Abstract

In this paper, the fabrication process and characterization of Bi2Te3 topological insulators (TIs) synthesized by the spin-coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) is reported. With this approach, high-uniformity nano-crystalline TI saturable absorbers (TISAs) with large-area uniformity and controllable thickness are prepared. By employing these prepared TIs with different thicknesses as SAs in 2-μm solid-state Q-switched lasers, thickness-dependent output powers and pulse durations of the laser pulses are obtained, and the result also exhibits stability and reliability. The shortest pulse duration is as short as 233 ns, and the corresponding clock amplitude jitter is around 2.1%, which is the shortest pulse duration in TISA-based Q-switched 2-μm lasers to the best of our knowledge. Moreover, in comparison with the TISA synthesized by the ultrasound-assisted liquid phase exfoliation (UALPE) method, the experimental results show that lasers with SCCA synthesized TISAs have higher output powers, shorter pulse durations, and higher pulse peak powers. Our work suggests that the SCCA synthesized TISAs could be used as potential SAs in pulsed lasers.

© 2018 Chinese Laser Press

Full Article  |  PDF Article

Corrections

11 April 2018: A typographical correction was made to the abstract.


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References

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2017 (5)

Y. Cheng, J. Peng, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and J. Weng, “Passive Q-switching of Pr:LiYF4 orange laser at 604  nm using topological insulators Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 88, 275–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, P. Lee, B. Zhang, Y. Sang, J. He, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Optical nonlinearity engineering of a bismuth telluride saturable absorber and application of a pulsed solid state laser therein,” Nanoscale 9, 19100–19107 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Wang, C. Zhang, C. Jiang, and T. Rabczuk, “The effects of vacancy and oxidation on black phosphorus nanoresonators,” Nanotechnology 28, 135202 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, K. Yang, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. He, J. Bian, L. Zheng, L. Su, and J. Xu, “High-power passively Q-switched 2  μm all-solid-state laser based on a Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 5, 461–466 (2017).
[Crossref]

2016 (7)

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 603–609 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. He, Z. Wang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, R. Zhao, K. Han, K. Yang, H. Nie, and X. Sun, “Dual-wavelength, passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with black phosphorus saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2328–2335 (2016).
[Crossref]

Z. Chu, J. Liu, Z. Guo, and H. Zhang, “2  μm passively Q-switched laser based on black phosphorus,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2374–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

C. Luan, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, L. Song, T. Li, H. Chu, J. Qiao, C. Wang, Z. Li, S. Jiang, B. Man, and L. Zheng, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for Q-switched 2 micron lasers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3783–3786 (2016).
[Crossref]

N. Muhammad Apandi, F. Ahmad, S. Zuikafly, M. Ibrahim, and S. Harun, “Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator embed in PVA as passivle Q-switcher at 2 micron region,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 8, 101–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
[Crossref]

2015 (9)

Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Guo, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “A roadmap for controlled production of topological insulator nanostructures and thin films,” Small 11, 3290–3305 (2015).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, ““Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.8-μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 0900206 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, G. Xie, P. Yuan, L. Qian, S. Wang, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operations of 2  μm Tm:CLNGG laser with MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photon. Res. 3, A47–A50 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, C. Lee, J. Xu, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Gao, H. Xia, Z. You, and C. Tu, “Passively Q-switched tri-wavelength Yb3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 solid-state laser with topological insulator Bi2Te3 as saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, A97–A101 (2015).
[Crossref]

P. Ge, J. Liu, S. Jiang, Y. Xu, and B. Man, “Compact Q-switched 2  μm Tm:GdVO4 laser with MoS2 absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, 256–259 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (3)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (6)

Y. Glinka, S. Babakiray, T. Johnson, A. Bristow, M. Holcomb, and D. Lederman, “Direct optical coupling to an unoccupied dirac surface state in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151903 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Abe, J. Kojou, K. Masuda, and F. Kannari, “Cr4+-doped Y3Al5O12 as a saturable absorber for a Q-switched and mode-locked 639-nm Pr3+-doped LiYF4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032703 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Zhu, X. Zhu, K. Balakrishnan, R. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Fe2+:ZnSe and graphene Q-switched singly Ho3+-doped ZBLAN fiber lasers at 3  μm,” Opt. Mater. Express 3, 1365–1377 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, B. Ma, X. Chen, Q. Wang, X. Tao, and P. Li, “Passively Q-switched performance of a Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 eye-safe laser at 1423.4  nm with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 as saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 52, 8576–8580 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (4)

J. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Qu, and X. Fan, “2  μm passive Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+:YAP laser with single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 960–962 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sobota, S. Yang, J. Analytis, Y. Chen, I. Fisher, P. Kirchmann, and Z. Shen, “Ultrafast optical excitation of a persisitent surface-state population in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117403 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Stoeppler, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and M. Eichhorn, “Tunable mid-infrared ZnGeP2 RISTRA OPO pumped by periodically-poled Rb:KTP optical parametric master-oscillator power amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 4509–4517 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

2009 (2)

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

F. Qamar and T. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fiber laser near 2  μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Gaponenko, I. Denisov, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, A. Zhilin, A. Onushchenko, N. Kuleshov, and K. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 787–791 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2000 (1)

1995 (1)

J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. Zayhowski and P. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

Abe, R.

R. Abe, J. Kojou, K. Masuda, and F. Kannari, “Cr4+-doped Y3Al5O12 as a saturable absorber for a Q-switched and mode-locked 639-nm Pr3+-doped LiYF4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032703 (2013).
[Crossref]

Aguilo, M.

Ahmad, F.

N. Muhammad Apandi, F. Ahmad, S. Zuikafly, M. Ibrahim, and S. Harun, “Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator embed in PVA as passivle Q-switcher at 2 micron region,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 8, 101–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Analytis, J.

J. Sobota, S. Yang, J. Analytis, Y. Chen, I. Fisher, P. Kirchmann, and Z. Shen, “Ultrafast optical excitation of a persisitent surface-state population in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Babakiray, S.

Y. Glinka, S. Babakiray, T. Johnson, A. Bristow, M. Holcomb, and D. Lederman, “Direct optical coupling to an unoccupied dirac surface state in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151903 (2013).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, K.

Bao, Q.

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Y. Wang, P. Lee, B. Zhang, Y. Sang, J. He, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Optical nonlinearity engineering of a bismuth telluride saturable absorber and application of a pulsed solid state laser therein,” Nanoscale 9, 19100–19107 (2017).
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Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, C. Lee, J. Xu, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Gao, H. Xia, Z. You, and C. Tu, “Passively Q-switched tri-wavelength Yb3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 solid-state laser with topological insulator Bi2Te3 as saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, A97–A101 (2015).
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P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.8-μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 0900206 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.8-μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 0900206 (2015).
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Y. Wang, P. Lee, B. Zhang, Y. Sang, J. He, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Optical nonlinearity engineering of a bismuth telluride saturable absorber and application of a pulsed solid state laser therein,” Nanoscale 9, 19100–19107 (2017).
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Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
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P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

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Li, G.

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Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

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P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

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Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

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L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
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Liu, A.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
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Y. Wang, P. Lee, B. Zhang, Y. Sang, J. He, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Optical nonlinearity engineering of a bismuth telluride saturable absorber and application of a pulsed solid state laser therein,” Nanoscale 9, 19100–19107 (2017).
[Crossref]

P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

Liu, J.

Liu, Q.

Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
[Crossref]

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L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
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Ma, B.

Malyarevich, A.

M. Gaponenko, I. Denisov, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, A. Zhilin, A. Onushchenko, N. Kuleshov, and K. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 787–791 (2008).
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Man, B.

Masuda, K.

R. Abe, J. Kojou, K. Masuda, and F. Kannari, “Cr4+-doped Y3Al5O12 as a saturable absorber for a Q-switched and mode-locked 639-nm Pr3+-doped LiYF4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032703 (2013).
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Ni, Z.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Norwood, R.

Onushchenko, A.

M. Gaponenko, I. Denisov, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, A. Zhilin, A. Onushchenko, N. Kuleshov, and K. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 787–791 (2008).
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Y. Cheng, J. Peng, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and J. Weng, “Passive Q-switching of Pr:LiYF4 orange laser at 604  nm using topological insulators Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 88, 275–279 (2017).
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L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
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Peyghambarian, N.

