Abstract

Multilayer black phosphorus (BP) nanoplatelets of different thicknesses were prepared by the liquid phase exfoliation method and deposited onto yttrium aluminum garnet substrates to form saturable absorbers (SAs). These were characterized with respect to their thickness-dependent saturable absorption properties at 3 μm. The BP-SAs were employed in a passively Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.84 μm. By using BP exfoliated in different solvents, stable pulses as short as 359 ns were generated at an average output power of up to 755 mW. The repetition rate in the experiment was 107 kHz, corresponding to a pulse energy of 7.1 μJ. These results prove that BP-SAs have a great potential for optical modulation in the mid-infrared range.

© 2016 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8 μm

Zhipeng Qin, Guoqiang Xie, Han Zhang, Chujun Zhao, Peng Yuan, Shuangchun Wen, and Liejia Qian
Opt. Express 23(19) 24713-24718 (2015)

Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4 μm

Zhaowei Wang, Ruwei Zhao, Jingliang He, Baitao Zhang, Jian Ning, Yiran Wang, Xiancui Su, Jia Hou, Fei Lou, Kejian Yang, Yisong Fan, Jintian Bian, and Jinsong Nie
Opt. Express 24(2) 1598-1603 (2016)

Dual-wavelength, passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with black phosphorus saturable absorber

Haikun Zhang, Jingliang He, Zhaowei Wang, Jia Hou, Baitao Zhang, Ruwei Zhao, Kezhen Han, Kejian Yang, Hongkun Nie, and Xiaoli Sun
Opt. Mater. Express 6(7) 2328-2335 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  3. H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782–784 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.
  7. S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  11. V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  12. B. T. Zhang, F. Lou, R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, J. Li, X. C. Su, J. Ning, and K. J. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3691–3694 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  14. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  15. Z. W. Wang, R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, B. T. Zhang, J. Ning, Y. R. Wang, X. C. Su, J. Hou, F. Lou, K. J. Yang, Y. S. Fan, J. T. Bian, and J. S. Nie, “Multi-layered black phosphorus as saturable absorber for pulsed Cr:ZnSe laser at 2.4  μm,” Opt. Express 24, 1598–1603 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  16. L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Multilayer black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 to 2.7  μm wavelength,” arXiv: 1508.04510 (2015).
  17. Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. C. Wen, and L. J. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 24713–24718 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  18. Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, C. J. Zhao, S. C. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41, 56–59 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  19. M. Robinson and D. P. Devor, “Thermal switching of laser emission of Er3+ at 2.69  μ and Tm3+ at 1.86  μ in mixed crystals of CaF2:ErF3:TmF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 167–170 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  20. R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Direct upper-state pumping of the 2.8  μm Er3+:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041–1045 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. Kränkel, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides for diode-pumped high-power lasers in the 1-, 2-, and 3-μm spectral range,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1602013 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  22. T. Sanamyan, M. Kanskar, Y. Xiao, D. Kedlaya, and M. Dubinskii, “High power diode-pumped 2.7-μm Er3+:Y2O3 laser with nearly quantum defect-limited efficiency,” Opt. Express 19, A1082–A1087 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  23. T. Li, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient high-power continuous wave Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.85  μm,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2568–2570 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. Q. Fan, T. Li, S. Z. Zhao, G. Q. Li, H. Y. Ma, X. C. Gao, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Watt-level passively Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.84  μm using MoS2,” Opt. Lett. 41, 540–543 (2016).
    [Crossref]
  25. M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  27. T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, D. M. Rines, P. G. Schunemann, J. A. Hutchinson, and R. Utano, “Tunable 7–12 μm optical parametric oscillator using a Cr, Er:YSGG laser to pump CdSe and ZnGeP2 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 597–599 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  29. Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  30. S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  31. A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  32. Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  33. H. D. Xia, H. P. Li, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, J. B. Du, S. J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition as a passive Q-switcher for tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A92–A96 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. Wei, X. S. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78  μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3233–3236 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  35. J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, L. L. Wang, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. P. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3659–3662 (2015).
    [Crossref]

2016 (3)

