Abstract

Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is an excellent technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, the accuracy and stability of a transmitted on-line wavelength are strictly required in a DIAL system. The fluctuation of a tunable pulsed laser system is relatively more serious than that of other laser sources, and this condition leads to a large measurement error for the lidar signal. These concerns pose a significant challenge in on-line wavelength calibration. This study proposes an alternative method based on wavelet modulus maxima for the accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser. Because of the different propagation characteristics of the wavelet transform modulus maxima between signal and noise, the singularities of a signal can be obtained by detection of the local modulus maxima in the wavelet transform maximum at fine scales. Simulated analysis shows that the method is more accurate than the general method such as quintic polynomial fitting and can steadily maintain high calibration precision at different signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Last, 16 groups of real experiments were conducted to verify the simulated analysis, which shows that the proposed method is an alternative for accurately calibrating an on-line wavelength. In addition, the proposed method is able to suppress noises in the process of wavelength calibration, which gives it an advantage in accurate on-line wavelength calibration with a low SNR.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

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References

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    [Crossref]

2015 (5)

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, M. Nuvoli, C. Minopoli, and A. Aiuppa, “Volcanic CO2 detection with a DFM/OPA-based lidar,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1034–1036 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, G. Maio, M. Del Franco, and A. Aiuppa, “Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes,” Proc. SPIE 9535, 95350N (2015).

W. Gong, A. Liang, G. Han, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “Sensitivity of on-line wavelength during retrieval of atmospheric CO2 vertical profile,” Photon. Res. 3, 146–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Pal, M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Gibert, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Ciais, “Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the 222Rn concentration at a rural site in France,” J. Geophys. Res. 120, 623–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, X. Ma, G. Han, C. Xiang, A. Liang, and W. Fu, “Method for wavelength stabilization of pulsed difference frequency laser at 1572  nm for CO2 detection lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 6151–6170 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (4)

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “On-line wavelength calibration of pulsed laser for CO2 DIAL sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1041–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and Z. Xiang, “Study on influences of atmospheric factors on vertical CO2 profile retrieving from ground-based DIAL at 1.6  μm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 3221–3234 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chengzhi, G. Wei, M. Xin, and C. Xuewu, “A method to eliminate the backlash error of tunable laser,” Acta Opt. Sin. 34, 161–169 (2014).

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

L. Fiorani, W. Saleh, M. Burton, A. Puiu, and M. Queißer, “Spectroscopic considerations on DIAL measurement of carbon dioxide in volcanic emissions,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 15, 317–325 (2013).

U. N. Singh, J. Yu, M. Petros, T. Refaat, and K. Reithmaier, eds., “Development of a pulsed 2-micron integrated path differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement,” Proc. SPIE 8872, 887209 (2013).

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lawrence, R. Leigh, and P. Monks, “The impact of surface reflectance variability on total column differential absorption LiDAR measurements of atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 3, 147–184 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57  μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “Three-dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).

F. Chevallier, S. Maksyutov, P. Bousquet, F. M. Bréon, R. Saito, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “On the accuracy of the CO2 surface fluxes to be estimated from the GOSAT observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19807 (2009).

2008 (3)

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2-μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, and M. Nakajima, “Development of 1.6 micron CW modulation ground-based DIAL system for CO2 monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530L (2008).

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

2006 (1)

2005 (2)

M. O. Andreae, C. D. Jones, and P. M. Cox, “Strong present-day aerosol cooling implies a hot future,” Nature 435, 1187–1190 (2005).