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Pujol, M.

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F. Qamar and T. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fiber laser near 2  μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2008).
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C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
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C. Luan, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, L. Song, T. Li, H. Chu, J. Qiao, C. Wang, Z. Li, S. Jiang, B. Man, and L. Zheng, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for Q-switched 2 micron lasers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3783–3786 (2016).
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X. Liu, K. Yang, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. He, J. Bian, L. Zheng, L. Su, and J. Xu, “High-power passively Q-switched 2  μm all-solid-state laser based on a Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 5, 461–466 (2017).
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C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
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J. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Qu, and X. Fan, “2  μm passive Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+:YAP laser with single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 960–962 (2012).
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Sang, Y.

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Schmidt, A.

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J. Sobota, S. Yang, J. Analytis, Y. Chen, I. Fisher, P. Kirchmann, and Z. Shen, “Ultrafast optical excitation of a persisitent surface-state population in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117403 (2012).
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Y. Sun, C. Lee, J. Xu, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Gao, H. Xia, Z. You, and C. Tu, “Passively Q-switched tri-wavelength Yb3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 solid-state laser with topological insulator Bi2Te3 as saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, A97–A101 (2015).
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Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
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Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
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Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
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Tonelli, M.

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Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
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Tu, C.

Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
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Y. Sun, C. Lee, J. Xu, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Gao, H. Xia, Z. You, and C. Tu, “Passively Q-switched tri-wavelength Yb3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 solid-state laser with topological insulator Bi2Te3 as saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, A97–A101 (2015).
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P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

Wang, A.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, ““Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5292–5299 (2015).
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B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
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Wang, J.

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
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B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
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H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
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Wang, S.

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, P. Lee, B. Zhang, Y. Sang, J. He, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Optical nonlinearity engineering of a bismuth telluride saturable absorber and application of a pulsed solid state laser therein,” Nanoscale 9, 19100–19107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, C. Lee, J. Xu, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Gao, H. Xia, Z. You, and C. Tu, “Passively Q-switched tri-wavelength Yb3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 solid-state laser with topological insulator Bi2Te3 as saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, A97–A101 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
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J. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Qu, and X. Fan, “2  μm passive Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+:YAP laser with single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 960–962 (2012).
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H. Zhang, J. He, Z. Wang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, R. Zhao, K. Han, K. Yang, H. Nie, and X. Sun, “Dual-wavelength, passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with black phosphorus saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2328–2335 (2016).
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Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
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B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weng, J.

Y. Cheng, J. Peng, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and J. Weng, “Passive Q-switching of Pr:LiYF4 orange laser at 604  nm using topological insulators Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 88, 275–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.

Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wu, K.

Wu, Y.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, ““Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5292–5299 (2015).
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J. Xu, X. Li, Y. Wu, X. Hao, J. He, and K. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1948–1950 (2011).
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Xiao, C.

Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
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Xie, G.

Xie, Y.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, B.

Y. Cheng, J. Peng, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and J. Weng, “Passive Q-switching of Pr:LiYF4 orange laser at 604  nm using topological insulators Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 88, 275–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

Y. Cheng, J. Peng, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and J. Weng, “Passive Q-switching of Pr:LiYF4 orange laser at 604  nm using topological insulators Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 88, 275–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, J.

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, K. Yang, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. He, J. Bian, L. Zheng, L. Su, and J. Xu, “High-power passively Q-switched 2  μm all-solid-state laser based on a Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 5, 461–466 (2017).
[Crossref]

Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun, C. Lee, J. Xu, Z. Zhu, Y. Wang, S. Gao, H. Xia, Z. You, and C. Tu, “Passively Q-switched tri-wavelength Yb3+:GdAl3(BO3)4 solid-state laser with topological insulator Bi2Te3 as saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 3, A97–A101 (2015).
[Crossref]

J. Xu, X. Li, Y. Wu, X. Hao, J. He, and K. Yang, “Graphene saturable absorber mirror for ultra-fast-pulse solid-state laser,” Opt. Lett. 36, 1948–1950 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

Xu, X.

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
[Crossref]

Xu, Y.

Yan, P.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Yan, Y.

