Abstract

Stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy generates super-resolved images of single cells by point-wise depletion of fluorescence around a small focal volume. Scanned light sheet microscopy, on the other side, generates images line-wise by scanning a weakly focused laser beam through thousands of scattering cells. Here we address the question of whether fluorescence from an excitation beam can be depleted by a STED beam over tens of micrometers while propagating through scattering material. Therefore, we use two self-reconstructing Bessel beams in continuous wave mode with a different angular momentum for fluorescence excitation and depletion along a distance of 110 μm. We show that despite significant scattering at various arrangements of microspheres embedded in agarose gel and despite strong losses in spatial coherence, it is possible to generate a sufficiently good overlap of both beam intensities. Without affecting the self-healing capability of the illumination photons in the Bessel beam’s ring system, the emission of fluorescence photons thereof can be strongly suppressed. This results in a needle-like fluorescence distribution inside scattering media, providing new perspectives for fundamental principles and applications in microscopy and metrology.

© 2017 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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2016 (3)

T. Meinert, O. Tietz, K. J. Palme, and A. Rohrbach, “Separation of ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons in confocal light-sheet microscopy of arabidopsis roots,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30378 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Gohn-Kreuz and A. Rohrbach, “Light-sheet generation in inhomogeneous media using self-reconstructing beams and the STED-principle,” Opt. Express 24, 5855–5865 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

2015 (3)

M. Friedrich and G. S. Harms, “Axial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of a sheet illumination microscope with stimulated emission depletion,” J Biomed. Opt. 20, 106006 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Li, D. R. Beaulieu, H. Paudel, R. Barankov, T. G. Bifano, and J. Mertz, “Conjugate adaptive optics in widefield microscopy with an extended-source wavefront sensor,” Optica 2, 682–688 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Zhang, P. M. Goodwin, and J. H. Werner, “Fast, super resolution imaging via Bessel-beam stimulated emission depletion microscopy,” Opt. Express 22, 12398–12409 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Scheul, I. Wang, and J.-C. Vial, “STED-SPIM made simple,” Opt. Express 22, 30852–30864 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (3)

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Friedrich, Q. Gan, V. Ermolayev, and G. S. Harms, “STED-SPIM: stimulated emission depletion improves sheet illumination microscopy resolution,” Biophys. J. 100, L43–L45 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams,” Opt. Express 18, 24229–24244 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Leutenegger, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Analytical description of STED microscopy performance,” Opt. Express 18, 26417–26429 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4, 780–785 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2006 (1)

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137–17142 (2006).

1994 (1)

1991 (1)

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-Dimaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

Alessandri, K.

Alfano, R. R.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-Dimaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
[Crossref]

Balázs, B.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Barankov, R.

Beaulieu, D. R.

Bembenek, J. N.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, J.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Besir, C.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Betzig, E.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bifano, T. G.

Blum, C.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boccara, A. C.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bohme, R.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Carminati, R.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.-C.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, W.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

Davidson, M. W.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

de Medeiros, G.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Denk, W.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137–17142 (2006).

Eggeling, C.

Engelhardt, J.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

English, B. P.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ermolayev, V.

M. Friedrich, Q. Gan, V. Ermolayev, and G. S. Harms, “STED-SPIM: stimulated emission depletion improves sheet illumination microscopy resolution,” Biophys. J. 100, L43–L45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fahrbach, F. O.

F. O. Fahrbach, V. Gurchenkov, K. Alessandri, P. Nassoy, and A. Rohrbach, “Light-sheet microscopy in thick media using scanned Bessel beams and two-photon fluorescence excitation,” Opt. Express 21, 13824–13839 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “A line scanned light-sheet microscope with phase shaped self-reconstructing beams,” Opt. Express 18, 24229–24244 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4, 780–785 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feit, M. D.

Feng, S.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Fink, M.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fleck, J. A.

Freund, I.

I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, M.

M. Friedrich and G. S. Harms, “Axial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of a sheet illumination microscope with stimulated emission depletion,” J Biomed. Opt. 20, 106006 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Friedrich, Q. Gan, V. Ermolayev, and G. S. Harms, “STED-SPIM: stimulated emission depletion improves sheet illumination microscopy resolution,” Biophys. J. 100, L43–L45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fritz-Laylin, L.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Galbraith, C. G.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Galbraith, J. A.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gan, Q.