C.-L. Tu, W.-L. Hwang, and J. Ho, “Analysis of singularities from modulus maxima of complex wavelets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51, 1049–1062 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

X. Wang, R. S. Istepanian, and Y. H. Song, “Application of wavelet modulus maxima in microarray spots recognition,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 190–192 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (3)

Q. Sun and Y. Tang, “Singularity analysis using continuous wavelet transform for bearing fault diagnosis,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 16, 1025–1041 (2002).
[Crossref]

G. J. Koch, M. Petros, J. Yu, and U. N. Singh, “Precise wavelength control of a single-frequency pulsed Ho: Tm: YLF laser,” Appl. Opt. 41, 1718–1721 (2002).
[Crossref]

Z. Peng, Y. He, Z. Chen, and F. Chu, “Identification of the shaft orbit for rotating machines using wavelet modulus maxima,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 16, 623–635 (2002).

1998 (1)

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, and H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument: experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

D. Bernier and K. F. Taylor, “Wavelets from square-integrable representations,” SIAM J. Math. Anal. 27, 594–608 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

J.-F. Muzy, E. Bacry, and A. Arneodo, “Multifractal formalism for fractal signals: the structure-function approach versus the wavelet-transform modulus-maxima method,” Phys. Rev. E 47, 875–884 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

Y. Sheng, D. Roberge, and H. H. Szu, “Optical wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1840–1845 (1992).
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

I. Daubechies, “The wavelet transform, time-frequency localization and signal analysis,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961–1005 (1990).
[Crossref]

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, “Observational contrains on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abshire, J. B.

K. Numata, J. R. Chen, S. T. Wu, J. B. Abshire, and M. A. Krainak, “Frequency stabilization of distributed-feedback laser diodes at 1572  nm for lidar measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide,” Appl. Opt. 50, 1047–1056 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

Aiuppa, A.

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, G. Maio, M. Del Franco, and A. Aiuppa, “Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes,” Proc. SPIE 9535, 95350N (2015).

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, M. Nuvoli, C. Minopoli, and A. Aiuppa, “Volcanic CO2 detection with a DFM/OPA-based lidar,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1034–1036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alkhaled, A.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Allan, G. R.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[Crossref]

Amediek, A.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57  μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 2, 755–772 (2009).
[Crossref]

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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Del Franco, M.

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, G. Maio, M. Del Franco, and A. Aiuppa, “Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes,” Proc. SPIE 9535, 95350N (2015).

Denning, A. S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Dothe, H.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
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Durieux, E.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, and H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument: experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
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A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57  μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 2, 755–772 (2009).
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G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, G. Maio, M. Del Franco, and A. Aiuppa, “Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes,” Proc. SPIE 9535, 95350N (2015).

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, M. Nuvoli, C. Minopoli, and A. Aiuppa, “Volcanic CO2 detection with a DFM/OPA-based lidar,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1034–1036 (2015).
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E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, and H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument: experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
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A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57  μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 2, 755–772 (2009).
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G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2-μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
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F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
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Flamm, M.

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, and H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument: experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Fu, W.

Fung, I. Y.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

P. P. Tans, I. Y. Fung, and T. Takahashi, “Observational contrains on the global atmospheric CO2 budget,” Science 247, 1431–1438 (1990).
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Gamache, R.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
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Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, J. Cuesta, and D. Bruneau, “Vertical 2-μm heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of mean CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere,” J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 25, 1477–1497 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Gibert, P. H. Flamant, D. Bruneau, and C. Loth, “Two-micrometer heterodyne differential absorption lidar measurements of the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio in the boundary layer,” Appl. Opt. 45, 4448–4458 (2006).
[Crossref]

Goldman, A.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
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W. Gong, A. Liang, G. Han, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “Sensitivity of on-line wavelength during retrieval of atmospheric CO2 vertical profile,” Photon. Res. 3, 146–152 (2015).
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W. Gong, X. Ma, G. Han, C. Xiang, A. Liang, and W. Fu, “Method for wavelength stabilization of pulsed difference frequency laser at 1572  nm for CO2 detection lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 6151–6170 (2015).
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G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and Z. Xiang, “Study on influences of atmospheric factors on vertical CO2 profile retrieving from ground-based DIAL at 1.6  μm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 3221–3234 (2014).
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G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “On-line wavelength calibration of pulsed laser for CO2 DIAL sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1041–1053 (2014).
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Gordon, I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
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Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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W. Gong, A. Liang, G. Han, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “Sensitivity of on-line wavelength during retrieval of atmospheric CO2 vertical profile,” Photon. Res. 3, 146–152 (2015).
[Crossref]

