Abstract

Lensless imaging with short-wavelength light is a promising method for achieving high-resolution, chemically sensitive images of a wide variety of samples. The use of 13 nm illumination is of particular interest for materials science and the imaging of next-generation nanofabricated devices. Prior to this work, there was an unmet need for a microscope that can image general samples with extreme ultraviolet light, which requires a reflection geometry. Here, we fulfill this need by performing lensless imaging using a 13 nm high-harmonic beam at grazing incidence, where most materials are reflective. Furthermore, we demonstrate to our knowledge the first 13 nm reflection-mode lensless microscope on a tabletop by using a compact high-harmonic generation source. Additionally, we present an analytic formalism that predicts when general lensless imaging geometries will yield Nyquist sampled data. Our grazing-incidence ptychographic approach, which we call GLIDER, provides the first route for achieving wide field-of-view, high-resolution, lensless images of general samples with extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray light.

© 2017 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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References

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2017 (4)

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” Proc. SPIE 10143, 101431O (2017).
[Crossref]

A. Maiden, D. Johnson, and P. Li, “Further improvements to the ptychographical iterative engine,” Optica 4, 736–745 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (4)

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24, 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 035202 (2016).
[Crossref]

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (1)

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

2011 (1)

2010 (1)

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

B. L. Henke, E. M. Gullikson, and J. C. Davis, “X-ray interactions: photoabsorption, scattering, transmission, and reflection at E = 50-30,000 eV, Z = 1-92,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 54, 181–342 (1993).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1952 (1)

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. 5, 843 (1952).
[Crossref]

1949 (1)

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. IRE 37, 10–21 (1949).
[Crossref]

Adams, D. E.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24, 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, F. Dennis, E. R. Shanblatt, J. M. Shaw, W. Chao, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. F. Gardner, B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, L. S. Martin, D. E. Adams, F. Salmassi, E. Gullikson, H. Kapteyn, and M. Murnane, “High numerical aperture reflection mode coherent diffraction microscopy using off-axis apertured illumination,” Opt. Express 20, 19050–19059 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aeppli, G.

M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Amano, T.

T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 035202 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Barty, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Batey, D. J.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Beerlink, A.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Benner, W. H.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bergh, M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

Bevis, C. S.

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bogan, M. J.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bostedt, C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boutet, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

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M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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London, R. A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Maia, F. R. N. C.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Maiden, A.

Maiden, A. M.

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
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A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
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A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
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Marchesini, S.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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Martin, L. S.

Miao, J.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
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J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
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I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” Proc. SPIE 10143, 101431O (2017).
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I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” Proc. SPIE 10143, 101431O (2017).
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P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
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Murnane, M.

Murnane, M. M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24, 18745–18754 (2016).
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J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
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M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).
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B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, F. Dennis, E. R. Shanblatt, J. M. Shaw, W. Chao, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 588–592 (2012).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
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D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
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K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24, 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref]

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M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Rajeev, R.

P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajeev, and Y. Ekinci, “Scanning coherent diffractive imaging methods for actinic EUV mask metrology,” J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS MOEMS 15, 034006 (2016).
[Crossref]

Rajendran, R.

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” Proc. SPIE 10143, 101431O (2017).
[Crossref]

Rau, C.

D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

Raymondson, D. A.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Robinson, I. K.

J. Miao, T. Ishikawa, I. K. Robinson, and M. M. Murnane, “Beyond crystallography: diffractive imaging using coherent x-ray light sources,” Science 348, 530–535 (2015).
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X. Huang, H. Yan, R. Harder, Y. Hwu, I. K. Robinson, and Y. S. Chu, “Optimization of overlap uniformness for ptychography,” Opt. Express 22, 12634–12644 (2014).
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D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden, M. J. Humphry, F. Zhang, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Superresolution imaging via ptychography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 28, 604–612 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. M. Maiden and J. M. Rodenburg, “An improved ptychographical phase retrieval algorithm for diffractive imaging,” Ultramicroscopy 109, 1256–1262 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. M. Rodenburg and H. M. L. Faulkner, “A phase retrieval algorithm for shifting illumination,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85, 4795–4797 (2004).
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Salditt, T.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

Sandberg, R. L.

