Abstract

In the far-infrared spectrum between 20 and 60 μm, the free-electron laser (FEL) is the only wavelength-tunable coherent radiation source capable of generating kilowatt to megawatt peak powers with a linewidth of the order of 1%. Here, we report the detection of >70kW radiation power at about 52 μm in a <94ps pulse width from a KTiOPO4 (KTP) off-axis terahertz (THz) parametric oscillator at room temperature, when pumping it with 11.9 mJ energy in a 450 ps pulse from a single-frequency Nd:YAG laser and seeding it with a 14 μJ, 40-GHz-linewidth Stokes pulse from a synchronously pumped KTP parametric generator. When limiting the radiation to a linewidth of 8×104, we measured >45kW radiation power for the far-infrared radiation. With 63% coupling efficiency of the silicon prism atop the KTP crystal, the measured >70 and >45kW far-infrared radiation correspond to >111 and >71kW powers extracted from the KTP crystal of the seeded off-axis THz parametric oscillator. The radiation source accomplished in this work has great potential to become a tabletop and economical alternative for the bulky and expensive far-infrared FELs in national facilities.

© 2019 Optical Society of America under the terms of the OSA Open Access Publishing Agreement

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2019 (1)

2018 (5)

M. Hemmer, G. Cirmi, K. Ravi, F. Reichert, F. Ahr, L. Zapata, O. D. Mücke, A.-L. Calendron, H. Çankaya, D. Schimpf, N. H. Matlis, and F. X. Kärtner, “Cascaded interactions mediated by terahertz radiation,” Opt. Express 26, 12536–12546 (2018).
[Crossref]

K. Murate and K. Kawase, “Perspective: terahertz wave parametric generator and its applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 124, 160901 (2018).
[Crossref]

T. A. Ortega, H. M. Pask, D. J. Spence, and A. J. Lee, “Tunable 3–6  THz polariton laser exceeding 0.1  mW average output power based on crystalline RbTiOPO4,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 24, 5100806 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Y. Ren, D. Xu, L. Tang, Y. He, C. Song, L. Chen, C. Li, C. Yan, and J. Yao, “Energy scaling and extended tunability of a ring cavity terahertz parametric oscillator based on KTiOPO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 27, 114213 (2018).
[Crossref]

Y. He, Y. Wang, D. Xu, M. Nie, C. Yan, L. Tang, J. Shi, J. Feng, D. Yan, H. Liu, B. Teng, H. Feng, and J. Yao, “High-energy and ultra-wideband tunable terahertz source with DAST crystal via difference frequency generation,” Appl. Phys. B 124, 16 (2018).
[Crossref]

2017 (2)

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. A. Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D 50, 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

N. M. Burford and M. O. El-Shenawee, “Review of terahertz photoconductive antenna technology,” Opt. Eng. 56, 010901 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (3)

T. Nagatsuma, G. Ducournau, and C. C. Renaud, “Advances in terahertz communications accelerated by photonics,” Nat. Photonics 10, 371–379 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Yan, Y. Wang, D. Xu, W. Xu, P. Liu, D. Yan, P. Duan, K. Zhong, W. Shi, and J. Yao, “Green laser induced terahertz tuning range expanding in KTiOPO4 terahertz parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 011007 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. H. Wu, Y. C. Chiu, T. D. Wang, G. Zhao, A. Zukauskas, F. Laurell, and Y. C. Huang, “Terahertz parametric generation and amplification from potassium titanyl phosphate in comparison with lithium niobate and lithium tantalate,” Opt. Express 24, 25964–25973 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (3)

G. Tang, Z. Cong, Z. Qin, X. Zhang, W. Wang, D. Wu, N. Li, Q. Fu, Q. Lu, and S. Zhang, “Energy scaling of terahertz-wave parametric sources,” Opt. Express 23, 4144–4152 (2015).
[Crossref]

E. A. Nanni, W. R. Huang, K. H. Hong, K. Ravi, A. Fallahi, G. Moriena, R. J. D. Miller, and F. X. Kärtner, “Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration,” Nat. Commun. 6, 8486 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. N. Kulipanov, E. G. Bagryanskaya, E. N. Chesnokov, Y. Y. Choporova, V. V. Gerasimov, Y. V. Getmanov, S. L. Kiselev, B. A. Knyazev, V. V. Kubarev, S. E. Peltek, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Seredniakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, S. L. Veber, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Novosibirsk free electron laser: facility description and recent experiments,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 798–809 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (5)

2013 (3)

2011 (1)

2009 (1)

B. N. Murdin, “Far-infrared free-electron lasers and their applications,” Contemp. Phys. 50, 391–406 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

K. Y. Kim, A. J. Taylor, J. H. Glownia, and G. Rodriguez, “Coherent control of terahertz supercontinuum generation in ultrafast laser-gas interactions,” Nat. Photonics 2, 605–609 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. D. Wang, S. T. Lin, Y. Y. Lin, A. C. Chiang, and Y. C. Huang, “Forward and backward terahertz-wave difference-frequency generations from periodically poled lithium niobate,” Opt. Express 16, 6471–6478 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