M. Friedrich, Q. Gan, V. Ermolayev, and G. S. Harms, “STED-SPIM: stimulated emission depletion improves sheet illumination microscopy resolution,” Biophys. J. 100, L43–L45 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gao, L.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gigan, S.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gohn-Kreuz, C.

Goodwin, P. M.

Grill, S. W.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Gurchenkov, V.

Hammer, J. A.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Hanne, J.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

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M. Friedrich and G. S. Harms, “Axial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of a sheet illumination microscope with stimulated emission depletion,” J Biomed. Opt. 20, 106006 (2015).
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M. Friedrich, Q. Gan, V. Ermolayev, and G. S. Harms, “STED-SPIM: stimulated emission depletion improves sheet illumination microscopy resolution,” Biophys. J. 100, L43–L45 (2011).
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Hell, S. W.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

M. Leutenegger, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “Analytical description of STED microscopy performance,” Opt. Express 18, 26417–26429 (2010).
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S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19, 780–782 (1994).
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Ho, P. P.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-Dimaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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Horstmeyer, R.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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Hoyer, P.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Hufnagel, L.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Janetopoulos, C.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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Kiehart, D. P.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Kim, J.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
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Kim, M.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
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Kräusslich, H.-G.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Lagendijk, A.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
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Legant, W. R.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Lerosey, G.

S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
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Leutenegger, M.

Li, J.

Lippincott-Schwartz, J.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Liu, C.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-Dimaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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Liu, Z.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Mack-Bucher, J. A.

M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137–17142 (2006).

Meinert, T.

T. Meinert, O. Tietz, K. J. Palme, and A. Rohrbach, “Separation of ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons in confocal light-sheet microscopy of arabidopsis roots,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30378 (2016).
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Mertz, J.

Milkie, D. E.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
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Mimori-Kiyosue, Y.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Mitchell, D. M.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Mosk, A. P.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
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Mullins, R. D.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Nassoy, P.

Norlin, N.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Palme, K. J.

T. Meinert, O. Tietz, K. J. Palme, and A. Rohrbach, “Separation of ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons in confocal light-sheet microscopy of arabidopsis roots,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30378 (2016).
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Papadopoulos, I. N.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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Park, Q.-H.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
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Paudel, H.

Planchon, T. A.

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
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S. M. Popoff, G. Lerosey, R. Carminati, M. Fink, A. C. Boccara, and S. Gigan, “Measuring the transmission matrix in optics: an approach to the study and control of light propagation in disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 100601 (2010).
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Reymann, A.-C.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Ritter, A. T.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Rohrbach, A.

Romero, D. P.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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I. Freund, M. Rosenbluh, and S. Feng, “Memory effects in propagation of optical waves through disordered media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2328–2331 (1988).
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M. Rueckel, J. A. Mack-Bucher, and W. Denk, “Adaptive wavefront correction in two-photon microscopy using coherence-gated wavefront sensing,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103, 17137–17142 (2006).

Sahl, S. J.

P. Hoyer, G. de Medeiros, B. Balázs, N. Norlin, C. Besir, J. Hanne, H.-G. Kräusslich, J. Engelhardt, S. J. Sahl, S. W. Hell, and L. Hufnagel, “Breaking the diffraction limit of light-sheet fluorescence microscopy by RESOLFT,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 113, 3442–3446 (2016).

Scheul, T.

Seydoux, G.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shao, L.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Simon, P.

F. O. Fahrbach, P. Simon, and A. Rohrbach, “Microscopy with self-reconstructing beams,” Nat. Photonics 4, 780–785 (2010).
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Tietz, O.

T. Meinert, O. Tietz, K. J. Palme, and A. Rohrbach, “Separation of ballistic and diffusive fluorescence photons in confocal light-sheet microscopy of arabidopsis roots,” Sci. Rep. 6, 30378 (2016).
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Tulu, U. S.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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van Putten, E. G.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
[Crossref]

Vellekoop, I. M.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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Vial, J.-C.

Vos, W. L.