2015 (11)

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. D. Xia, H. P. Li, C. Y. Lan, C. Li, J. B. Du, S. J. Zhang, and Y. Liu, “Few-layer MoS2 grown by chemical vapor deposition as a passive Q-switcher for tunable erbium-doped fiber lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A92–A96 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, L. L. Wang, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. P. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, H. Zhang, C. J. Zhao, P. Yuan, S. C. Wen, and L. J. Qian, “Black phosphorus as saturable absorber for the Q-switched Er:ZBLAN fiber laser at 2.8  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 24713–24718 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. T. Zhang, F. Lou, R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, J. Li, X. C. Su, J. Ning, and K. J. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. H. Chen, X. Y. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. P. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, J. Zhang, J. Du, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) as a broadband saturable absorber for ultra-fast photonics,” Opt. Express 22, 7249–7260 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Kränkel, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides for diode-pumped high-power lasers in the 1-, 2-, and 3-μm spectral range,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1602013 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782–784 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1992 (1)

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Direct upper-state pumping of the 2.8  μm Er3+:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041–1045 (1992).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. Robinson and D. P. Devor, “Thermal switching of laser emission of Er3+ at 2.69  μ and Tm3+ at 1.86  μ in mixed crystals of CaF2:ErF3:TmF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 167–170 (1967).
[Crossref]

Abramski, K. M.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Acharya, K. L. N.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Allik, T. H.

Alvarez, J. V.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Badikov, V.

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

Balakrishnan, K.

Bao, Q. L.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Beil, K.

Bian, J. T.

Blanter, S. I.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bragagna, T.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Buscema, M.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chandra, S.

Chazapis, V.

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. H.

Chen, J. P.

Chen, J. Z.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. X.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chu, P. K.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Devor, D. P.

M. Robinson and D. P. Devor, “Thermal switching of laser emission of Er3+ at 2.69  μ and Tm3+ at 1.86  μ in mixed crystals of CaF2:ErF3:TmF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 167–170 (1967).
[Crossref]

Du, J.

Du, J. B.

Dubinskii, M.

Esterowitz, L.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Direct upper-state pumping of the 2.8  μm Er3+:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041–1045 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fan, D. Y.

Fan, M. Q.

Fan, Y. S.

Fedorov, V.

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

Ferrari, A. C.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Galecki, L.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gallian, A. R.

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

Gao, X. C.

Gomez, A. C.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Groenendijk, D. J.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gross, S.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Guo, Z. N.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Multilayer black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 to 2.7  μm wavelength,” arXiv: 1508.04510 (2015).

Haiml, M.

S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782–784 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hasan, M. Z.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hasan, T.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

He, J.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

He, J. L.

Heinrich, A.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hou, J.

Huang, G. H.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Huber, G.

Hutchinson, J. A.

Island, J. O.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kane, C. L.

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kanskar, M.

Kasprzak, J.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kedlaya, D.

Keller, U.

S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782–784 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kong, L. C.

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Multilayer black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 to 2.7  μm wavelength,” arXiv: 1508.04510 (2015).

Kowalczyk, M.

Kränkel, C.

Lan, C. Y.

Li, C.

Li, G. Q.

Li, H. P.

Li, J.

Li, J. F.

Li, T.

Liang, Y. F.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, S. H.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, C. H.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Loh, K. P.

Lou, F.

Lu, S. B.

Luo, H. Y.

Luo, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lynn, J. G.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Direct upper-state pumping of the 2.8  μm Er3+:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041–1045 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ma, H. Y.

Macherzynski, W.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

Maciejewska, M.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mak, K. F.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Marine, P.

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

Martinez, A.

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

Mei, L. M.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Miao, L. L.

Mirov, S.

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

Misewich, J. A.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mu, H. R.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Neal, A. T.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nie, J. S.

Ning, J.

Norwood, R. A.

Nyga, P.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Palacios, J. J.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Paletko, P.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Peyghambarian, N.

Pichola, W.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prada, E.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Qi, X.

Qi, X. L.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Qian, L. J.

Qin, Z. P.

Rines, D. M.

