Abstract

We demonstrate that ferroferric-oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles exhibit nonlinear saturable absorption property at 1.55 μm, and fabricate two filmy saturable absorbers by embedding the nanoparticles into a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film or polyimide (PI) film separately. In the Fe3O4-PVA (Fe3O4-PI) Q-switched fiber laser, the pulse repetition rate increases from 8.5 kHz (5.5 kHz) to 28 kHz (49 kHz) and the pulse duration decreases from 23.5 μs (47 μs) to 6 μs (3.5 μs) by varying the pump power from 25 mW (23 mW) to 150 mW (650 mW). Experiment results indicate that PI-based saturable absorbers can afford larger powers than PVA-based saturable absorbers, which can be attributed to the higher fusion point of the PI film. The Fe3O4-PI saturable absorber exhibits features of high damage threshold, low cost, and good flexibility, which could be applied in fields of near-infrared pulse generation and frequency conversions.

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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2016 (5)

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J.-J. Xiao, R.-L. Wang, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Topological insulator-assisted dual-wavelength fiber laser delivering versatile pulse patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 0900108 (2016).

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

X. Bai, C. Mou, L. Xu, S. Wang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 042701 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (15)

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. H. Kassani, R. Khazaeizhad, H. Jeong, T. Nazari, D.-I. Yeom, and K. Oh, “All-fiber Er-doped Q-switched laser based on tungsten disulfide saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 5, 373–379 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photon. Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Li, M. Zhong, Y. Huang, X. Wan, J. Peng, and J. Weng, “Nonlinear optical absorption of few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for passively mode-locked soliton fiber laser,” Photon. Res. 3, A79–A86 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

K. Wu, X. Zhang, J. Wang, X. Li, and J. Chen, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for ultrafast photonic applications of mode-locked and Q-switched lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 11453–14161 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. Howe, T. H. Runcorn, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, E. J. Kelleher, and T. Hasan, “Wideband saturable absorption in few-layer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) for Q-switching Yb-, Er- and Tm-doped fiber lasers,” Opt. Express 23, 20051–20061 (2015).
[Crossref]

M. Brotons-Gisbert, G. E. Villanueva, J. Abreu-Afonso, G. Serafino, A. Bogoni, M. V. Andrés, and P. Pérez-Millán, “Comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of short- and long-term stability in a passively mode-locked solitonic fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4039–4049 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Gan, W. Zhang, T. Mei, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “WS2 saturable absorber for dissipative soliton mode locking at 1.06 and 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 27509–27519 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-R. Chen, C.-Y. Tsai, C.-Y. Chang, K.-H. Lin, C.-S. Chang, and W.-F. Hsieh, “Investigation of graphene dispersion from Kelly sideband in stable mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser by few-layer graphene saturable absorbers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 33, 4406–4412 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, E. J. Kelleher, R. C. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, T. Hasan, S. V. Popov, and J. R. Taylor, “Tunable Q-switched fiber laser based on saturable edge-state absorption in few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2),” Opt. Express 22, 31113–31122 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, L. Du, Z. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Bai, and H. Wang, “Magnetic field sensing based on tilted fiber Bragg grating coated with nanoparticle magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061903 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

2012 (4)

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. E. Ghandoor, H. M. Zidan, M. M. H. Khalil, and M. I. M. Ismail, “Synthesis and some physical properties of magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles,” Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 7, 5734–5745 (2012).

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

R. Hao, R. Xing, Z. Xu, Y. Hou, S. Gao, and S. Sun, “Synthesis, functionalization, and biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2729–2742 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Xing, J. Jiang, J. Y. Ying, and W. Ji, “Fe3O4-Ag nanocomposites for optical limiting: broad temporal response and low threshold,” Opt. Express 18, 6183–6190 (2010).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene mode-locked ultrafast laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 231–235 (2010).

2009 (2)

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. El-Diasty, H. M. El-Sayed, F. I. El-Hosiny, and M. I. M. Ismail, “Complex susceptibility analysis of magneto-fluids: optical band gap and surface studies on the nanomagnetite-based particles,” Curr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci. 13, 28–34 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. Odenbach, “Recent progress in magnetic fluid research,” J. Phys. 16, R1135–R1150 (2004).

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

Abramski, K. M.

