysis of VCSELs,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. L. Boiko and P. P. Vasil’ev, “Superradiance dynamics in semiconductor laser diode structures,” Opt. Express 20, 9501–9515 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Schleife, C. Rödl, F. Fuchs, K. Hannewald, and F. Bechstedt, “Optical absorption in degenerately doped semiconductors: Mott transition or Mahan excitons? ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236405 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

P. P. Vasil’ev, “Femtosecond superradiant emission in inorganic semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

M. H. Szymanska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
[Crossref]

P. P. Vasil’ev and I. V. Smetanin, “Condensation of electron-hole pairs in a degenerate semiconductor at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 125206 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

J. Keeling, P. R. Eastham, M. H. Szymanska, and P. B. Littlewood, “BCS-BEC crossover in a system of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115320 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

H. Zhang, G. Mrozynski, A. Wallrabenstein, and J. Schrage, “Analysis of transverse mode competition of VCSELs based on a spatially independent model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 18–24 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Mandel and M. Tlidi, “Transverse dynamics in cavity nonlinear optics (2000–2003),” J. Opt. B 6, R60–R75 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

P. B. Littlewood, G. J. Brown, P. R. Eastham, and M. H. Szymanska, “Some remarks on the ground state of the exciton and exciton-polariton system,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234, 36–49 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. V. Zaitsev, L. A. Graham, D. L. Huffaker, N. Y. Gordeev, V. I. Kopchatov, L. Y. Karachinsky, I. I. Novikov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Superradiance in semiconductors,” Semiconductors 33, 1309–1314 (1999).
[Crossref]

C. Degen, W. Elsaber, and I. Fischer, “Transverse modes in oxide confined VCSELs: influence of pump profile, spatial hole burning, and thermal effects,” Opt. Express 5, 38–47 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Huang, J. P. Callan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

O. Buccafusca, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, S. Feld, C. Wilmsen, V. Morozov, and R. Leibenguth, “Transverse mode dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 590 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (5)

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Dynamics of transverse mode competition in vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 115, 297–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

L. V. Keldysh, “Correlations in the coherent transient electron-hole system,” Phys. Status Solidi B 188, 11–27 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Nojima, “Dimensionality of exciton-state renormalization in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 11124–11127 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. W. Koch, F. Jahnke, and W. W. Chow, “Physics of semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 739–751 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

C. H. Chong and J. Sarma, “Lasing mode selection in vertical-cavity surface emitting-laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 761–764 (1993).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402–1409 (1991).
[Crossref]

1990 (3)

M. Colocci, M. Gurioli, and A. Vinattieri, “Thermal ionization of excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2809–2812 (1990).
[Crossref]

N. K. Dutta, “Analysis of current spreading, carrier diffusion, and transverse mode guiding in surface emitting lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 1961 (1990).
[Crossref]

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

D. S. Chemla and D. A. B. Miller, “Room-temperature excitonic nonlinear-optical effects in semiconductor quantum-well structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1155–1173 (1985).
[Crossref]

P. Nozières and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: from weak to strong coupling superconductivity,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 59, 195–211 (1985).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4457–4461 (1981).
[Crossref]

1976 (1)

R. Zimmermann, “Excitons and electron-hole plasma. a ground state calculation,” Phys. Status Solidi B 76, 191–205 (1976).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

G. D. Mahan, “Excitons in degenerate semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 153, 882–889 (1967).
[Crossref]

1965 (1)

H. Noyes, “New nonsingular integral equation for two-particle scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 538–540 (1965).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

R. H. Dicke, “Coherence in spontaneous radiation processes,” Phys. Rev. 93, 99–110 (1954).
[Crossref]

Akiyama, H.

K. Kamide, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ogawa, “Fano-resonance gain by dephasing electron-hole cooper pairs in semiconductors,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093706 (2012).
[Crossref]

Amann, M.-C.