2001 (2)

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science 288, 635–639 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1992 (1)

G. Ramian, “The new UCSB free-electron lasers,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. Phys. Res. A 318, 225–229 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

G. E. Kugel, F. Brehat, B. Wyncke, M. D. Fontana, G. Marnier, C. Carabatos-Nedelec, and J. Mangin, “The vibrational spectrum of a KTiOPO4 single crystal studied by Raman and infrared reflectivity spectroscopy,” J. Phys. C 21, 5565–5583 (1988).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

M. A. Piestrup, R. N. Fleming, and R. H. Pantell, “Continuously tunable submillimeter wave source,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 418–421 (1975).
[Crossref]

Agranat, M. B.

Ahr, F.

Appleby, R.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. A. Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D 50, 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Ashitkov, S. I.

Bagryanskaya, E. G.

G. N. Kulipanov, E. G. Bagryanskaya, E. N. Chesnokov, Y. Y. Choporova, V. V. Gerasimov, Y. V. Getmanov, S. L. Kiselev, B. A. Knyazev, V. V. Kubarev, S. E. Peltek, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Seredniakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, S. L. Veber, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Novosibirsk free electron laser: facility description and recent experiments,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 798–809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Booske, J.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. A. Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D 50, 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Brehat, F.

G. E. Kugel, F. Brehat, B. Wyncke, M. D. Fontana, G. Marnier, C. Carabatos-Nedelec, and J. Mangin, “The vibrational spectrum of a KTiOPO4 single crystal studied by Raman and infrared reflectivity spectroscopy,” J. Phys. C 21, 5565–5583 (1988).
[Crossref]

Burford, N. M.

N. M. Burford and M. O. El-Shenawee, “Review of terahertz photoconductive antenna technology,” Opt. Eng. 56, 010901 (2017).
[Crossref]

Calendron, A.-L.

Canalias, C.

Çankaya, H.

Carabatos-Nedelec, C.

G. E. Kugel, F. Brehat, B. Wyncke, M. D. Fontana, G. Marnier, C. Carabatos-Nedelec, and J. Mangin, “The vibrational spectrum of a KTiOPO4 single crystal studied by Raman and infrared reflectivity spectroscopy,” J. Phys. C 21, 5565–5583 (1988).
[Crossref]

Castro-Camus, E.

S. S. Dhillon, M. S. Vitiello, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, M. C. Hoffmann, J. Booske, C. Paoloni, M. Gensch, P. Weightman, G. P. Williams, E. Castro-Camus, D. R. S. Cumming, F. Simoens, I. Escorcia-Carranza, J. Grant, S. Lucyszyn, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, K. Konishi, M. Koch, C. A. Schmuttenmaer, T. L. Cocker, R. Huber, A. G. Markelz, Z. D. Taylor, V. P. Wallace, J. A. Zeitler, J. Sibik, T. M. Korter, B. Ellison, S. Rea, P. Goldsmith, K. B. Cooper, R. Appleby, D. Pardo, P. G. Huggard, V. Krozer, H. Shams, M. Fice, C. Renaud, A. Seeds, A. Stöhr, M. Naftaly, N. Ridler, R. Clarke, J. E. Cunningham, and M. B. Johnston, “The 2017 terahertz science and technology roadmap,” J. Phys. D 50, 043001 (2017).
[Crossref]

Cha, H. J.

Y. U. Jeong, S. H. Park, B. C. Lee, and H. J. Cha, “Compact terahertz free-electron laser as a users facility,” in 3rd Asia Particle Accelerator Conference, Gyeongju, South Korea, 2004, pp. 759–761.

Chen, C. H.

Chen, L.

Y. Wang, Y. Ren, D. Xu, L. Tang, Y. He, C. Song, L. Chen, C. Li, C. Yan, and J. Yao, “Energy scaling and extended tunability of a ring cavity terahertz parametric oscillator based on KTiOPO4 crystal,” Chin. Phys. B 27, 114213 (2018).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

Chen, Y. H.

Chesnokov, E. N.

G. N. Kulipanov, E. G. Bagryanskaya, E. N. Chesnokov, Y. Y. Choporova, V. V. Gerasimov, Y. V. Getmanov, S. L. Kiselev, B. A. Knyazev, V. V. Kubarev, S. E. Peltek, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Seredniakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, S. L. Veber, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Novosibirsk free electron laser: facility description and recent experiments,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 798–809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chiang, A. C.

Chiu, Y. C.

Choporova, Y. Y.

G. N. Kulipanov, E. G. Bagryanskaya, E. N. Chesnokov, Y. Y. Choporova, V. V. Gerasimov, Y. V. Getmanov, S. L. Kiselev, B. A. Knyazev, V. V. Kubarev, S. E. Peltek, V. M. Popik, T. V. Salikova, M. A. Scheglov, S. S. Seredniakov, O. A. Shevchenko, A. N. Skrinsky, S. L. Veber, and N. A. Vinokurov, “Novosibirsk free electron laser: facility description and recent experiments,” IEEE Trans. Terahertz Sci. Technol. 5, 798–809 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chuang, M. Y.