G. Sobon, J. Sotor, and K. M. Abramski, “Passive harmonic mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on graphene saturable absorber with repetition rates scalable to 2.22  GHz,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100, 161109 (2012).
[Crossref]

Abreu-Afonso, J.

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics 6, 84–92 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ando, M.

M. Ando, K. Kadono, M. Haruta, T. Sakaguchi, and M. Miya, “Large third-order optical nonlinearities in transition-metal oxides,” Nature 374, 625–627 (1995).
[Crossref]

Andrés, M. V.

Ania-Castañón, J. D.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 231–235 (2010).

Babin, S. A.

S. K. Turitsyn, S. A. Babin, A. E. El-Taher, P. Harper, D. V. Churkin, S. I. Kablukov, J. D. Ania-Castañón, V. Karalekas, and E. V. Podivilov, “Random distributed feedback fibre laser,” Nat. Photonics 4, 231–235 (2010).

Bai, X.

X. Bai, C. Mou, L. Xu, S. Wang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 042701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bai, Y.

D. Yang, L. Du, Z. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Bai, and H. Wang, “Magnetic field sensing based on tilted fiber Bragg grating coated with nanoparticle magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bao, Q.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Basko, D. M.

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F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
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C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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Tang, D. Y.

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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Wen, S.

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
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Weng, J.

White, I. H.

F. Wang, A. G. Rozhin, V. Scardaci, Z. Sun, F. Hennrich, I. H. White, W. I. Milne, and A. C. Ferrari, “Wideband-tuneable, nanotube mode-locked, fibre laser,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 738–742 (2008).
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Wu, D.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Wu, X.

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xiao, J.-J.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J.-J. Xiao, R.-L. Wang, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Topological insulator-assisted dual-wavelength fiber laser delivering versatile pulse patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 0900108 (2016).

Xiao, Q.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1–7 (2016).
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Xing, R.

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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
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Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
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Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
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Xu, J.

D. Yang, L. Du, Z. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Bai, and H. Wang, “Magnetic field sensing based on tilted fiber Bragg grating coated with nanoparticle magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Xu, L.

X. Bai, C. Mou, L. Xu, S. Wang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 042701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, S.

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, W. C.

Xu, Y.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

D. Yang, L. Du, Z. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Bai, and H. Wang, “Magnetic field sensing based on tilted fiber Bragg grating coated with nanoparticle magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061903 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Hao, R. Xing, Z. Xu, Y. Hou, S. Gao, and S. Sun, “Synthesis, functionalization, and biomedical applications of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles,” Adv. Mater. 22, 2729–2742 (2010).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, D.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Yang, L. Du, Z. Xu, Y. Jiang, J. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Bai, and H. Wang, “Magnetic field sensing based on tilted fiber Bragg grating coated with nanoparticle magnetic fluid,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 061903 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yao, X.

X. Liu, Y. Cui, D. Han, X. Yao, and Z. Sun, “Distributed ultrafast fibre laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 9101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J.-J. Xiao, R.-L. Wang, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Topological insulator-assisted dual-wavelength fiber laser delivering versatile pulse patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 0900108 (2016).

Ye, G.

D. Li, H. Jussila, L. Karvonen, G. Ye, H. Lipsanen, X. Chen, and Z. Sun, “Polarization and thickness dependent absorption properties of black phosphorus: new saturable absorber for ultrafast pulse generation,” Sci. Rep. 5, 15899 (2015).
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Ying, J. Y.

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T. Hashimoto, T. Yamada, and T. Yoko, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of sol-gel derived α-Fe2O3, γ-Fe2O3, and Fe3O4 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3184–3190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Yu, H.

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, X.-F.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zeng, H.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Gan, W. Zhang, T. Mei, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “WS2 saturable absorber for dissipative soliton mode locking at 1.06 and 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 27509–27519 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

X. Bai, C. Mou, L. Xu, S. Wang, S. Pu, and X. Zeng, “Passively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 9, 042701 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

Y. Xu, Z. Wang, Z. Guo, H. Huang, Q. Xiao, H. Zhang, and X.-F. Yu, “Solvothermal synthesis and ultrafast photonics of black phosphorus quantum dots,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 3, 1–7 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, D. Wu, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, J. Peng, J. Weng, S. Xu, C. Zhu, F. Wang, Z. Sun, and H. Zhang, “Two-dimensional material-based saturable absorbers: towards compact visible-wavelength all-fiber pulsed lasers,” Nanoscale 8, 1066–1072 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: an emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. C. Luo, M. Liu, H. Liu, X. W. Zheng, A. P. Luo, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, and W. C. Xu, “2  GHz passively harmonic mode-locked fiber laser by a microfiber-based topological insulator saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 38, 5212–5215 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Tang, H. Zhang, L. M. Zhao, and X. Wu, “Observation of high-order polarization-locked vector solitons in a fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 153904 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.-Y.