Robinson, M.

M. Robinson and D. P. Devor, “Thermal switching of laser emission of Er3+ at 2.69  μ and Tm3+ at 1.86  μ in mixed crystals of CaF2:ErF3:TmF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 167–170 (1967).
[Crossref]

Sanamyan, T.

Schön, S.

S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782–784 (2000).
[Crossref]

Schunemann, P. G.

Sfeir, M. Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shao, J. D.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Skorczakowski, M.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sobon, G.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Soklaski, R.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Song, F.

Sotor, J.

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

Steele, G. A.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Stoneman, R. C.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Direct upper-state pumping of the 2.8  μm Er3+:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041–1045 (1992).
[Crossref]

Su, X. C.

Sun, Z.

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sun, Z. B.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Swiderski, J.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, D. Y.

Tang, S. Y.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Tománek, D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tran, V.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Utano, R.

Vicarelli, L.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, A. Z.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

Wang, H.

Wang, H. Y.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, J.

Wang, J. Y.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, L. L.

Wang, S. X.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y. R.

Wang, Y. W.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. T.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. W.

Wei, C.

Wen, S. C.

Wu, K.

Wu, Y.

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xia, H. D.

Xiao, S.

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xiao, Y.

Xie, G. Q.

Xie, H. H.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Xu, X. F.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yang, K. J.

Yang, L.

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ye, P. D.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, H. H.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, X. F.

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

Zajac, A.

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zandbergen, H. W.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zant, H. S. J.

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B. T.

Zhang, H.

Zhang, H. J.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, and H. J. Zhang, “Band-gap modulation of two-dimensional saturable absorbers for solid-state lasers,” Photon. Res. 3, A10–A20 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Zhang, S. C.

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S. J.

Zhang, X. Y.

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, M. W.

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R. W.

Zhao, S. Z.

Zhu, X. S.

Zhu, Z.

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

2D Mater. (1)

A. C. Gomez, L. Vicarelli, E. Prada, J. O. Island, K. L. N. Acharya, S. I. Blanter, D. J. Groenendijk, M. Buscema, G. A. Steele, J. V. Alvarez, H. W. Zandbergen, J. J. Palacios, and H. S. J. Zant, “Isolation and characterization of few-layer black phosphorus,” 2D Mater. 1, 025001 (2014).
[Crossref]

ACS Nano (1)

H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. F. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “Phosphorene: an unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, S. B. Lu, Z. T. Wang, S. Y. Tang, J. D. Shao, Z. B. Sun, H. H. Xie, H. Y. Wang, X. F. Yu, and P. K. Chu, “From black phosphorus to phosphorene: basic solvent exfoliation, evolution of Raman scattering, and applications to ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 6996–7002 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. X. Wang, H. H. Yu, H. J. Zhang, A. Z. Wang, M. W. Zhao, Y. X. Chen, L. M. Mei, and J. Y. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 051108 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Schön, M. Haiml, and U. Keller, “Ultrabroadband AIGaAs/CaF2 semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 782–784 (2000).
[Crossref]

M. Robinson and D. P. Devor, “Thermal switching of laser emission of Er3+ at 2.69  μ and Tm3+ at 1.86  μ in mixed crystals of CaF2:ErF3:TmF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 167–170 (1967).
[Crossref]

Y. W. Wang, G. H. Huang, H. R. Mu, S. H. Lin, J. Z. Chen, S. Xiao, Q. L. Bao, and J. He, “Ultrafast recovery time and broadband saturable absorption properties of black phosphorus suspension,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 091905 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Direct upper-state pumping of the 2.8  μm Er3+:YLF laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1041–1045 (1992).
[Crossref]

J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Kränkel, “Rare-earth-doped sesquioxides for diode-pumped high-power lasers in the 1-, 2-, and 3-μm spectral range,” J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 1602013 (2014).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Skorczakowski, J. Swiderski, W. Pichola, P. Nyga, A. Zajac, M. Maciejewska, L. Galecki, J. Kasprzak, S. Gross, A. Heinrich, and T. Bragagna, “Mid-infrared Q-switched Er:YAG laser for medical applications,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7, 498–504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (8)

Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, C. J. Zhao, S. C. Wen, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Mid-infrared mode-locked pulse generation with multilayer black phosphorus as saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 41, 56–59 (2016).
[Crossref]

J. Sotor, G. Sobon, M. Kowalczyk, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, and K. M. Abramski, “Ultrafast thulium-doped fiber laser mode locked with black phosphorus,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3885–3888 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Li, K. Beil, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Efficient high-power continuous wave Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.85  μm,” Opt. Lett. 37, 2568–2570 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Q. Fan, T. Li, S. Z. Zhao, G. Q. Li, H. Y. Ma, X. C. Gao, C. Kränkel, and G. Huber, “Watt-level passively Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 laser at 2.84  μm using MoS2,” Opt. Lett. 41, 540–543 (2016).
[Crossref]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, D. M. Rines, P. G. Schunemann, J. A. Hutchinson, and R. Utano, “Tunable 7–12 μm optical parametric oscillator using a Cr, Er:YSGG laser to pump CdSe and ZnGeP2 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 597–599 (1997).
[Crossref]

C. Wei, X. S. Zhu, F. Wang, Y. Xu, K. Balakrishnan, F. Song, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Graphene Q-switched 2.78  μm Er3+-doped fluoride fiber laser,” Opt. Lett. 38, 3233–3236 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. F. Li, H. Y. Luo, L. L. Wang, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, H. P. Li, and Y. Liu, “3-μm mid-infrared pulse generation using topological insulator as the saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3659–3662 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. T. Zhang, F. Lou, R. W. Zhao, J. L. He, J. Li, X. C. Su, J. Ning, and K. J. Yang, “Exfoliated layers of black phosphorus as saturable absorber for ultrafast solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 40, 3691–3694 (2015).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

V. Tran, R. Soklaski, Y. F. Liang, and L. Yang, “Layer-controlled band gap and anisotropic excitons in few-layer black phosphorus,” Phys. Rev. B 89, 235319 (2014).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Liu, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the optical conductivity of graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (2)

M. Z. Hasan and C. L. Kane, “Colloquium: topological insulators,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 82, 3045–3067 (2010).
[Crossref]

X. L. Qi and S. C. Zhang, “Topological insulators and superconductors,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 83, 1057–1110 (2011).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. Martinez, A. R. Gallian, P. Marine, V. Fedorov, S. Mirov, and V. Badikov, “Fe:ZnSe and ZnS polycrystalline passive Q-switching of 2.8  μm Er:Cr:YSGG laser,” in Proceedings of Advanced Solid-state Photonics (ASSP) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper TuB24.

L. C. Kong, Z. P. Qin, G. Q. Xie, Z. N. Guo, H. Zhang, P. Yuan, and L. J. Qian, “Multilayer black phosphorus as broadband saturable absorber for pulsed lasers from 1 to 2.7  μm wavelength,” arXiv: 1508.04510 (2015).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. TEM images of BP nanoplatelets exfoliated in (a) IPA (BP-IPA) and (b) EtOH solution (BP-EtOH), (c) Raman spectra of the nanoplatelets in comparison to bulk BP.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. AFM images and typical height profiles: (a) BP-IPA and (b) BP-EtOH samples.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a) FT-IR absorption spectrum of a BP-EtOH test sample on a 40  mm×20  mm YAG plate; (b) and (c) depict the nonlinear transmission of BP-IPA and BP-EtOH SAs.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Schematic diagram of the Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 laser and the BP-IPA SA (inset).
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Average output power of the Q-switched Er:Lu2O3 laser using BP-SA; insets (a) and (c) display the output laser spectra, and insets (b) and (d) describe the output fluctuations versus time.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Top: pulse repetition rate and pulse duration versus absorbed pump power for different output coupler transmissions, bottom: temporal traces of Q-switched pulse train utilizing BP-IPA SA at T=3%.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Evolutions of the single pulse energy and peak power as increasing absorbed pump power for different output coupler transmissions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of 3 μm Lasers Q-Switched with 2D-SAs

Metrics