W. Gong, X. Ma, G. Han, C. Xiang, A. Liang, and W. Fu, “Method for wavelength stabilization of pulsed difference frequency laser at 1572  nm for CO2 detection lidar,” Opt. Express 23, 6151–6170 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and Z. Xiang, “Study on influences of atmospheric factors on vertical CO2 profile retrieving from ground-based DIAL at 1.6  μm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 3221–3234 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “On-line wavelength calibration of pulsed laser for CO2 DIAL sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1041–1053 (2014).
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Harrison, J. J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, and M. Nakajima, “Development of 1.6 micron CW modulation ground-based DIAL system for CO2 monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530L (2008).

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C.-L. Tu, W.-L. Hwang, and J. Ho, “Analysis of singularities from modulus maxima of complex wavelets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51, 1049–1062 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Houweling, S.

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
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C.-L. Tu, W.-L. Hwang, and J. Ho, “Analysis of singularities from modulus maxima of complex wavelets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51, 1049–1062 (2005).
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S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, and M. Nakajima, “Development of 1.6 micron CW modulation ground-based DIAL system for CO2 monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530L (2008).

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S. Kameyama, M. Imaki, Y. Hirano, S. Ueno, S. Kawakami, and M. Nakajima, “Development of 1.6 micron CW modulation ground-based DIAL system for CO2 monitoring,” Proc. SPIE 7153, 71530L (2008).

Naumenko, O. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nicholls, M. E.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Nikitin, A. V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Nishina, K.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
[Crossref]

Numata, K.

Nuvoli, M.

O’Brien, D.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Olsen, S. C.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Ostberg, S.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
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Pachauri, R.

Core Writing Team, R. Pachauri and A. Reisinger, “Climate change 2007: synthesis report,” in Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007).

Pal, S.

S. Pal, M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Gibert, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Ciais, “Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the 222Rn concentration at a rural site in France,” J. Geophys. Res. 120, 623–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “Three-dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).

Parracino, S.

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, G. Maio, M. Del Franco, and A. Aiuppa, “Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes,” Proc. SPIE 9535, 95350N (2015).

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, M. Nuvoli, C. Minopoli, and A. Aiuppa, “Volcanic CO2 detection with a DFM/OPA-based lidar,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1034–1036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pavlick, R.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pawson, S.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Peng, Z.

Z. Peng, Y. He, Z. Chen, and F. Chu, “Identification of the shaft orbit for rotating machines using wavelet modulus maxima,” Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 16, 623–635 (2002).

Perevalov, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perevalov, V. I.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Perrin, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Petros, M.

Peylin, P.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
[Crossref]

Polovtseva, E. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Puiu, A.

L. Fiorani, W. Saleh, M. Burton, A. Puiu, and M. Queißer, “Spectroscopic considerations on DIAL measurement of carbon dioxide in volcanic emissions,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 15, 317–325 (2013).

Queißer, M.

L. Fiorani, W. Saleh, M. Burton, A. Puiu, and M. Queißer, “Spectroscopic considerations on DIAL measurement of carbon dioxide in volcanic emissions,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 15, 317–325 (2013).

Rademacher, T. T.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
[Crossref]

Radlach, M.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “Three-dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).

Ramonet, M.

S. Pal, M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Gibert, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Ciais, “Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the 222Rn concentration at a rural site in France,” J. Geophys. Res. 120, 623–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

Randerson, J. T.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Rayner, P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Reisinger, A.

Core Writing Team, R. Pachauri and A. Reisinger, “Climate change 2007: synthesis report,” in Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007).

