Abstract

A simple semi-empirical model for radiative and Auger recombination constants is suggested, accounting for hole localization by composition fluctuations in InGaN alloys. Strengthening of fluctuation with the indium molar fraction in InGaN is found to be largely responsible for decreases in both the radiative and Auger recombination constants with emission wavelength. The model provides good fitting of the experimental spectral dependencies of the recombination constants, thus demonstrating implication of the carrier localization to light-emitting diode efficiency reduction in the “green gap.”

© 2017 Chinese Laser Press

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2016 (6)

S. Y. Karpov, “Light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting: searching room for improvements,” Proc. SPIE 9768, 97680C (2016).
[Crossref]

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrel, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24, 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Pristovsek, C. J. Humphreys, S. Bauer, M. Knab, K. Thonke, G. Kozlowski, D. O’Mahony, P. Maaskant, and B. Corbett, “Comparative study of (0001) and (112‾2) InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FJ10 (2016).
[Crossref]

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. Auf der Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. Di Carlo, “Efficiency drop in green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes: the role of random alloy fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 027401 (2016).
[Crossref]

M. J. Davies, P. Dawson, S. Hammersley, T. Zhu, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Comparative studies of efficiency droop in polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 252101 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (4)

S. Schulz, M. A. Caro, C. Coughlan, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Atomistic analysis of the impact of alloy and well-width fluctuations on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 035439 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C.-P. Massabuau, S.-L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 132106 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

2013 (9)

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Takagi, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, and K. Yanashima, “High-power and high-efficiency true green laser diodes,” SEI Tech. Rev. 77, 102–106 (2013).

T. Langer, H. Jönen, A. Kruse, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Strain-induced defects as nonradiative recombination centers in green-emitting GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 022108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Lobanova, A. L. Kolesnikova, A. E. Romanov, S. Y. Karpov, M. E. Rudinsky, and E. V. Yakovlev, “Mechanism of stress relaxation in (0001)InGaN/GaN via formation of V-shaped dislocation half-loops,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Galler, H.-J. Lugauer, M. Binder, R. Hollweck, Y. Folwill, A. Nirschl, A. Gomez-Iglesias, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, and M. Sabathil, “Experimental determination of the dominant type of Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 112101 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: a full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081106 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Vaxenburg, A. Rodina, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “The role of polarization fields in Auger-induced efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221111 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. A. Khrapak, “Effective Coulomb logarithm for one component plasma,” Phys. Plasma 20, 054501 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Y. Evstratov, and S. Y. Karpov, “Simulation of light-emitting diodes for new physics understanding and device design,” Proc. SPIE 8218, 827819 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Sizov and R. Bhat, “Gallium indium nitride-based green lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30, 679–699 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Valence band effective mass of non-c-plane nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123105 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. B. Stringfellow, “Microstructures produced during the epitaxial growth of InGaN alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 735–749 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: a differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43, 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1028–1040 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Morel, P. Lefebvre, S. Kalliakos, T. Taliercio, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Donor-acceptor-like behavior of electron-hole pair recombinations in low-dimensional (Ga, In)N/GaN systems,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045331 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

P. R. C. Kent and A. Zunger, “Carrier localization and the origin of luminescence in cubic InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1977–1979 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osin’ski, H. Li, and I. V. Akimova, “Recombination balance in green-light-emitting GaN/InGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3838–3840 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k·p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

A. P. Levanyuk and V. V. Osipov, “Edge luminescence of direct-bandgap semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. Usp. 24, 187–215 (1981).
[Crossref]

Abakumov, V. N.

V. N. Abakumov, V. I. Perel, and I. N. Yassievich, Nonradiative Recombination in Semiconductors (North Holland, 1991).

Akimova, I. V.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osin’ski, H. Li, and I. V. Akimova, “Recombination balance in green-light-emitting GaN/InGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3838–3840 (1999).
[Crossref]

Aldaz, R. I.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Alhassan, A. I.

Auf der Maur, M.

