Abstract

We report a high-contrast metastructure (HCM) mirror as a novel beam-shaping element for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The metastructure is monolithically integrated as a part of the VCSEL, working both as a microelectromechanical tunable mirror and output beam shaper. While providing broadband, high reflection to support lasing of the VCSEL, its angular transmission characteristics can be tailored to shape the angular profile of the output beam. Various far-field emission patterns are demonstrated for single-mode, 1550 nm VCSELs with different HCM designs. We further demonstrated two-faced VCSELs with different mode profiles from their two mirrors, for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. This bifunctional integrated metastructure opens new avenues to engineer a VCSEL’s emission properties, and shows great promise for applications that desire highly compact emitters integrated on a chip to provide versatile functionalities.

© 2018 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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2017 (3)

2016 (1)

W. Yang, J. K. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, and R. Yuste, Neuron 89, 269 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. A. Gerke, K. W. Ng, Y. Rao, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Sci. Rep. 5, 13700 (2015).
[Crossref]

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Li, D. B. Phillips, X. Wang, Y. D. Ho, L. Chen, X. Zhou, J. Zhu, S. Yu, and X. Cai, Optica 2, 547 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

A. Liu, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Express 22, 11804 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (2)

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Koyama and X. Gu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701510 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2010 (4)

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausolei, Nat. Photonics 4, 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 12606 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 15461 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

R. Szweda, III-Vs Rev. 19, 34 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, Nature 436, 370 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

Y. Fu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 424 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

Abada, S.

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Arbabi, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bagheri, M.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Ball, A. J.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Bardinal, V.

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Beausolei, R. G.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausolei, Nat. Photonics 4, 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bengtsson, J.

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bimberg, D.

A. Liu, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Express 22, 11804 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, W. Zheng, and D. Bimberg, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AF2A.52.

Cai, X.

Camps, T.

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Carrillo-Reid, L.

W. Yang, J. K. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, and R. Yuste, Neuron 89, 269 (2016).
[Crossref]

Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

K. Li, C. Chase, P. Qiao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 25, 11844 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Qiao, K. Li, K. T. Cook, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Lett. 42, 823 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Qiao, K. Cook, K. Li, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700516 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. A. Gerke, K. W. Ng, Y. Rao, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Sci. Rep. 5, 13700 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain and W. Yang, Adv. Opt. Photon. 4, 379 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 15461 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 12606 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 978 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chase, C.

K. Li, C. Chase, P. Qiao, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 25, 11844 (2017).
[Crossref]

W. Yang, S. A. Gerke, K. W. Ng, Y. Rao, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Sci. Rep. 5, 13700 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 15461 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Lu, F. G. Sedgwick, V. Karagodsky, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 12606 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

Chiou, P. Y.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, Nature 436, 370 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chitgarha, M. R.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cook, K.

P. Qiao, K. Cook, K. Li, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1700516 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cook, K. T.

Corbett, B.

J. Justice, P. Lambkin, B. Roycroft, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE5824605685 (2005).
[Crossref]

Daran, E.

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Doucet, J.-B.

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Faraon, A.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Fattal, D.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausolei, Nat. Photonics 4, 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fiorentino, M.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausolei, Nat. Photonics 4, 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fu, Y.

Y. Fu, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 13, 424 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gaylord, T. K.

Gerke, S. A.

W. Yang, S. A. Gerke, K. W. Ng, Y. Rao, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Sci. Rep. 5, 13700 (2015).
[Crossref]

Gu, X.

F. Koyama and X. Gu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701510 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Tanabe, X. Gu, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2015), paper SW1F.2.

Heideman, R. G.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ho, Y. D.

Hofmann, W.

Horie, Y.

A. Arbabi, Y. Horie, A. J. Ball, M. Bagheri, and A. Faraon, Nat. Commun. 6, 7069 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huang, M. C. Y.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Justice, J.

J. Justice, P. Lambkin, B. Roycroft, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE5824605685 (2005).
[Crossref]

Karagodsky, V.

Karlsson, M.

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Khaleghi, S.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koyama, F.

F. Koyama and X. Gu, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701510 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Tanabe, X. Gu, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2015), paper SW1F.2.

Lambeck, P. V.

R. G. Heideman and P. V. Lambeck, Sens. Actuators B 61, 100 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lambkin, P.

J. Justice, P. Lambkin, B. Roycroft, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE5824605685 (2005).
[Crossref]

Larsson, A.

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Leichle, T.

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Levallois, C.

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

Li, J.

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausolei, Nat. Photonics 4, 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, K.

Liu, A.

A. Liu, W. Hofmann, and D. Bimberg, Opt. Express 22, 11804 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Liu, W. Zheng, and D. Bimberg, in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference (2016), paper AF2A.52.

Lu, F.

Martinsson, H.

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Matsutani, A.

K. Tanabe, X. Gu, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2015), paper SW1F.2.

Miller, J. K.

W. Yang, J. K. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, and R. Yuste, Neuron 89, 269 (2016).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Ng, K. W.

W. Yang, S. A. Gerke, K. W. Ng, Y. Rao, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Sci. Rep. 5, 13700 (2015).
[Crossref]

Nikolajeff, F.

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Ohta, A. T.

P. Y. Chiou, A. T. Ohta, and M. C. Wu, Nature 436, 370 (2005).
[Crossref]

Paninski, L.