T. Grundl, P. Debernardi, M. Muller, C. Grasse, P. Ebert, K. Geiger, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “Record single-mode, high-power VCSELs by inhibition of spatial hole burning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1700913 (2013).
[Crossref]

Andreev, A. V.

A. V. Andreev, V. I. Emel’yanov, and Y. A. Il’inskii, Cooperative Effects in Optics: Superradiance and Phase Transitions (IOP, 1993).

Bechstedt, F.

A. Schleife, C. Rödl, F. Fuchs, K. Hannewald, and F. Bechstedt, “Optical absorption in degenerately doped semiconductors: Mott transition or Mahan excitons? ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236405 (2011).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A.

K. Cong, Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. T. Noe, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Dicke superradiance in solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, C80–C101 (2016).
[Crossref]

K. Cong, Y. Wang, J.-H. H. Kim, G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Superfluorescence from photoexcited semiconductor quantum wells: magnetic field, temperature, and excitation power dependence,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 235448 (2015).
[Crossref]

Belyanin, A. A.

J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
[Crossref]

Bertness, K. A.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4457–4461 (1981).
[Crossref]

Bohm, G.

T. Grundl, P. Debernardi, M. Muller, C. Grasse, P. Ebert, K. Geiger, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “Record single-mode, high-power VCSELs by inhibition of spatial hole burning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1700913 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boiko, D. L.

Brown, G. J.

P. B. Littlewood, G. J. Brown, P. R. Eastham, and M. H. Szymanska, “Some remarks on the ground state of the exciton and exciton-polariton system,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234, 36–49 (2002).
[Crossref]

Buccafusca, O.

O. Buccafusca, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, S. Feld, C. Wilmsen, V. Morozov, and R. Leibenguth, “Transverse mode dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 590 (1996).
[Crossref]

Byrnes, T.

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
[Crossref]

Callan, J. P.

L. Huang, J. P. Callan, E. N. Glezer, and E. Mazur, “GaAs under intense ultrafast excitation: response of the dielectric function,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 185–188 (1998).
[Crossref]

Carusotto, I.

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J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
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G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
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F.-K. Hsu, W. Xie, Y.-S. Lee, S.-D. Lin, and C. W. Lai, “Transient dual-energy lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15347 (2015).
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M. H. Szymanska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
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M. Yamaguchi, R. Nii, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generating functional approach for spontaneous coherence in semiconductor electron-hole-photon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115129 (2015).
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M. Yamaguchi, K. Kamide, R. Nii, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Second thresholds in BEC-BCS-laser crossover of exciton-polariton systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026404 (2013).
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K. Cong, Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. T. Noe, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Dicke superradiance in solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, C80–C101 (2016).
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G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
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S. V. Zaitsev, L. A. Graham, D. L. Huffaker, N. Y. Gordeev, V. I. Kopchatov, L. Y. Karachinsky, I. I. Novikov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Superradiance in semiconductors,” Semiconductors 33, 1309–1314 (1999).
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H. Noyes, “New nonsingular integral equation for two-particle scattering,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 15, 538–540 (1965).
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P. Nozières and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: from weak to strong coupling superconductivity,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 59, 195–211 (1985).
[Crossref]

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M. Yamaguchi, R. Nii, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generating functional approach for spontaneous coherence in semiconductor electron-hole-photon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115129 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Yamaguchi, K. Kamide, R. Nii, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Second thresholds in BEC-BCS-laser crossover of exciton-polariton systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026404 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Kamide, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ogawa, “Fano-resonance gain by dephasing electron-hole cooper pairs in semiconductors,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093706 (2012).
[Crossref]

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T. Grundl, P. Debernardi, M. Muller, C. Grasse, P. Ebert, K. Geiger, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “Record single-mode, high-power VCSELs by inhibition of spatial hole burning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1700913 (2013).
[Crossref]

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R. Sarzala, T. Czyszanowski, M. Wasiak, M. Dems, L. Piskorski, W. Nakwaski, and K. Panajotov, “Numerical self-consistent analysis of VCSELs,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Piskorski, L.