J. Bertolotti, E. G. van Putten, C. Blum, A. Lagendijk, W. L. Vos, and A. P. Mosk, “Non-invasive imaging through opaque scattering layers,” Nature 491, 232–234 (2012).
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Wang, I.

Wang, J. T.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Wang, K.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
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Wang, L.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-Dimaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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Werner, J. H.

Wichmann, J.

Wu, X. S.

B.-C. Chen, W. R. Legant, K. Wang, L. Shao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, C. Janetopoulos, X. S. Wu, J. A. Hammer, Z. Liu, B. P. English, Y. Mimori-Kiyosue, D. P. Romero, A. T. Ritter, J. Lippincott-Schwartz, L. Fritz-Laylin, R. D. Mullins, D. M. Mitchell, J. N. Bembenek, A.-C. Reymann, R. Bohme, S. W. Grill, J. T. Wang, G. Seydoux, U. S. Tulu, D. P. Kiehart, and E. Betzig, “Lattice light-sheet microscopy: Imaging molecules to embryos at high spatiotemporal resolution,” Science 346, 1257998 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

B. Judkewitz, R. Horstmeyer, I. M. Vellekoop, I. N. Papadopoulos, and C. Yang, “Translation correlations in anisotropically scattering media,” Nat. Phys. 11, 684–689 (2015).
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Yoon, C.

M. Kim, Y. Choi, C. Yoon, W. Choi, J. Kim, Q.-H. Park, and W. Choi, “Maximal energy transport through disordered media with the implementation of transmission eigenchannels,” Nat. Photonics 6, 583–587 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

L. Wang, P. P. Ho, C. Liu, G. Zhang, and R. R. Alfano, “Ballistic 2-Dimaging through scattering walls using an ultrafast optical Kerr gate,” Science 253, 769–771 (1991).
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Zhang, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Biophys. J. (1)

M. Friedrich, Q. Gan, V. Ermolayev, and G. S. Harms, “STED-SPIM: stimulated emission depletion improves sheet illumination microscopy resolution,” Biophys. J. 100, L43–L45 (2011).
[Crossref]

J Biomed. Opt. (1)

M. Friedrich and G. S. Harms, “Axial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of a sheet illumination microscope with stimulated emission depletion,” J Biomed. Opt. 20, 106006 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nat. Commun. (1)

F. O. Fahrbach and A. Rohrbach, “Propagation stability of self-reconstructing Bessel beams enables contrast-enhanced imaging in thick media,” Nat. Commun. 3, 632 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nat. Methods (1)

T. A. Planchon, L. Gao, D. E. Milkie, M. W. Davidson, J. A. Galbraith, C. G. Galbraith, and E. Betzig, “Rapid three-dimensional isotropic imaging of living cells using Bessel beam plane illumination,” Nat. Methods 8, 417–423 (2011).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (2)

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» Supplement 1       Supplementary Material
» Visualization 1       Propagation of four beams through glass spheres