M. Auf der Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. Di Carlo, “Efficiency drop in green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes: the role of random alloy fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 027401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Bauer, S.

M. Pristovsek, C. J. Humphreys, S. Bauer, M. Knab, K. Thonke, G. Kozlowski, D. O’Mahony, P. Maaskant, and B. Corbett, “Comparative study of (0001) and (112‾2) InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FJ10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Baur, J.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bellotti, E.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: a full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081106 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bergbauer, W.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bertazzi, F.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: a full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081106 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011111 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

Binder, M.

B. Galler, H.-J. Lugauer, M. Binder, R. Hollweck, Y. Folwill, A. Nirschl, A. Gomez-Iglesias, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, and M. Sabathil, “Experimental determination of the dominant type of Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 112101 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bremers, H.

T. Langer, H. Jönen, A. Kruse, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Strain-induced defects as nonradiative recombination centers in green-emitting GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 022108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bretagnon, T.

A. Morel, P. Lefebvre, S. Kalliakos, T. Taliercio, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Donor-acceptor-like behavior of electron-hole pair recombinations in low-dimensional (Ga, In)N/GaN systems,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045331 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bulashevich, K. A.

K. A. Bulashevich, O. V. Khokhlev, I. Y. Evstratov, and S. Y. Karpov, “Simulation of light-emitting diodes for new physics understanding and device design,” Proc. SPIE 8218, 827819 (2012).
[Crossref]

Callsen, G.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Caro, M. A.

S. Schulz, M. A. Caro, C. Coughlan, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Atomistic analysis of the impact of alloy and well-width fluctuations on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 035439 (2015).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. S.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k·p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chuang, S. L.

S. L. Chuang and C. S. Chang, “k·p method for strained wurtzite semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 2491–2504 (1996).
[Crossref]

Cich, M. J.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Martinelli, L.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Massabuau, F. C.-P.

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C.-P. Massabuau, S.-L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 132106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Meyer, T.

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009).
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Minsky, M. S.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Morel, A.

A. Morel, P. Lefebvre, S. Kalliakos, T. Taliercio, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Donor-acceptor-like behavior of electron-hole pair recombinations in low-dimensional (Ga, In)N/GaN systems,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045331 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mughal, A.

Mukai, T.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43, 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrel, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24, 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

S. Takagi, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, and K. Yanashima, “High-power and high-efficiency true green laser diodes,” SEI Tech. Rev. 77, 102–106 (2013).

Narukawa, Y.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43, 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nenstiel, C.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nippert, F.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Nirschl, A.

B. Galler, H.-J. Lugauer, M. Binder, R. Hollweck, Y. Folwill, A. Nirschl, A. Gomez-Iglesias, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, and M. Sabathil, “Experimental determination of the dominant type of Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 112101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Noda, S.

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Valence band effective mass of non-c-plane nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123105 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nunoue, S.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Mahony, D.

M. Pristovsek, C. J. Humphreys, S. Bauer, M. Knab, K. Thonke, G. Kozlowski, D. O’Mahony, P. Maaskant, and B. Corbett, “Comparative study of (0001) and (112‾2) InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FJ10 (2016).
[Crossref]

O’Reilly, E. P.

S. Schulz, M. A. Caro, C. Coughlan, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Atomistic analysis of the impact of alloy and well-width fluctuations on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 035439 (2015).
[Crossref]

Oliver, R. A.

M. J. Davies, P. Dawson, S. Hammersley, T. Zhu, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Comparative studies of efficiency droop in polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 252101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C.-P. Massabuau, S.-L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 132106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Osin’ski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osin’ski, H. Li, and I. V. Akimova, “Recombination balance in green-light-emitting GaN/InGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3838–3840 (1999).
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M. Auf der Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. Di Carlo, “Efficiency drop in green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes: the role of random alloy fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 027401 (2016).
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Penazzi, G.

M. Auf der Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. Di Carlo, “Efficiency drop in green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes: the role of random alloy fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 027401 (2016).
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V. N. Abakumov, V. I. Perel, and I. N. Yassievich, Nonradiative Recombination in Semiconductors (North Holland, 1991).