R. Sarzala, T. Czyszanowski, M. Wasiak, M. Dems, L. Piskorski, W. Nakwaski, and K. Panajotov, “Numerical self-consistent analysis of VCSELs,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

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C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
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J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
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J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
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G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
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O. Buccafusca, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, S. Feld, C. Wilmsen, V. Morozov, and R. Leibenguth, “Transverse mode dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 590 (1996).
[Crossref]

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A. Schleife, C. Rödl, F. Fuchs, K. Hannewald, and F. Bechstedt, “Optical absorption in degenerately doped semiconductors: Mott transition or Mahan excitons? ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236405 (2011).
[Crossref]

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J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
[Crossref]

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C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
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A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Dynamics of transverse mode competition in vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 115, 297–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. H. Chong and J. Sarma, “Lasing mode selection in vertical-cavity surface emitting-laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 761–764 (1993).
[Crossref]

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R. Sarzala, T. Czyszanowski, M. Wasiak, M. Dems, L. Piskorski, W. Nakwaski, and K. Panajotov, “Numerical self-consistent analysis of VCSELs,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

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J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
[Crossref]

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A. Schleife, C. Rödl, F. Fuchs, K. Hannewald, and F. Bechstedt, “Optical absorption in degenerately doped semiconductors: Mott transition or Mahan excitons? ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236405 (2011).
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P. Nozières and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Bose condensation in an attractive fermion gas: from weak to strong coupling superconductivity,” J. Low Temp. Phys. 59, 195–211 (1985).
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H. Zhang, G. Mrozynski, A. Wallrabenstein, and J. Schrage, “Analysis of transverse mode competition of VCSELs based on a spatially independent model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 18–24 (2004).
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A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Dynamics of transverse mode competition in vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 115, 297–302 (1995).
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P. P. Vasil’ev and I. V. Smetanin, “Condensation of electron-hole pairs in a degenerate semiconductor at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 125206 (2006).
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S. Smolka, W. Wuester, F. Haupt, S. Faelt, W. Wegscheider, and A. Imamoglu, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Science 346, 332–335 (2014).
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B. R. Bennett, R. A. Soref, and J. A. del Alamo, “Carrier-induced change in refractive index of InP, GaAs and InGaAsP,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 113–122 (1990).
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C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402–1409 (1991).
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M. H. Szymanska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Keeling, P. R. Eastham, M. H. Szymanska, and P. B. Littlewood, “BCS-BEC crossover in a system of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115320 (2005).
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P. B. Littlewood, G. J. Brown, P. R. Eastham, and M. H. Szymanska, “Some remarks on the ground state of the exciton and exciton-polariton system,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234, 36–49 (2002).
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P. Mandel and M. Tlidi, “Transverse dynamics in cavity nonlinear optics (2000–2003),” J. Opt. B 6, R60–R75 (2004).
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C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
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A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Dynamics of transverse mode competition in vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 115, 297–302 (1995).
[Crossref]

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Spatial holeburning effects on the dynamics of vertical cavity surface-emitting laser diodes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1423–1431 (1995).
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D. L. Boiko and P. P. Vasil’ev, “Superradiance dynamics in semiconductor laser diode structures,” Opt. Express 20, 9501–9515 (2012).
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P. P. Vasil’ev, “Femtosecond superradiant emission in inorganic semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076501 (2009).
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P. P. Vasil’ev and I. V. Smetanin, “Condensation of electron-hole pairs in a degenerate semiconductor at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 74, 125206 (2006).
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M. Colocci, M. Gurioli, and A. Vinattieri, “Thermal ionization of excitons in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2809–2812 (1990).
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C. J. Chang-Hasnain, J. P. Harbison, G. Hasnain, A. C. Von Lehmen, L. T. Florez, and N. G. Stoffel, “Dynamic, polarization, and transverse mode characteristics of vertical cavity surface emitting lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1402–1409 (1991).
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H. Zhang, G. Mrozynski, A. Wallrabenstein, and J. Schrage, “Analysis of transverse mode competition of VCSELs based on a spatially independent model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 18–24 (2004).
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K. Cong, Q. Zhang, Y. Wang, G. T. Noe, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Dicke superradiance in solids,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 33, C80–C101 (2016).
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K. Cong, Y. Wang, J.-H. H. Kim, G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Superfluorescence from photoexcited semiconductor quantum wells: magnetic field, temperature, and excitation power dependence,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 235448 (2015).
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J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
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R. Sarzala, T. Czyszanowski, M. Wasiak, M. Dems, L. Piskorski, W. Nakwaski, and K. Panajotov, “Numerical self-consistent analysis of VCSELs,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