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic of measurement principle. (a) Two phase holograms are used to generate the excitation beam (blue arrow and frame) and the depletion beam (yellow), with intensities IEX(r) and IST(r). Both Bessel beams, differing in angular and radial momentum, are superimposed and focused by an objective lens onto a cluster of scattering spheres. After fluorescence depletion, a thin fluorescent light needle with intensity Itot(r) is generated and detected by a perpendicularly arranged objective lens (green arrow and frame). Theoretically obtained intensity line scans illustrate the depletion of the fluorescence in the Bessel beam’s ring system. (b) Numerical simulation of beam propagation and scattering at glass beads (in gray) by the excitation beam (in blue), the depletion beam (in orange) and the remaining needle-like fluorescence of the central beam lobe (in green).
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Photos and sketch of the experimental setup. The excitation beam and the STED beam are projected onto the left and right halves of a SLM and are then superimposed by beam splitters (BS). The angular spectra of both beams are projected by a lens L1 onto a scanning mirror (SM) with zeroth order beam block (B). Two lenses (SL and TL) project the tilted angular spectra onto the back focal plane (BFP) of the IO, which focuses the Bessel beams into the sample chamber. The SO images the angular spectrum of the scattered laser light onto a camera (Camsca), whereas the fluorescence generated in the sample chamber is collected by the detection objective (DO) and imaged onto another camera (Camdet).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Beam profiling. (a) A 0.75-μm fluorescent bead embedded in agarose gel is scanned laterally with different beams. (b) Resulting fluorescence images of the 0th order excitation Bessel beam (blue), the 3rd order STED Bessel beam (red) and the combination of both beams (green). (c) Fluorescence line profiles show fluorescence depletion only in the Bessel ring system and small fluorescence excitation by the STED beam itself, which is typically subtracted (-S) in postprocessing from the combination of both beams (Exc/STED-S). (d) Space-dependent probability for spontaneous emission Q(xb) averaged over 19 beads (solid line), and the standard deviation from the mean (shaded area).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Single bead imaging. (a) Different beams are scanned in lateral x-direction across isolated 0.75-μm beads. (b) Bead images in the yz-plane without (blue frame) and with (green frame) fluorescence depletion (STED). (c) Magnification of marked area in (b). (d) Normalized image intensity profiles F(y) without STED beam (blue), with STED beam (green), and the fluorescence bead image of the STED beam alone (red). (e) The 1/e Image widths δy(z) from different bead images at propagation distances between z=12 and z=42  μm without (blue) and with (green) STED beam.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Beam self-reconstruction behind two 8-μm glass spheres. Images F(x,z) of propagating and scattering beams exciting fluorescence in a labeled agarose gel. Image width corresponds to a propagation length of 140 μm. Two unlabeled beads appear dark. (a) Fluorescence image of the Gaussian beam reveals its large diameter and strong deflection at the spheres. Two hypothetic round objects (yellow circles) are images in detection direction, indicated by two elongated PSFs. The real and the ideal images differ significantly. (b) Zeroth order Bessel beam reconstructs its intensity profile after scattering at both spheres. Hypothetic real images are more like the ideal images. (c) In combination with a 3rd order STED Bessel beam, the fluorescence in the ring system can be depleted, despite strong scattering with a reasonable efficiency, as indicated in (f) by the two line scans taken at z1=20  μm and z2=90  μm. Hypothetic real images resemble the ideal images as also visible in Fig. 5(d) without scatterers. (e) Distribution QD(x,z) illustrates the space-dependent efficiency of fluorescence depletion. Scale bar: 10 μm.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Beam propagation over 120 μm through a cluster of beads, fluorescence generation, and STED efficiency. Fluorescing polystyrene beads with 0.35-μm diameter are embedded in agarose gel at concentrations cvol=0.13% (left) and cvol=0.52% (right). Maximum projections of images revealing the intensity profile of (a) a single Bessel beam, (b) a Bessel beam with the STED beam and (c) a Gaussian beam. (d) Space varying depletion efficiency QD(x,z) derived from (b) reaching efficiencies at the first Bessel ring of up to 60%, which is shown by the bright yellow areas. Central parts of (a)–(d) are magnified in (e) and (f) for cvol=0.13% and cvol=0.52%, respectively. (g) Average depletion efficiencies along z in the center and the ring system for the three bead concentrations. (h) Fluorescence line profiles F(x,z0) at z0=30  μm (solid line) and z0=75  μm (dashed line), and corresponding depletion efficiencies QD(x,z0). Profiles are averaged over 60 pixels, that is, Δz6  μm. (i) Axial fluorescence profiles F(x=0,z) for two different concentrations of scatterers averaged over the beam centers of the Bessel beam (left), the Bessel beam with STED (center) and the Gaussian beam (right). (j) Comparison of decay constants for all beam types at three different bead concentrations.

Equations (4)

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E˜(kr,ϕ˜)E˜0·(δ(krk0NA)*exp(kr2/Δkr2))·exp(iϕ˜)
E(r,ϕ)A·J(k0NA·r)·exp(r2·Δkr2)·exp[i(ϕ+kzz)].
F(r)=Fu(r)+Fs(r)Cext(r)·Qfl·(ηu(r)+ηs(r))·(hEX,u(r)+hEX,s(r))=Cext(r)·Qfl·[(ηuhEX,ugood)+(ηshEX,ubad+ηuhEX,sgood+ηshEX,sgood)].
QD(r)=1ηu(r)ηs(r)=(1+IsathST,u(r)+hST,s(r))1.

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