Peretti, J.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 899–913 (2015).
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Peter, M.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Piccardo, M.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Pristovsek, M.

M. Pristovsek, C. J. Humphreys, S. Bauer, M. Knab, K. Thonke, G. Kozlowski, D. O’Mahony, P. Maaskant, and B. Corbett, “Comparative study of (0001) and (112‾2) InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FJ10 (2016).
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A. L. Efros and M. E. Raikh, “Effect of composition disorder on the electronic properties of semiconducting mixed crystals,” in Optical Properties of Mixed Crystals, R. J. Elliott and I. P. Ipatova, eds. (Elsevier, 1988), pp. 135–175.

Rinke, P.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rodina, A.

R. Vaxenburg, A. Rodina, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “The role of polarization fields in Auger-induced efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221111 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rodrigues, W.

M. Auf der Maur, A. Pecchia, G. Penazzi, W. Rodrigues, and A. Di Carlo, “Efficiency drop in green InGaN/GaN light emitting diodes: the role of random alloy fluctuations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 027401 (2016).
[Crossref]

Romanov, A. E.

A. V. Lobanova, A. L. Kolesnikova, A. E. Romanov, S. Y. Karpov, M. E. Rudinsky, and E. V. Yakovlev, “Mechanism of stress relaxation in (0001)InGaN/GaN via formation of V-shaped dislocation half-loops,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rossow, U.

T. Langer, H. Jönen, A. Kruse, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Strain-induced defects as nonradiative recombination centers in green-emitting GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 022108 (2013).
[Crossref]

Rudinsky, M. E.

A. V. Lobanova, A. L. Kolesnikova, A. E. Romanov, S. Y. Karpov, M. E. Rudinsky, and E. V. Yakovlev, “Mechanism of stress relaxation in (0001)InGaN/GaN via formation of V-shaped dislocation half-loops,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sabathil, M.

B. Galler, H.-J. Lugauer, M. Binder, R. Hollweck, Y. Folwill, A. Nirschl, A. Gomez-Iglesias, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, and M. Sabathil, “Experimental determination of the dominant type of Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 112101 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Peter, A. Laubsch, W. Bergbauer, T. Meyer, M. Sabathil, J. Baur, and B. Hahn, “New developments in green LEDs,” Phys. Status Solidi A 206, 1125–1129 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sahonta, S.-L.

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C.-P. Massabuau, S.-L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 132106 (2015).
[Crossref]

Saifaddin, B.

Saito, S.

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sanga, D.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43, 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

Y. Narukawa, M. Ichikawa, D. Sanga, M. Sano, and T. Mukai, “White light emitting diodes with super-high luminous efficacy,” J. Phys. D 43, 354002 (2010).
[Crossref]

Schiavon, D.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scholz, F.

D. Schiavon, M. Binder, M. Peter, B. Galler, P. Drechsel, and F. Scholz, “Wavelength-dependent determination of the recombination rate coefficients in single-quantum-well GaInN/GaN light emitting diodes,” Phys. Status Solidi B 250, 283–290 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schulz, S.

S. Schulz, M. A. Caro, C. Coughlan, and E. P. O’Reilly, “Atomistic analysis of the impact of alloy and well-width fluctuations on the electronic and optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 91, 035439 (2015).
[Crossref]

Sizov, D.

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

A. I. Alhassan, R. M. Farrel, B. Saifaddin, A. Mughal, F. Wu, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and J. S. Speck, “High luminous efficacy green light-emitting diodes with AlGaN cap layer,” Opt. Express 24, 17868–17873 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

Steranka, F. M.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

Straßburg, M.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
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G. B. Stringfellow, “Microstructures produced during the epitaxial growth of InGaN alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 735–749 (2010).
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Takagi, S.

S. Takagi, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, and K. Yanashima, “High-power and high-efficiency true green laser diodes,” SEI Tech. Rev. 77, 102–106 (2013).

Taliercio, T.