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S. Smolka, W. Wuester, F. Haupt, S. Faelt, W. Wegscheider, and A. Imamoglu, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Science 346, 332–335 (2014).
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O. Buccafusca, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, S. Feld, C. Wilmsen, V. Morozov, and R. Leibenguth, “Transverse mode dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 590 (1996).
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J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
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S. Smolka, W. Wuester, F. Haupt, S. Faelt, W. Wegscheider, and A. Imamoglu, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Science 346, 332–335 (2014).
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F.-K. Hsu, W. Xie, Y.-S. Lee, S.-D. Lin, and C. W. Lai, “Transient dual-energy lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15347 (2015).
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F.-K. Hsu, W. Xie, Y.-S. Lee, S.-D. Lin, and C. W. Lai, “Ultrafast spin-polarized lasing in a highly photoexcited semiconductor microcavity at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 195312 (2015).
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M. Yamaguchi, R. Nii, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generating functional approach for spontaneous coherence in semiconductor electron-hole-photon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115129 (2015).
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M. Yamaguchi, K. Kamide, R. Nii, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Second thresholds in BEC-BCS-laser crossover of exciton-polariton systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026404 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Kamide, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ogawa, “Fano-resonance gain by dephasing electron-hole cooper pairs in semiconductors,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093706 (2012).
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M. Yamaguchi, R. Nii, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generating functional approach for spontaneous coherence in semiconductor electron-hole-photon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115129 (2015).
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M. Yamaguchi, K. Kamide, R. Nii, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Second thresholds in BEC-BCS-laser crossover of exciton-polariton systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026404 (2013).
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C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yoshita, M.

K. Kamide, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ogawa, “Fano-resonance gain by dephasing electron-hole cooper pairs in semiconductors,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093706 (2012).
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S. V. Zaitsev, L. A. Graham, D. L. Huffaker, N. Y. Gordeev, V. I. Kopchatov, L. Y. Karachinsky, I. I. Novikov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Superradiance in semiconductors,” Semiconductors 33, 1309–1314 (1999).
[Crossref]

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H. Zhang, G. Mrozynski, A. Wallrabenstein, and J. Schrage, “Analysis of transverse mode competition of VCSELs based on a spatially independent model,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 18–24 (2004).
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J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Technol. (1)

R. Sarzala, T. Czyszanowski, M. Wasiak, M. Dems, L. Piskorski, W. Nakwaski, and K. Panajotov, “Numerical self-consistent analysis of VCSELs,” Adv. Opt. Technol. 2012, 1–17 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

O. Buccafusca, J. L. A. Chilla, J. J. Rocca, S. Feld, C. Wilmsen, V. Morozov, and R. Leibenguth, “Transverse mode dynamics in vertical cavity surface emitting lasers excited by fast electrical pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 590 (1996).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Grundl, P. Debernardi, M. Muller, C. Grasse, P. Ebert, K. Geiger, M. Ortsiefer, G. Bohm, R. Meyer, and M.-C. Amann, “Record single-mode, high-power VCSELs by inhibition of spatial hole burning,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1700913 (2013).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