R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sayre, D.

J. Miao, P. Charalambous, J. Kirz, and D. Sayre, “Extending the methodology of x-ray crystallography to allow imaging of micrometre-sized non-crystalline specimens,” Nature 400, 342–344 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Sayre, “Some implications of a theorem due to Shannon,” Acta Crystallogr. 5, 843 (1952).
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Schneider, J. R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Seaberg, M. D.

Seaberg, M. H.

Seibert, M. M.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Shanblatt, E. R.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
[Crossref]

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, M. H. Seaberg, E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, R. Karl, C. A. Mancuso, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and D. E. Adams, “Ptychographic hyperspectral spectromicroscopy with an extreme ultraviolet high harmonic comb,” Opt. Express 24, 18745–18754 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. D. Seaberg, B. Zhang, D. F. Gardner, E. R. Shanblatt, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and D. E. Adams, “Tabletop nanometer extreme ultraviolet imaging in an extended reflection mode using coherent Fresnel ptychography,” Optica 1, 39–44 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Zhang, M. D. Seaberg, D. E. Adams, F. Dennis, E. R. Shanblatt, J. M. Shaw, W. Chao, E. M. Gullikson, F. Salmassi, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Full field tabletop EUV coherent diffractive imaging in a transmission geometry,” Opt. Express 21, 21970–21980 (2013).
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Shannon, C. E.

C. E. Shannon, “Communication in the presence of noise,” Proc. IRE 37, 10–21 (1949).
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Shapiro, D. A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shaw, J. M.

Spence, J. C. H.

S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
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Spielmann, C.

Spiller, E.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Strzalka, J.

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 588–592 (2012).
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Sun, T.

T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 588–592 (2012).
[Crossref]

Szöke, A.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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Tanksalvala, M.

D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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Tanksalvala, M. D.

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
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Thibault, P.

K. Giewekemeyer, P. Thibault, S. Kalbfleisch, A. Beerlink, C. M. Kewish, M. Dierolf, F. Pfeiffer, and T. Salditt, “Quantitative biological imaging by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 529–534 (2010).
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Timneanu, N.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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R. L. Sandberg, A. Paul, D. A. Raymondson, S. Hadrich, D. M. Gaudiosi, J. Holtsnider, R. I. Tobey, O. Cohen, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Lensless diffractive imaging using tabletop coherent high-harmonic soft-x-ray beams,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 098103 (2007).
[Crossref]

Treusch, R.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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M. Holler, M. Guizar-Sicairos, E. H. Tsai, R. Dinapoli, E. Muller, O. Bunk, J. Raabe, and G. Aeppli, “High-resolution non-destructive three-dimensional imaging of integrated circuits,” Nature 543, 402–406 (2017).
[Crossref]

Tschentscher, T.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vartanian, V. H.

E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
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D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
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T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
[Crossref]

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D. J. Batey, T. B. Edo, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Reciprocal-space up-sampling from real-space oversampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 89, 043812 (2014).
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T. B. Edo, D. J. Batey, A. M. Maiden, C. Rau, U. Wagner, Z. D. Pešić, T. A. Waigh, and J. M. Rodenburg, “Sampling in x-ray ptychography,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 053850 (2013).
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T. Sun, Z. Jiang, J. Strzalka, L. Ocola, and J. Wang, “Three-dimensional coherent x-ray surface scattering imaging near total external reflection,” Nat. Photonics 6, 588–592 (2012).
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T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 035202 (2016).
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S. Marchesini, H. He, H. N. Chapman, S. P. Hau-Riege, A. Noy, M. R. Howells, U. Weierstall, and J. C. H. Spence, “X-ray image reconstruction from a diffraction pattern alone,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 140101 (2003).
[Crossref]

Woods, B. W.