Richard, C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
[Crossref]

Riede, A.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “Three-dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).

Riris, H.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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Roberge, D.

Y. Sheng, D. Roberge, and H. H. Szu, “Optical wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1840–1845 (1992).
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Rothman, L.

L. Rothman, I. Gordon, R. Barber, H. Dothe, R. Gamache, A. Goldman, V. I. Perevalov, S. A. Tashkun, and J. Tennyson, “HITEMP, the high-temperature molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 111, 2139–2150 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rothman, L. S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, Y. Babikov, A. Barbe, D. ChrisBenner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, L. Bizzocchi, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, K. Chance, E. A. Cohen, L. H. Coudert, V. M. Devi, B. J. Drouin, A. Fayt, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, J. J. Harrison, J.-M. Hartmann, C. Hill, J. T. Hodges, D. Jacquemart, A. Jolly, J. Lamouroux, R. J. LeRoy, G. Li, D. A. Long, O. M. Lyulin, C. J. Mackie, S. T. Massie, S. Mikhailenko, H. S. P. Müller, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. Perevalov, A. Perrin, E. R. Polovtseva, C. Richard, M. A. H. Smith, E. Starikova, K. Sung, S. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, G. C. Toon, Vl. G. Tyuterev, and G. Wagner, “The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quantum Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 130, 4–50 (2013).
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Saito, R.

F. Chevallier, S. Maksyutov, P. Bousquet, F. M. Bréon, R. Saito, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “On the accuracy of the CO2 surface fluxes to be estimated from the GOSAT observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19807 (2009).

Salawitch, R. J.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Saleh, W.

L. Fiorani, W. Saleh, M. Burton, A. Puiu, and M. Queißer, “Spectroscopic considerations on DIAL measurement of carbon dioxide in volcanic emissions,” J. Optoelectron. Adv. Mater. 15, 317–325 (2013).

Sander, S. P.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Santoro, S.

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, G. Maio, M. Del Franco, and A. Aiuppa, “Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes,” Proc. SPIE 9535, 95350N (2015).

L. Fiorani, S. Santoro, S. Parracino, M. Nuvoli, C. Minopoli, and A. Aiuppa, “Volcanic CO2 detection with a DFM/OPA-based lidar,” Opt. Lett. 40, 1034–1036 (2015).
[Crossref]

Schäfer, F. P.

F. P. Schäfer, Dye Lasers (Springer, 2013).

Schaphoff, S.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, M.

S. Pal, M. Lopez, M. Schmidt, M. Ramonet, F. Gibert, I. Xueref-Remy, and P. Ciais, “Investigation of the atmospheric boundary layer depth variability and its impact on the 222Rn concentration at a rural site in France,” J. Geophys. Res. 120, 623–636 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sen, B.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Sheng, Y.

Y. Sheng, D. Roberge, and H. H. Szu, “Optical wavelet transform,” Opt. Eng. 31, 1840–1845 (1992).
[Crossref]

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Smith, M. A. H.

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A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “Three-dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).

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X. Wang, R. S. Istepanian, and Y. H. Song, “Application of wavelet modulus maxima in microarray spots recognition,” IEEE Trans. Nanobiosci. 2, 190–192 (2003).
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A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
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J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, S. R. Kawa, and S. Biraud, “Pulsed airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column absorption,” Tellus Ser. B 62, 770–783 (2010).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Wiltshire, A.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
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C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Woodward, F. I.

A. D. Friend, W. Lucht, T. T. Rademacher, R. Keribin, R. Betts, P. Cadule, P. Ciais, D. B. Clark, R. Dankers, P. D. Falloon, A. Ito, R. Kahana, A. Kleidon, M. R. Lomas, K. Nishina, S. Ostberg, R. Pavlick, P. Peylin, S. Schaphoff, N. Vuichard, L. Warszawski, A. Wiltshire, and F. I. Woodward, “Carbon residence time dominates uncertainty in terrestrial vegetation responses to future climate and atmospheric CO2,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 111, 3280–3285 (2014).
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Wulfmeyer, V.