C. H. Chong and J. Sarma, “Lasing mode selection in vertical-cavity surface emitting-laser diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 5, 761–764 (1993).
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J. Appl. Phys. (3)

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J. Low Temp. Phys. (1)

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J. Opt. B (1)

P. Mandel and M. Tlidi, “Transverse dynamics in cavity nonlinear optics (2000–2003),” J. Opt. B 6, R60–R75 (2004).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. (1)

K. Kamide, M. Yoshita, H. Akiyama, M. Yamaguchi, and T. Ogawa, “Fano-resonance gain by dephasing electron-hole cooper pairs in semiconductors,” J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093706 (2012).
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Nat. Phys. (1)

G. T. N. Noe, J.-H. Kim, J. Lee, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, S. A. McGill, D. H. Reitze, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Giant superfluorescent bursts from a semiconductor magneto-plasma,” Nat. Phys. 8, 219–224 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

C. W. Lai, N. Y. Kim, S. Utsunomiya, G. Roumpos, H. Deng, M. D. Fraser, T. Byrnes, P. Recher, N. Kumada, T. Fujisawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Coherent zero-state and π-state in an exciton-polariton condensate array,” Nature 450, 529–532 (2007).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Valle, J. Sarma, and K. A. Shore, “Dynamics of transverse mode competition in vertical cavity surface emitting laser diodes,” Opt. Commun. 115, 297–302 (1995).
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Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. (2)

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Phys. Rev. B (6)

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[Crossref]

K. Cong, Y. Wang, J.-H. H. Kim, G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Superfluorescence from photoexcited semiconductor quantum wells: magnetic field, temperature, and excitation power dependence,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 235448 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Keeling, P. R. Eastham, M. H. Szymanska, and P. B. Littlewood, “BCS-BEC crossover in a system of microcavity polaritons,” Phys. Rev. B 72, 115320 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Yamaguchi, R. Nii, K. Kamide, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Generating functional approach for spontaneous coherence in semiconductor electron-hole-photon systems,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 115129 (2015).
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Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

M. Yamaguchi, K. Kamide, R. Nii, T. Ogawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Second thresholds in BEC-BCS-laser crossover of exciton-polariton systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 026404 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. P. Reithmaier, M. Röhner, H. Zull, F. Schäfer, A. Forchel, P. A. Knipp, and T. L. Reinecke, “Size dependence of confined optical modes in photonic quantum dots,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 378–381 (1997).
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M. H. Szymanska, J. Keeling, and P. B. Littlewood, “Nonequilibrium quantum condensation in an incoherently pumped dissipative system,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 230602 (2006).
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M. Wouters and I. Carusotto, “Excitations in a nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensate of exciton polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 140402 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Schleife, C. Rödl, F. Fuchs, K. Hannewald, and F. Bechstedt, “Optical absorption in degenerately doped semiconductors: Mott transition or Mahan excitons? ” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 236405 (2011).
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Phys. Status Solidi B (3)

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P. B. Littlewood, G. J. Brown, P. R. Eastham, and M. H. Szymanska, “Some remarks on the ground state of the exciton and exciton-polariton system,” Phys. Status Solidi B 234, 36–49 (2002).
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Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

P. P. Vasil’ev, “Femtosecond superradiant emission in inorganic semiconductors,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 72, 076501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

F.-K. Hsu, W. Xie, Y.-S. Lee, S.-D. Lin, and C. W. Lai, “Transient dual-energy lasing in a semiconductor microcavity,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15347 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Kim and G. T. Noe, S. A. McGill, Y. Wang, A. K. Wójcik, A. A. Belyanin, and J. Kono, “Fermi-edge superfluorescence from a quantum-degenerate electron-hole gas,” Sci. Rep. 3, 3283 (2013).