A. Morel, P. Lefebvre, S. Kalliakos, T. Taliercio, T. Bretagnon, and B. Gil, “Donor-acceptor-like behavior of electron-hole pair recombinations in low-dimensional (Ga, In)N/GaN systems,” Phys. Rev. B 68, 045331 (2003).
[Crossref]

Thonke, K.

M. Pristovsek, C. J. Humphreys, S. Bauer, M. Knab, K. Thonke, G. Kozlowski, D. O’Mahony, P. Maaskant, and B. Corbett, “Comparative study of (0001) and (112‾2) InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 55, 05FJ10 (2016).
[Crossref]

Tyagi, A.

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
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Ueno, M.

S. Takagi, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, and K. Yanashima, “High-power and high-efficiency true green laser diodes,” SEI Tech. Rev. 77, 102–106 (2013).

Van de Walle, C. G.

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Vaxenburg, R.

R. Vaxenburg, A. Rodina, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “The role of polarization fields in Auger-induced efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221111 (2013).
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Wagner, J.

B. Galler, H.-J. Lugauer, M. Binder, R. Hollweck, Y. Folwill, A. Nirschl, A. Gomez-Iglesias, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, and M. Sabathil, “Experimental determination of the dominant type of Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 112101 (2013).
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Wagner, M. R.

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
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Weisbuch, C.

C. Weisbuch, M. Piccardo, L. Martinelli, J. Iveland, J. Peretti, and J. S. Speck, “The efficiency challenge of nitride light-emitting diodes for lighting,” Phys. Status Solidi A 212, 899–913 (2015).
[Crossref]

Wu, F.

Yakovlev, E. V.

A. V. Lobanova, A. L. Kolesnikova, A. E. Romanov, S. Y. Karpov, M. E. Rudinsky, and E. V. Yakovlev, “Mechanism of stress relaxation in (0001)InGaN/GaN via formation of V-shaped dislocation half-loops,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yanashima, K.

S. Takagi, M. Ueno, K. Katayama, T. Ikegami, T. Nakamura, and K. Yanashima, “High-power and high-efficiency true green laser diodes,” SEI Tech. Rev. 77, 102–106 (2013).

Yassievich, I. N.

V. N. Abakumov, V. I. Perel, and I. N. Yassievich, Nonradiative Recombination in Semiconductors (North Holland, 1991).

Zhou, X.

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: a full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081106 (2013).
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Zhu, T.

M. J. Davies, P. Dawson, S. Hammersley, T. Zhu, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Comparative studies of efficiency droop in polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 252101 (2016).
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Zunger, A.

P. R. C. Kent and A. Zunger, “Carrier localization and the origin of luminescence in cubic InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1977–1979 (2001).
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Appl. Phys. Express (2)

S. Saito, R. Hashimoto, J. Hwang, and S. Nunoue, “InGaN light-emitting diodes on c-face sapphire substrates in green gap spectral range,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 111004 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Galler, H.-J. Lugauer, M. Binder, R. Hollweck, Y. Folwill, A. Nirschl, A. Gomez-Iglesias, B. Hahn, J. Wagner, and M. Sabathil, “Experimental determination of the dominant type of Auger recombination in InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 112101 (2013).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (14)

F. Bertazzi, X. Zhou, M. Goano, G. Ghione, and E. Bellotti, “Auger recombination in InGaN/GaN quantum wells: a full-Brillouin-zone study,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 081106 (2013).
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M. J. Davies, P. Dawson, S. Hammersley, T. Zhu, M. J. Kappers, C. J. Humphreys, and R. A. Oliver, “Comparative studies of efficiency droop in polar and non-polar InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 108, 252101 (2016).
[Crossref]

S. F. Chichibu, H. Marchand, M. S. Minsky, S. Keller, P. T. Fini, J. P. Ibbetson, S. B. Fleischer, J. S. Speck, J. E. Bowers, E. Hu, U. K. Mishra, S. P. DenBaars, T. Deguchi, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Emission mechanisms of bulk GaN and InGaN quantum wells prepared by lateral epitaxial overgrowth,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 1460–1462 (1999).
[Crossref]