A. Behrendt, V. Wulfmeyer, A. Riede, G. Wagner, S. Pal, H. Bauer, M. Radlach, and F. Späth, “Three-dimensional observations of atmospheric humidity with a scanning differential absorption lidar,” Proc. SPIE 7475, 74750L (2009).

Xiang, C.

Xiang, Z.

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and Z. Xiang, “Study on influences of atmospheric factors on vertical CO2 profile retrieving from ground-based DIAL at 1.6  μm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 3221–3234 (2014).
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Xin, M.

X. Chengzhi, G. Wei, M. Xin, and C. Xuewu, “A method to eliminate the backlash error of tunable laser,” Acta Opt. Sin. 34, 161–169 (2014).

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X. Chengzhi, G. Wei, M. Xin, and C. Xuewu, “A method to eliminate the backlash error of tunable laser,” Acta Opt. Sin. 34, 161–169 (2014).

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F. Chevallier, S. Maksyutov, P. Bousquet, F. M. Bréon, R. Saito, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “On the accuracy of the CO2 surface fluxes to be estimated from the GOSAT observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19807 (2009).

Yoshida, Y.

F. Chevallier, S. Maksyutov, P. Bousquet, F. M. Bréon, R. Saito, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “On the accuracy of the CO2 surface fluxes to be estimated from the GOSAT observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19807 (2009).

Yu, A.

J. B. Abshire, H. Riris, G. R. Allan, C. J. Weaver, J. Mao, X. Sun, W. E. Hasselbrack, A. Yu, A. Amediek, Y. Choi, and E. V. Browell, “A lidar approach to measure CO2 concentrations from space for the ASCENDS Mission,” Proc. SPIE 7832, 78320D (2010).
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Yu, J.

Yung, Y. L.

C. E. Miller, D. Crisp, P. L. DeCola, S. C. Olsen, J. T. Randerson, A. M. Michalak, A. Alkhaled, P. Rayner, D. J. Jacob, P. Suntharalingam, D. B. A. Jones, A. S. Denning, M. E. Nicholls, S. C. Doney, S. Pawson, H. Boesch, B. J. Connor, I. Y. Fung, D. O’Brien, R. J. Salawitch, S. P. Sander, B. Sen, P. Tans, G. C. Toon, P. O. Wennberg, S. C. Wofsy, Y. L. Yung, and R. M. Law, “Precision requirements for space-based XCO2 data,” J. Geophys. Res. 112, D10314 (2007).

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

X. Chengzhi, G. Wei, M. Xin, and C. Xuewu, “A method to eliminate the backlash error of tunable laser,” Acta Opt. Sin. 34, 161–169 (2014).

Appl. Opt. (4)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

G. Ehret, C. Kiemle, M. Wirth, A. Amediek, A. Fix, and S. Houweling, “Space-borne remote sensing of CO2, CH4, and N2O by integrated path differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 90, 593–608 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and C. Xiang, “On-line wavelength calibration of pulsed laser for CO2 DIAL sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 117, 1041–1053 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

E. Durieux, L. Fiorani, B. Calpini, M. Flamm, L. Jaquet, and H. Van den Bergh, “Tropospheric ozone measurements over the Great Athens Area during the MEDCAPHOT-TRACE campaign with a new shot-per-shot DIAL instrument: experimental system and results,” Atmos. Environ. 32, 2141–2150 (1998).
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Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. (2)

J. Lawrence, R. Leigh, and P. Monks, “The impact of surface reflectance variability on total column differential absorption LiDAR measurements of atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 3, 147–184 (2010).
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A. Amediek, A. Fix, G. Ehret, J. Caron, and Y. Durand, “Airborne lidar reflectance measurements at 1.57  μm in support of the A-SCOPE mission for atmospheric CO2,” Atmos. Meas. Tech. Discuss. 2, 755–772 (2009).
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Geophys. Res. Lett. (1)

F. Chevallier, S. Maksyutov, P. Bousquet, F. M. Bréon, R. Saito, Y. Yoshida, and T. Yokota, “On the accuracy of the CO2 surface fluxes to be estimated from the GOSAT observations,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L19807 (2009).

IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. (1)

G. Han, W. Gong, H. Lin, X. Ma, and Z. Xiang, “Study on influences of atmospheric factors on vertical CO2 profile retrieving from ground-based DIAL at 1.6  μm,” IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. 53, 3221–3234 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory (2)

I. Daubechies, “The wavelet transform, time-frequency localization and signal analysis,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 36, 961–1005 (1990).
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C.-L. Tu, W.-L. Hwang, and J. Ho, “Analysis of singularities from modulus maxima of complex wavelets,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 51, 1049–1062 (2005).
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Figures (16)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Fluctuation of the dye laser emission system at around 1.6 μm region.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Diagram of the ground-based DIAL.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Simultaneous emission system of the dual-wavelength laser.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Calculated absorption cross sections of CO 2 and H 2 O according to the HITRAN 2012 database.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Calculated absorption cross sections of the CO 2 molecule at the region of R16.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Simulated result of on-line wavelength calibration through the wavelet modulus maxima in R16.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Simulated result of on-line wavelength calibration through quintic polynomial fitting in R16.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 20.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 80.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 50.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 11. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 30.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 12. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 10.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 13. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 5.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 14. Calibration result of the wavelet modulus maxima and polynomial fitting method with an SNR of 1.
Fig. 15.
Fig. 15. Wavelength control unit of the ground-based DIAL.
Fig. 16.
Fig. 16. Result of on-line wavelength calibration with real measured signals through the wavelet modulus maxima at the R16 region.

Tables (5)

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Table 1. Spectroscopic Parameters of CO 2 and H 2 O Involved in the Simulation Analysis

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Table 2. Statistical Result of the 100 Simulated Experiments Through the Wavelet Modulus Maxima

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Table 3. Statistical Result of the 100 Simulated Experiments Through Quintic Polynomial Fitting

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Table 4. Statistical Calibration Results of the Simulated Signals Through Two Methods with Different SNRs

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Table 5. Evolution of On-Line Wavelength Calibration Through the Wavelet Modulus Maxima (unit: nm)

Equations (8)

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P ( r , λ ) = C A P 0 ( λ ) r 2 β ( r , λ ) exp { 2 0 r [ α 0 ( r , λ ) + N g ( r ) σ g ( λ ) ] d r } ,
N g ( r ) = 1 2 ( r 2 r 1 ) [ ( σ g ( λ on ) σ g ( λ off ) ) ] ln [ P ( λ off , r 2 ) P ( λ on , r 1 ) P ( λ on , r 2 ) P ( λ off , r 1 ) ] ,
ψ a , b ( t ) = 1 a ψ ( t b a ) , a , b R , a 0 ,
| f ( x ) f ( x 0 ) | K | x x 0 | α .
| W f ( s 0 , x ) | | W f ( s 0 , x 0 ) | .
ψ 1 ( t ) = d θ ( t ) d t , ψ 2 ( t ) = d 2 θ ( t ) d t 2 ,
W s ( 1 ) f ( t ) = f ( t ) * ψ s ( 1 ) ( t ) = f ( t ) * [ a d θ a ( t ) d t ] = a d d t [ f * θ a ] ( t ) ,
W s ( 2 ) f ( t ) = f ( t ) * ψ s ( 2 ) ( t ) = f ( t ) * [ a 2 d 2 θ a ( t ) d t 2 ] = a 2 d 2 d t 2 [ f * θ a ] ( t ) .

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