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, K.

Yang, S.

J. Sobota, S. Yang, J. Analytis, Y. Chen, I. Fisher, P. Kirchmann, and Z. Shen, “Ultrafast optical excitation of a persisitent surface-state population in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yao, B.

Yim, J.

Yin, K.

You, Z.

Yu, H.

H. Yu, X. Zheng, K. Yin, X. Cheng, and T. Jiang, “Nanosecond passively Q-switched thulium/holmium-doped fiber laser based on black phosphorus nanoplatelets,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 603–609 (2016).
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L. Kong, G. Xie, P. Yuan, L. Qian, S. Wang, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operations of 2  μm Tm:CLNGG laser with MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photon. Res. 3, A47–A50 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yuan, P.

Yumashev, K.

M. Gaponenko, I. Denisov, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, A. Zhilin, A. Onushchenko, N. Kuleshov, and K. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 787–791 (2008).
[Crossref]

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J. Zayhowski and P. Kelley, “Optimization of Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2220–2225 (1991).
[Crossref]

Zhang, B.

Zhang, C.

C. Wang, C. Zhang, C. Jiang, and T. Rabczuk, “The effects of vacancy and oxidation on black phosphorus nanoresonators,” Nanotechnology 28, 135202 (2017).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

X. Liu, K. Yang, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Zhang, B. Zhang, J. He, J. Bian, L. Zheng, L. Su, and J. Xu, “High-power passively Q-switched 2  μm all-solid-state laser based on a Bi2Te3 saturable absorber,” Photon. Res. 5, 461–466 (2017).
[Crossref]

Z. Chu, J. Liu, Z. Guo, and H. Zhang, “2  μm passively Q-switched laser based on black phosphorus,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2374–2379 (2016).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, J. He, Z. Wang, J. Hou, B. Zhang, R. Zhao, K. Han, K. Yang, H. Nie, and X. Sun, “Dual-wavelength, passively Q-switched Tm:YAP laser with black phosphorus saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 6, 2328–2335 (2016).
[Crossref]

L. Kong, G. Xie, P. Yuan, L. Qian, S. Wang, H. Yu, and H. Zhang, “Passive Q-switching and Q-switched mode-locking operations of 2  μm Tm:CLNGG laser with MoS2 saturable absorber mirror,” Photon. Res. 3, A47–A50 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Zhang, B. Ma, X. Chen, Q. Wang, X. Tao, and P. Li, “Passively Q-switched performance of a Nd:Gd3Ga5O12 eye-safe laser at 1423.4  nm with Co2+:LaMgAl11O19 as saturable absorber,” Appl. Opt. 52, 8576–8580 (2013).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
[Crossref]

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, C.

B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhao, G.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, ““Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhao, J.

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
[Crossref]

C. Luan, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, L. Song, T. Li, H. Chu, J. Qiao, C. Wang, Z. Li, S. Jiang, B. Man, and L. Zheng, “WS2 as a saturable absorber for Q-switched 2 micron lasers,” Opt. Lett. 41, 3783–3786 (2016).
[Crossref]

Zhao, M.

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, ““Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhao, R.

Zhao, S.

Zhao, Y.

P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

Zheng, L.

Zheng, X.

Zheng, Y.

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Zhilin, A.

M. Gaponenko, I. Denisov, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, A. Zhilin, A. Onushchenko, N. Kuleshov, and K. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 787–791 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, G.

Zhu, X.

Zhu, Z.

Zuikafly, S.

N. Muhammad Apandi, F. Ahmad, S. Zuikafly, M. Ibrahim, and S. Harun, “Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator embed in PVA as passivle Q-switcher at 2 micron region,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 8, 101–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

ACS Photon. (1)

Y. Lin, S. Lin, Y. Chi, C. Wu, C. Cheng, W. Tseng, J. He, C. Wu, C. Lee, and G. Lin, “Using n- and p-type Bi2Te3 topological insulator nanoparticles to enable controlled femtosecond mode-locking of fiber lasers,” ACS Photon. 2, 481–490 (2015).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

G. Zhao, S. Han, A. Wang, Y. Wu, M. Zhao, Z. Wang, and X. Hao, ““Chemical weathering” exfoliation of atom-thick transition metal dichalcogenides and their ultrafast saturable absorption properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 25, 5292–5299 (2015).
[Crossref]

Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. Shen, K. Loh, and D. Tang, “Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, A. Wang, M. Zhao, Y. Chen, L. Mei, and J. Wang, “Broadband few-layer MoS2 saturable absorbers,” Adv. Mater. 26, 3538–3544 (2014).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Gaponenko, I. Denisov, V. Kisel, A. Malyarevich, A. Zhilin, A. Onushchenko, N. Kuleshov, and K. Yumashev, “Diode-pumped Tm:KY(WO4)2 laser passively Q-switched with PbS-doped glass,” Appl. Phys. B 93, 787–791 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

R. Abe, J. Kojou, K. Masuda, and F. Kannari, “Cr4+-doped Y3Al5O12 as a saturable absorber for a Q-switched and mode-locked 639-nm Pr3+-doped LiYF4 laser,” Appl. Phys. Express 6, 032703 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Glinka, S. Babakiray, T. Johnson, A. Bristow, M. Holcomb, and D. Lederman, “Direct optical coupling to an unoccupied dirac surface state in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103, 151903 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. Degnan, “Optimization of passively Q-switched lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1890–1901 (1995).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

C. Luan, X. Zhang, K. Yang, J. Zhao, S. Zhao, T. Li, W. Qiao, H. Chu, J. Qiao, J. Wang, L. Zheng, X. Xu, and J. Xu, “High-peak power passively Q-switched 2-μm laser with MoS2 saturable absorber,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 23, 1600105 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, M. Jung, J. Koo, C. Chi, and J. Lee, “Passively Q-switched 1.8-μm fiber laser using a bulk-structured Bi2Te3 topological insulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 21, 0900206 (2015).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

Y. Lin, P. Lee, J. Xu, C. Wu, C. Chou, C. Tu, M. Chou, and C. Lee, “High-pulse-energy topological insulator Bi2Te3-based passive Q-switched solid-state laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 8, 1502710 (2016).
[Crossref]

B. Wang, H. Yu, H. Zhang, C. Zhao, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator simultaneously Q-switched dual-wavelength Nd:Lu2O3 laser,” IEEE Photon. J. 6, 1501007 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

Y. Sun, H. Cheng, S. Gao, Q. Liu, Z. Sun, C. Xiao, C. Wu, S. Wei, and Y. Xie, “Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding singly layers achieving enhanced thermoelctric energy harvesting,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134, 20294–20297 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

H. Yu, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, C. Zhao, B. Wang, S. Wen, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “Topological insulator as an optical modulator for pulsed solid-state lasers,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7, L77–L83 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nanoscale (1)

Y. Wang, P. Lee, B. Zhang, Y. Sang, J. He, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Optical nonlinearity engineering of a bismuth telluride saturable absorber and application of a pulsed solid state laser therein,” Nanoscale 9, 19100–19107 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Wang, C. Zhang, C. Jiang, and T. Rabczuk, “The effects of vacancy and oxidation on black phosphorus nanoresonators,” Nanotechnology 28, 135202 (2017).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics 2, 219–225 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Qamar and T. King, “Passive Q-switching of the Tm-silica fiber laser near 2  μm by a Cr2+:ZnSe saturable absorber crystal,” Opt. Commun. 248, 501–508 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

Y. Xie, L. Kong, Z. Qin, G. Xie, and J. Zhang, “Black phosphorus-based saturable absorber for Q-switched Tm:YAG ceramic laser,” Opt. Eng. 55, 081307 (2016).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