Cirmi, G.

Clarke, R.

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Phase matching diagram of the stimulated polariton scattering in KTP. In the crystallographic x y plane, an infrared pump wave scatters off redshifted Stokes and THz waves at ± 2.3 ° and ± 61.5 ° , respectively, for the maximum gain at 5.7 THz. (b) An off-center pumped THz parametric generator using a z-cut crystal, wherein the THz-wave component incident on the crystal–air interface is coupled out via, for instance, a silicon prism, and the other component walking away from the pump region is quickly absorbed by the crystal. (c) A THz off-axis parametric oscillator using a y-cut crystal, wherein the THz wave is confined to the pump-filled gain region until pump depletion via total internal reflection between the y surfaces.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental setup of the KTP OTPO seeded by a spectrally filtered Stokes wave from a KTP TPG. An amplified passively Q -switched Nd:YAG laser synchronously pumps both the OTPO and TPG. The THz wave is coupled out from the OTPO by using a silicon prism and measured by a pyroelectric detector. HWP, half-wave plate; PBS, polarization beam splitter; LPF, THz low-pass filter.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) Effective nonlinear coefficient d eff , THz-wave absorption coefficient α T , and SPS gain coefficient g of KTP versus THz frequency and corresponding Stokes wavelength. Compared with LN, KTP has a smaller nonlinear coefficient, a comparably strong absorption coefficient, but can be phase-matched at higher THz frequencies. The peak SPS gain occurs at 5.77 THz with a corresponding Stokes wavelength at 1086.2 nm for a pump wavelength at 1064 nm. The dark lines are stop bands at the transverse optical phonon modes of KTP. (b) The Stokes spectra of the TPG and unseeded OTPO pumped by 2.4 and 13.7 mJ pulse energies at 1064 nm. The slight shift of the two spectral peaks results from different pump intensities in the two KTP crystals.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Measured THz-radiation pulse (red curve) by our pyroelectric detector. The 0.72 V signal amplitude (average value) corresponds to a THz pulse energy of 6.6 μJ, according to the vendor-supplied calibrations for the detector, the low-pass filter, and the parabolic gold mirrors. When we inserted a 0.15-mm-thick glass or a 0.5-mm-thick LN, which strongly absorbs radiation at 5.7 THz while it transmits laser near 1 μm, in front of the pyroelectric detector, the detector signal returns to the zero line (blue curve). (b) Wavelength measurement (blue circle) by using a self-built scanning Fabry–Perot (F-P) interferometer consisting of two metallic wire meshes. The periodicity of the interferogram indicates a THz radiation wavelength of 52 μm.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Experimental setup of the THz DFG for characterizing the THz-wave pulse width. (b) The measured signal (Stokes) pulse profile (red curve) in comparison with the pump pulse (black curve). The FWHM widths of the signal and pump pulses measured by the fast photodetector are 92 and 450 ps, respectively. The THz-wave pulse width calculated from Eq. (4) is < 94 ps .
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Measured peak power and energy of THz-wave radiation as a function of pump energy for the OTPO. With 14 and 5 μJ energy in the seeding Stokes pulses through the 100 and 20 μm slits, the measured THz pulse energies are 6.6 μJ with a 11.9 mJ pump and 5.9 μJ with a 13.7 mJ pump at 5.7 THz, respectively. Given the 63% coupling efficiency of the silicon prism and the < 94 ps THz pulse width, the peak far-infrared power emitted from the seeded OTPO into the silicon prism is > 111 kW .
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Measured pulse energy of the radiation at 5.7 THz versus slit opening at a constant pump energy of 13.7 mJ. The high parametric gain in the OTPO results in quick saturation of the output THz-wave radiation for slit openings > 30 μm . With a slit opening of 10 μm, the measured pulse energy and peak power are 4.2 μJ and > 45 kW , respectively, expected to have a transform-limited linewidth of 8 × 10 4 at 5.7 THz for an estimated pulse width of 94 ps.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Measured THz tuning curve versus seeding Stokes wavelength for 20 (blue circle) and 100 μm (red square) slit openings. When varying the seeding Stokes wavelength, we kept the experimental conditions of the TPG and OTPO unchanged. The tuning range of the generated THz radiation is about 150 GHz.

Equations (4)

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g ( ω T ) = α T ( ω T ) 2 cos ϕ ( ω T ) { 1 + 16 cos ϕ ( ω T ) [ Γ ( ω T ) α T ( ω T ) ] 2 1 } ,
ϕ s = ϕ T exp ( α T 2 L ) Γ 2 | g / 2 | 2 | sinh ( g 2 L ) | 2 ,
ϕ s ϕ T ϕ p .
1 Δ t s 2 = 1 Δ t T 2 + 1 Δ t p 2 .

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