W. Yang, J. K. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, and R. Yuste, Neuron 89, 269 (2016).
[Crossref]

Peng, Z.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Fattal, J. Li, Z. Peng, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausolei, Nat. Photonics 4, 466 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phillips, D. B.

Pnevmatikakis, E.

W. Yang, J. K. Miller, L. Carrillo-Reid, E. Pnevmatikakis, L. Paninski, and R. Yuste, Neuron 89, 269 (2016).
[Crossref]

Qiao, P.

Rao, Y.

W. Yang, S. A. Gerke, K. W. Ng, Y. Rao, C. Chase, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Sci. Rep. 5, 13700 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Chase, Y. Rao, W. Hofmann, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, Opt. Express 18, 15461 (2010).
[Crossref]

Reig, B.

V. Bardinal, T. Camps, B. Reig, S. Abada, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 2700308 (2015).
[Crossref]

Roycroft, B.

J. Justice, P. Lambkin, B. Roycroft, and B. Corbett, Proc. SPIE5824605685 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sedgwick, F. G.

Sorin, W. V.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Szweda, R.

R. Szweda, III-Vs Rev. 19, 34 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tanabe, K.

K. Tanabe, X. Gu, A. Matsutani, and F. Koyama, in Conference on Laser and Electro-Optics, OSA Technical Digest (2015), paper SW1F.2.

Tran, T.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vergnenegre, C.

C. Levallois, V. Bardinal, C. Vergnenegre, T. Leichle, T. Camps, E. Daran, and J.-B. Doucet, Proc. SPIE 6992, 69920W (2010).
[Crossref]

Vo, S.

S. Vo, D. Fattal, W. V. Sorin, Z. Peng, T. Tran, M. Fiorentino, and R. G. Beausoleil, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26, 1375 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vukusic, J.

M. Karlsson, F. Nikolajeff, J. Vukusic, H. Martinsson, J. Bengtsson, and A. Larsson, IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 15, 359 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Willner, A. E.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

Worland, D. P.

Y. Rao, W. Yang, C. Chase, M. C. Y. Huang, D. P. Worland, S. Khaleghi, M. R. Chitgarha, M. Ziyadi, A. E. Willner, and C. J. Chang-Hasnain, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 19, 1701311 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Supplementary Material (1)

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» Supplement 1       Supplement 1 including Fig. S1

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1.

InP-based HCG-VCSEL emitting at around 1550 nm. (a) SEM image of a typical TE HCG-VCSEL device, with a zoomed-in view of the fully suspended HCG surrounded by air. (b) Spectrum and LIV characteristics of a typical TE HCG-VCSEL at 15°C, showing single-mode emission with SMSR of 45 dB, and an output power of 2.4  mW. (c) Schematics of the HCG platform used in this study, InP-based HCG targeting at λ1550  nm with oblique incidence angle θ with respect to the z axis and ϕ with respect to the x axis. (d) Transmission of HCG at Λ=1080  nm for varying airgap a versus incidence angle θ at ϕ=90°, highlighting three designs with distinct angle-dependent transmission characteristics, including (e) Design I with a=490  nm, (f) Design II with a=650  nm, and (g) Design III with a=700  nm, showing the angular dependence of transmission (blue curve) and reflection (red curve).

Fig. 2.
Fig. 2.

Process of far-field emission pattern manipulation with HCG design. (a) The emitted Gaussian light source in spatial domain as g0(x,y). (b) The far-field (E-field) of the Gaussian source, approximated as the Fourier transform of g0(x,y), expressed as G0(kx,ky). (c) The transmission amplitude of HCG versus angles (θ,ϕ). (d) The angular distributed HCG transmission in (c) converted into Fourier domain as T(kx,ky). (e) The resulting far-field intensity distribution denoted as |GF(kx,ky)|2. The example case here shows an HCG with transmission amplitude lower in the center than on the sides, thus yielding a double-lobe far-field pattern instead of Gaussian shape. All figures are calculated with a normalized intensity scale bar as shown in the upper right.

Fig. 3.
Fig. 3.

Far-field patterns for four HCG designs: Design A (Λ=1080  nm,a=480  nm), Design B (Λ=1060  nm,a=680  nm), Design C (Λ=710  nm,a=180  nm), and Design D (Λ=730  nm,a=180  nm), with the corresponding (a)–(d) calculated far-field intensity distributions using the analytical method in Fig. 2, plotted in an θϕ axis system; (e)–(h) simulated far-field intensity distributions using a 3D FDTD tool, plotted in an θϕ axis system; and (i)–(l) measured far-field intensity distributions from fabricated HCG-VCSEL devices based on the designed parameters, showing good agreements with the designed and simulated patterns. All figures are calculated with normalized intensity scale bars as shown in the center.

Fig. 4.
Fig. 4.

VCSELs with versatile functionalities. (a) The cross section of a two-faced single-mode laser, with the top-surface beam shape manipulated by HCG designs while the bottom-surface beam remains a Gaussian shape, validating the single-mode lasing of the VCSEL. (b) HCG-VCSEL arrays emitting at single-mode but with various far-field emission patterns, including single-lobe, double-lobe, triple-lobe, “bow-tie,” “sugar cone,” and “doughnut” shapes. The device image is taken with a 3D confocal optical microscope, and the far-field patterns are captured with an IR camera for each individual device.

Equations (4)

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kx=k0·sinθ·cosϕ,
ky=k0·sinθ·sinϕ,
k0=2π/λ,
GF(kx,ky)=G0(kx,ky)·T(kx,ky).