H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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T. Harada, H. Hashimoto, T. Amano, H. Kinoshita, and T. Watanabe, “Actual defect observation results of an extreme-ultraviolet blank mask by coherent diffraction imaging,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 035202 (2016).
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E. R. Shanblatt, C. L. Porter, D. F. Gardner, G. F. Mancini, R. M. Karl, M. D. Tanksalvala, C. S. Bevis, V. H. Vartanian, H. C. Kapteyn, D. E. Adams, and M. M. Murnane, “Quantitative chemically specific coherent diffractive imaging of reactions at buried interfaces with few nanometer precision,” Nano Lett. 16, 5444–5450 (2016).
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D. F. Gardner, M. Tanksalvala, E. R. Shanblatt, X. Zhang, B. R. Galloway, C. L. Porter, R. Karl Jr., C. Bevis, D. E. Adams, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and G. F. Mancini, “Subwavelength coherent imaging of periodic samples using a 13.5  nm tabletop high-harmonic light source,” Nat. Photonics 11, 259–263 (2017).
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H. N. Chapman, A. Barty, M. J. Bogan, S. Boutet, M. Frank, S. P. Hau-Riege, S. Marchesini, B. W. Woods, S. Bajt, W. H. Benner, R. A. London, E. Plönjes, M. Kuhlmann, R. Treusch, S. Düsterer, T. Tschentscher, J. R. Schneider, E. Spiller, T. Möller, C. Bostedt, M. Hoener, D. A. Shapiro, K. O. Hodgson, D. van der Spoel, F. Burmeister, M. Bergh, C. Caleman, G. Huldt, M. M. Seibert, F. R. N. C. Maia, R. W. Lee, A. Szöke, N. Timneanu, and J. Hajdu, “Femtosecond diffractive imaging with a soft-x-ray free-electron laser,” Nat. Phys. 2, 839–843 (2006).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Mochi, P. Helfenstein, I. Mohacsi, R. Rajendran, S. Yoshitake, and Y. Ekinci, “RESCAN: an actinic lensless microscope for defect inspection of EUV reticles,” Proc. SPIE 10143, 101431O (2017).
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Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Supplement 1       Supplemental information with derivation of spatially dependent oversampling formalism, description of supporting simulations, and details of reconstruction process.
» Visualization 1       Spatially Dependent Oversampling vs. Incidence Angle Movie

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) 13 nm reflection-mode lensless microscope design (GLIDER). (b) Comparison of diffraction patterns due to a small square beam at normal incidence (left), the resulting wide projected beam due to tilting the sample (middle), and the post-TPC diffraction (right) identical to diffraction due to a wide beam at normal incidence. (c) 13 nm ptychographic unwrapped phase reconstruction.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Results of new analytic spatially dependent oversampling formalism. Representative diffraction patterns (logarithmic colorscale) from (a) a round beam at normal incidence versus (d) grazing incidence. In (b) and (e), the theoretical spatially dependent oversampling on a 2048×2048 pixel camera with 13.5 μm square pixels is shown for a high-NA geometry with a round beam, where σ=2 according to Eq. (1). Spatially dependent oversampling is compared for (b) normal incidence versus (e) grazing incidence. In (c) and (f), the theoretical oversampling is shown on the same detector for the experimental geometry used in this work (z=84.4  mm, beam with height 6.5 μm and width 11.6 μm at normal incidence). Images (b) and (c) are at normal incidence; (e) and (f) are at grazing incidence (α=9.5°). The oversampling predicted by Eq. (1) for the geometries in (b), (c), (e), and (f) is shown on the colorbar. See Visualization 1.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) EUV ptychography intensity image, full field of view. (b) SEM with rectangular darkening due to hydrocarbon burn-on from prior SEM imaging completed after the EUV ptychography data was obtained. (c) EUV ptychography unwrapped phase image, zoomed in to reveal detail. (d) SEM image, zoomed in to reveal detail. Images (a) and (b) share a scale bar, as do images (c) and (d); all share the colorbar. Note that the roughly round discoloration visible in all of these images on the left side of the labyrinth-like structure and on the substrate beneath it is due to hydrocarbon deposition. This deposition resulted from extensive previous imaging experiments on this sample using a different EUV microscope that illuminated the sample in these regions with focused illumination.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) GLIDER intensity image overlaid with the maximum extent during the scan of the beam’s center (magenta), its 1/e2 diameter (orange), and its 1/e4 diameter (white). (b) Reconstructed beam intensity. Scale bar and colorbar are shared. Note that, in the experiment, the beam was horizontal and the sample was tilted.

Equations (1)

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σ=λzpD2,

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