B. Guo, Y. Yao, J.-J. Xiao, R.-L. Wang, and J.-Y. Zhang, “Topological insulator-assisted dual-wavelength fiber laser delivering versatile pulse patterns,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 22, 0900108 (2016).

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, R. C. T. Howe, R. I. Woodward, E. J. R. Kelleher, F. Torrisi, G. Hu, S. V. Popov, J. R. Taylor, and T. Hasan, “Solution processed MoS2-PVA composite for sub-bandgap mode-locking of a wideband tunable ultrafast Er:fiber laser,” Nano Res. 8, 1522–1534 (2015).
[Crossref]

R. I. Woodward, R. C. T. Howe, G. Hu, F. Torrisi, M. Zhang, T. Hasan, and E. J. R. Kelleher, “Few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers for short-pulse laser technology: current status and future perspectives,” Photon. Res. 3, A30–A42 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, S.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Gan, W. Zhang, T. Mei, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “WS2 saturable absorber for dissipative soliton mode locking at 1.06 and 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 27509–27519 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, Y. Wang, C. Ma, L. Han, B. Jiang, X. Gan, S. Hua, W. Zhang, T. Mei, and J. Zhao, “WS2 mode-locked ultrafast fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 7965 (2015).
[Crossref]

D. Mao, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, X. Gan, W. Zhang, T. Mei, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “WS2 saturable absorber for dissipative soliton mode locking at 1.06 and 1.55  μm,” Opt. Express 23, 27509–27519 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhao, C.

D. Mao, B. Jiang, X. Gan, C. Ma, Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. Zheng, and J. Zhao, “Soliton fiber laser mode locked with two types of film-based Bi2Te3 saturable absorbers,” Photon. Res. 3, A43–A46 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Chen, C. Zhao, H. Huang, S. Chen, P. Tang, Z. Wang, S. Lu, H. Zhang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Self-assembled topological insulator: Bi2Se3 membrane as a passive Q-switcher in an erbium-doped fiber laser,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31, 2857–2863 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C. J.

Zhao, J.

D. Mao, B. Du, D. Yang, S. Zhang, Y. Wang, W. Zhang, X. She, H. Cheng, H. Zeng, and J. Zhao, “Nonlinear saturable absorption of liquid-exfoliated molybdenum/tungsten ditelluride nanosheets,” Small 12, 1489–1497 (2016).
[Crossref]

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Scanning electron microscope image of Fe3O4 nanoparticles; the inset shows the suspension of the nanoparticles. (b) Atomic force microscope image. (c) Schematic diagram of preparing two filmy Fe3O4 SAs.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Side profiles of (a) Fe3O4-PVA film and (b) Fe3O4-PI film. Linear absorptions of (c) Fe3O4-PVA film and PVA film and (d) Fe3O4-PI film and PI film. Nonlinear absorption of (e) Fe3O4-PVA film and (f) Fe3O4-PI film in comparison with PVA film and PI film.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the Q-switched fiber laser. LD, laser diode; PI-ISO, polarization-independent isolator. The SA is based on Fe3O4-PI film or Fe3O4-PVA film.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a) Spectra of a continuous-wave laser and a Q-switched laser. Inset: radio frequency spectrum. (b) Pulse train. Inset: pulse profile. (c) Repetition rate, pulse duration, (d) output power, and pulse energy versus pump power. The SA is based on the Fe3O4-PVA film.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. (a) Spectrum of the Q-switched laser. Inset: radio frequency spectrum. (b) Pulse train. Inset: pulse profile. (c) Repetition rate, pulse duration, (d) output power, and pulse energy versus pump power. The SA is based on the Fe3O4-PI film.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Long-term stability of the Q-switched pulses at pump power of 50 mW. (a) and (b) are optical spectra based on Fe3O4-PVA SA and Fe3O4-PI SA, respectively. (c) Repetition rate and (d) output power.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparison of Two SAs and the Laser Performance

Metrics