Science (1)

S. Smolka, W. Wuester, F. Haupt, S. Faelt, W. Wegscheider, and A. Imamoglu, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas,” Science 346, 332–335 (2014).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

S. W. Koch, F. Jahnke, and W. W. Chow, “Physics of semiconductor microcavity lasers,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 739–751 (1995).
[Crossref]

Semiconductors (1)

S. V. Zaitsev, L. A. Graham, D. L. Huffaker, N. Y. Gordeev, V. I. Kopchatov, L. Y. Karachinsky, I. I. Novikov, and P. S. Kop’ev, “Superradiance in semiconductors,” Semiconductors 33, 1309–1314 (1999).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

L. V. Keldysh, Macroscopic Coherent States of Excitons in Semiconductors (Cambridge University, 1995), Chap. 12, pp. 246–280.

A. V. Andreev, V. I. Emel’yanov, and Y. A. Il’inskii, Cooperative Effects in Optics: Superradiance and Phase Transitions (IOP, 1993).

R. Zimmermann, Many-Particle Theory of Highly Excited Semiconductors (BG Teubner, 1988).

Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1: PDF (4582 KB)      Supplementary Material

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Visualization of the macroscopic harmonic states. (a) Intensity image of the ring-shaped pump laser beam. (b) Photoluminescence (PL) image under a pump flux of about 1.3 P th , where the threshold pump flux P th = 1.8 × 10 8 photons per pulse. The white dashed line represents the intensity peak of the pump. PL emerges at the center with a minimal overlap with the annular pump laser beam. (c)–(d) r -space imaging spectra at P = 0.8 P th and 1.3 P th . The black dashed line represents the harmonic confining potential V ( x ) , whereas the white lines represent the spatial probability distributions of the lowest three states of a corresponding harmonic oscillator. (e)–(f) k -space imaging spectra. The energy splitting is ω 2    meV , consistent with the quantized energy of a quantum oscillator for cavity photons with an effective mass m c * = 3 × 10 5    m e , as determined by the E versus k dispersion (dotted gray line). The quantized modes spectrally blue-shift about 1 meV from P = 0.8 to 1.3 P th , whereas the quantized energy splitting remains the same. The potential and spectral shifts are due to a density-dependent increase in the chemical potential of the high-density e-h plasma in the reservoir.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Quantized states in optically controlled confining potentials. K -space imaging spectra below-threshold (a)–(b) and above-threshold (d)–(e) for two double-hump-shaped pump beams with peak-to-peak distances of 5 μm and 3 μm, respectively. For comparison, the k -space imaging spectra under a flat-top pump beam are shown in (c) and (f). The corresponding r -space images and spectra are shown in Supplement 1, Fig. S2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Dynamics. (a) Time-dependent luminescence in k -space at P = 1.0 , 1.1, 1.2, and 1.6 P th . The E 3 , E 2 , and E 1 states appear sequentially with the increasing pump flux. The rise times decrease with the increasing pump flux for all states. (b) Time-dependent spectra in r -space. The false color represents normalized intensities.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Density dependence. (a) Temporally and spectrally integrated emission flux versus the pump flux. All three modes display nonlinear increases in intensity by more than two orders of magnitude and saturate at 1.1, 1.2, and 1.3 P th , respectively. (b) Peak energy (solid shapes) and linewidths 2 Δ E (error bars) versus pump flux. These states spectrally blue-shift by 1 to 4 meV. The spectral linewidths ( Δ E ) and pulsewidths ( Δ t ) are reciprocal with a product of Δ E × Δ t 4 ( ) for E 3 and E 1 ( E 2 ), which is closed to the uncertainty (Fourier-transform) limit. (c) Rise time versus pump flux for the three states E 1 (blue), E 2 (red), and E 3 (black). The error bar represents 2 Δ t .
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Polarization. Polarized radiation spectra at k = 0 for P = 1.3 P th under a circularly polarized ( σ + ) pump. Black and red curves represent the co-circular ( I + ) and cross-circular ( I ) components, respectively. The magnitudes of the time- and spectrally integrated degrees of circular polarization [ ρ ¯ c ( I + I ) / ( I + + I ) ] for the lowest three states are also indicated.

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