Data transmission over short distances with unprecedented high bandwidth is potentially one step closer to becoming reality due to the recent invention by Pei-Ren Tang and co-workers. Their approach to terahertz (THz) wave amplitude modulation (AM) builds on the proven concept of varying free electron concentrations by electrically tuning the Fermi level of monolayer graphene. Furthermore, the THz wave amplitude modulator is realized in a robust field effect transistor configuration. The device modulates the amplitudes of incident THz waves in reflection geometry and effectively exploits Fabry Perot resonances within the device to enhance THz wave amplitude modulation depths. The versatile device design enables modulation of pulsed and continuous-wave THz radiation beams with amplitude modulation depths reaching 75% and larger for both modes of operation.
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