F. Nippert, S. Y. Karpov, G. Callsen, B. Galler, T. Kure, C. Nenstiel, M. R. Wagner, M. Straßburg, H.-J. Lugauer, and A. Hoffmann, “Temperature-dependent recombination coefficients in InGaN light-emitting diodes: hole localization, Auger processes, and the green gap,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 161103 (2016).
[Crossref]

P. R. C. Kent and A. Zunger, “Carrier localization and the origin of luminescence in cubic InGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 1977–1979 (2001).
[Crossref]

C. A. Hurni, A. David, M. J. Cich, R. I. Aldaz, B. Ellis, K. Huang, A. Tyagi, R. A. DeLille, M. D. Craven, F. M. Steranka, and M. R. Krames, “Bulk GaN flip-chip light-emitting diodes with optimized efficiency for high-power operation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 106, 031101 (2015).
[Crossref]

T. Langer, H. Jönen, A. Kruse, H. Bremers, U. Rossow, and A. Hangleiter, “Strain-induced defects as nonradiative recombination centers in green-emitting GaInN/GaN quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 022108 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. V. Lobanova, A. L. Kolesnikova, A. E. Romanov, S. Y. Karpov, M. E. Rudinsky, and E. V. Yakovlev, “Mechanism of stress relaxation in (0001)InGaN/GaN via formation of V-shaped dislocation half-loops,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 152106 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Hammersley, M. J. Kappers, F. C.-P. Massabuau, S.-L. Sahonta, P. Dawson, R. A. Oliver, and C. J. Humphreys, “Effects of quantum well growth temperature on the recombination efficiency of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells that emit in the green and blue spectral regions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 132106 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, M. Osin’ski, H. Li, and I. V. Akimova, “Recombination balance in green-light-emitting GaN/InGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 3838–3840 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: a differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96, 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Vaxenburg, A. Rodina, E. Lifshitz, and A. L. Efros, “The role of polarization fields in Auger-induced efficiency droop in nitride-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 221111 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Kioupakis, P. Rinke, K. T. Delaney, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Indirect Auger recombination as a cause of efficiency droop in nitride light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 161107 (2011).
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F. Bertazzi, M. Goano, and E. Bellotti, “Numerical analysis of indirect Auger transitions in InGaN,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 011111 (2012).
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M. H. Crawford, “LEDs for solid-state lighting: performance challenges and recent advances,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 15, 1028–1040 (2009).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kojima, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, and S. Noda, “Valence band effective mass of non-c-plane nitride heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 107, 123105 (2010).
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G. B. Stringfellow, “Microstructures produced during the epitaxial growth of InGaN alloys,” J. Cryst. Growth 312, 735–749 (2010).
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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) Hole localization radius and energy factors corresponding to different electron kinetic energies Ee and (b) B/C ratio as a function of emission wavelength. Balls are data from [15], lines are calculations.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Experimental [15] (balls) and theoretical (lines) radiative recombination constants calculated for (a) bulk InGaN and representative QWs and (b) for bulk InGaN with account of hole localization at different electron kinetic energies. Note that theoretical scales are shifted with respect to the experimental one for better comparison of spectral dependence of the B-constants.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental [15] (balls) and theoretical (lines) total Auger recombination constants calculated for (a) bulk InGaN with the account of phonon-assisted processes and (b) hole localization. Note that theoretical scales are shifted with respect to the experimental one for better comparison of spectral dependence of the C-constants.

Equations (4)

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B=64πνBaL3ξ4;νB=2αnrEgEP3m0c2,ξ=mhELmhEL+meEe.
C=64π23EB(EeEg)aL3aG3lnΛ;aG=[2me(EgEL)]1/2.
EL=αh4x2(1x)2mh3γ6N2,γ=18π2178.
B3D=νB/NCV,BQW=νBΩ/NQWdQW,NCV=2[(me+mh)kT/2π2]3/2,NQW=2[(me+mh)kT/2π2].

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