B. Chen, X. Zhang, K. Wu, H. Wang, J. Wang, and J. Chen, “Q-switched fiber laser based on transition metal dichalcogenides MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2,” Opt. Express 23, 26723–26737 (2015).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lagatsky, S. Calvez, J. A. Gupta, V. E. Kisel, N. V. Kuleshov, C. T. A. Brown, M. D. Dawson, and W. Sibbett, “Broadly tunable femtosecond mode-locking in a Tm:KYW laser near 2  μm,” Opt. Express 19, 9995–10000 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Stoeppler, D. Parisi, M. Tonelli, and M. Eichhorn, “Tunable mid-infrared ZnGeP2 RISTRA OPO pumped by periodically-poled Rb:KTP optical parametric master-oscillator power amplifier,” Opt. Express 20, 4509–4517 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Yao, Y. Tian, G. Li, and Y. Wang, “InGaAs/GaAs saturable absorber for diode-pumped passively Q-switched dual-wavelength Tm:YAP lasers,” Opt. Express 18, 13574–13579 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. Cho, A. Schmidt, J. Yim, S. Choi, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, X. Mateos, M. Pujol, J. Carvajal, M. Aguilo, and F. Diaz, “Passive mode-locking of a Tm-doped bulk laser near 2  μm using a carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 17, 11007–11012 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express 13, 8025–8031 (2005).
[Crossref]

Z. Luo, Y. Huang, J. Weng, H. Cheng, Z. Lin, B. Xu, Z. Cai, and H. Xu, “1.06  μm Q-switched ytterbium-dope fiber laser using few-layer topological insulator Bi2Se3 as a saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 29516–29522 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Laser Technol. (2)

Y. Cheng, J. Peng, B. Xu, H. Xu, Z. Cai, and J. Weng, “Passive Q-switching of Pr:LiYF4 orange laser at 604  nm using topological insulators Bi2Se3 as saturable absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 88, 275–279 (2017).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Qu, and X. Fan, “2  μm passive Q-switched mode-locked Tm3+:YAP laser with single-walled carbon nanotube absorber,” Opt. Laser Technol. 44, 960–962 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Opt. Mater. Express (4)

Photon. Lett. Pol. (1)

N. Muhammad Apandi, F. Ahmad, S. Zuikafly, M. Ibrahim, and S. Harun, “Bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) topological insulator embed in PVA as passivle Q-switcher at 2 micron region,” Photon. Lett. Pol. 8, 101–103 (2016).
[Crossref]

Photon. Res. (4)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Sobota, S. Yang, J. Analytis, Y. Chen, I. Fisher, P. Kirchmann, and Z. Shen, “Ultrafast optical excitation of a persisitent surface-state population in the topological insulator Bi2Se3,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 117403 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sci. Rep. (2)

L. Sun, Z. Lin, J. Peng, J. Weng, Y. Huang, and Z. Luo, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth selenide by liquid-phase-exfoliation and its optical absorption properties,” Sci. Rep. 4, 4794 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Yan, R. Lin, S. Ruan, A. Liu, H. Chen, Y. Zheng, S. Chen, C. Guo, and J. Hu, “A practical topological insulator saturable absorber for mode-locked fiber laser,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8690 (2015).
[Crossref]

Small (1)

Y. Guo, Z. Liu, and H. Peng, “A roadmap for controlled production of topological insulator nanostructures and thin films,” Small 11, 3290–3305 (2015).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

P. Lee, Y. Sang, Y. Zhao, J. Xu, C. Tu, H. Liu, and C. Lee, “Preparation of few-layer bismuth telluride films by spin coating-coreduction approach (SCCA) and laser test,” in Lasers Congress 2016 (ASSL, LSC, LAC) (Optical Society of America, 2016), paper AM5A.27.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. AFM images and height variations of four TISAs. (a) TISA1; (b) TISA2; (c) TISA3; (d) TISA4.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Nonlinear transmittance curves versus input pulse influences.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Experimental setup of the Q -switched laser.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Average output powers of Q -switched lasers with different TISAs and different OCs.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Laser performances of Q -switched lasers with different TISAs versus incident pump powers. (a) Pulse durations; inset shows the temporal profile of the shortest duration of laser with TISA3 under pump power of 9.81 W; (b) pulse repetition rates; (c) single pulse energies; (d) pulse peak powers.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) The pulse train of laser with TISA3 under pump power of 9.81 W, and the inset shows the corresponding spectrum; (b) stability of average output power of Q -switched laser with TISA3 at the incident pump power of 9.81 W.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Comparisons of 2-μm Passively Q -Switched Lasers with BP, MoS 2 , WS 2 , and Bi 2 Te 3 SAs a

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E = P / f ,
P P = E / t ,
CAJ = σ M × 100 % .

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